historical development of nurisng education

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Information about historical development of nurisng education

Published on February 21, 2014

Author: bharatmewara

Source: authorstream.com

PowerPoint Presentation: Historical Development of Nursing Education Presented by: Bharat K. Mewara R.A.K.C.O.N. PowerPoint Presentation: INTRODUCTION PowerPoint Presentation: What is Nursing Education ? Nursing education is the professional education for the preparation of the nurses to enable them to render professional nursing care to people of all ages in all phases of health and variety of setting. PowerPoint Presentation: H istorical development of Nursing and Nursing Education PowerPoint Presentation: Early Christian Era Traditionally, from the times prior to Florence Nightingale, nursing was seen as an  apprenticeship , often undertaken in religious institutes. During the early Christian era there were deaconess PowerPoint Presentation: Roman matrons or widows with some educational background who were selected by church’s Bishop to visit and care for sick at home. PowerPoint Presentation: Early Christian Era Febiola : A wealthy deaconess known as first to establish and operate first Christian hospital in Rome . Phoebe : Deaconess cited as first visiting nurse . Paula: A friend of Fabiola . She built a hospital for strangers, pilgrims, and travellers and for the sick. She constructed a monastery in Bethlehem. PowerPoint Presentation: During Middle Ages (AD 476 –1475) By religious orders to sick and poor. The monasteries became the places of education, medical care and nursing. Some of nurses were nuns and deaconess . PowerPoint Presentation: Renaissance (1500AD –1850AD) - The dark period of nursing Rise of Protestantism Catholic monasteries offering nursing care and medicine was closed down. Nursing ceased to be valued as an intellectual endeavour it lost much of its economic support and social status The Protestants viewed the woman's place as being in the home raising children. PowerPoint Presentation: Hence nurses of this period consists  of:   Wayward” women of low status who became “nurses” instead of going to jail Women of ill repute Poor, single women with no family or hope of marriage PowerPoint Presentation: DAWN OF MODERN NURSING Pastor Theodur Fliedner : opened the Kaiserwerth Deaconess Institute—the first REAL nursing school Its most famous student: Florence Nightingale  (1820-1910 ) PowerPoint Presentation: Florence Nightingale and origin of professional nursing: A nurse, philosopher, statistician & historian Founder or mother of modern nursing Established nursing school at St. Thomas’ Hospital, London By 1887, Nightingale had her nurses working in six countries and U.S . PowerPoint Presentation: H istorical development of Nursing and Nursing Education in India PowerPoint Presentation:  Pre-historic Times Vedic Period Post Vedic Period Mogul Period British period IN PRE-INDEPENDENCE PERIOD PowerPoint Presentation: Nursing in Pre-historic Times: Illness earlier was seen as “magic”, “sin”, “evil spirit” or “punishment”. And to get rid of 'evil spirit' unpleasant conditioning like beating, starving, magic rites, nauseous medicines, loud noises sudden fright are used methods.  Women were protecting and caring for their children, aged, sick members of the family.  These love and hope were expressed in empirical practice of nursing. Vedic Period : Vedic Period ' Ayur-veda ' 1400 BC, Sushruta, known as 'Father of Surgery ‘ in India wrote a book on surgery named “ Sushruta Samhita ”. ' Chatushpada Chikitsa ' Physician - Bhishak Nurse - Upacharika ( Attendent - Anuraktha ) Therapeutic drugs - Dravya Patient - Adhyaya PowerPoint Presentation: Nursing in Post Vedic Period: Medical education introduced in ancient Universities of ' Nalanda ' and ' Thakshashila '. King Ashoka (272-236 BC) constructed hospitals for the people and animals. The nurses were usually 'men' or 'old women'.  Women are restricted activities at home and cared for sick members in the family. Religious restriction and superstitious practices probably declined the development of nursing. PowerPoint Presentation: Nursing in Mogul Period: ' Unani ' system of medicine developed Person not believed in eradication of disease greatly depend on defence mechanism of the body and self-care and positive health habits . T he nursing in India hindered due to various reasons like low state of women, system of " pardha " among Muslims, caste system among Hindus, illiteracy, poverty, language difference and nursing looked upon as servants work. PowerPoint Presentation: Nursing in British period ( 16th Century onwards) Military Nursing Civilian Nursing Missionaries Nursing PowerPoint Presentation:  Military Nursing The earliest type of nursing. In 1664 the East India Company helped to start a hospital for soldiers at Fort St George, Madras . Later a civilian hospital was built and the medical staff, appointed by the East India Company, served in both hospitals. Florence Nightingale had a great influence over nursing in India especially in the army. On 1888 Feb. 21st : 10 fully qualified certified nurses from Florence arrived to Bombay to lead nursing in India.  PowerPoint Presentation:  Military Nursing In 1894, regular system of training for men for hospital work (orderliness) started.  first time hospital 'orderliness' issued certificate and had official status.  This system laid the possible foundation to existing system of training and higher education . 2nd world war expanded nursing services to India. 3 year training carried out in selected military hospital preliminary training schools. After successful training certificates were issued as " Registered Nurse". Shortage of trained nurses in India after the 2nd world war, the Govt., initiated short course of intensive training in 1942 which led to the Auxiliary Nursing Services. PowerPoint Presentation:  Civilian Nursing In 1664 , East India Company built Government General Hospital at Madras for civilian. In 1854 the government sanctioned a training school of midwives. This school granted certificates of  ’Diploma in Midwifery' for passed student In 1861, through efforts of Miss Nightingale reforms in military hospital led to reforms in civilian hospital. In 1867: St Stephens Hospital at Delhi was the first one to begin training the Indian girls as nurses in 1867. In 1871 : the first School of Nursing was started in Government General Hospital, Madras . PowerPoint Presentation:  Civilian Nursing Government General Hospital, Madras hospital undertook a plan for training of nurses. Nurses were brought from England and the First time 6 nurses came out as Diploma in Midwifery Nurses. Later this plan was reversed. General training was taken first, followed by a course in midwifery. In 1891, Bai Kashibhai Ganpat , was the first Indian nurse to come for training. Training was at first two years but became three years when the Bombay Presidency Nursing Association was established in 1909 . 1897, Dr.B.C.Roy did great work in raising the standards of nursing and that of male and female nurses. PowerPoint Presentation:  Missionary Nursing Mission hospitals were the first to begin the training of Indian as nurses. Those days there were several obstacles for nursing development. Girls were not allowed to do work. Degrading and unworthy attitude of people. Hindus were hold back due to deep seated caste system. Muslims held under ' paradha ' system. Christian girls could be trained at first. But for many years even they felt nursing was an inferior profession. PowerPoint Presentation:  Missionary Nursing In the beginning there is not uniformity in nursing education.  There is no particular standards were given.  From 1888-93 various experts like doctors, surgeons, nursing superintendent, and pharmacists - draw up a curriculum for training.  1907-10 North India united Board of Examiner for Mission Hospitals was organized and set up rules for admissions and standards of training and conducted a public examination On 24th May 1909 the Indian Medical Mission Association granted the nursing diploma after examining student by Central Board for nurses’ training schools in South India. 1928 - Hindi Text book for nurses developed.  PowerPoint Presentation:  Community Health Nursing William Rathbone formed Visiting Nurses’ Association at England.  Florence Lees improved the Visiting Nurses by giving specialized training for their work.  In 1926 - Midwives Registration Act formed for the purpose of better training of midwives.  Slowly Community Nursing Training needs felt by the Government. In 1946 - Community Health Nursing was integrated in Basic Nursing Programme at Delhi, Vellore and Madras . PowerPoint Presentation: TNAI In 1908 - TNAI formed Florence Mac Haughton was the first president of TNAI.  In 1910 : TNAI published journals.  In 1912 - TNAI affiliated to international Nursing Council as a 8th Association in the world. In 1917 June 16th : TNAI got registered. In 1922 - SNA formed. PowerPoint Presentation: Development of nursing education in India During Post Independence Indian Nursing Council:  “ The INC was constituted to establish a uniform standard of education for nurses, midwives, health visitors and auxiliary nurse midwives. The INC act was passed following an ordinance on December 31st 1947. The council was constituted in 1949. Indian Nursing Council Indian Nursing Council: Main proposes of the council: To set standards and to regulate the nursing education of all types in the country. To prescribe and specify minimum requirement for qualifying for a particular course in nursing. Advisory role in the state nursing council To collaborate with state nursing councils, schools and colleges of nursing and examination board. Indian Nursing Council STATE REGISTRATION COUNCIL: In 1926, Madras State formed the first registration council Functions: Inspect and accredit schools of nursing in their state. Conduct the examinations Prescribe rules of conduct. Maintain registers of nurses, midwives, ANM and health visitors in the state. The state registration council are autonomous except they do not have power to prescribe the syllabi for courses . STATE REGISTRATION COUNCIL PowerPoint Presentation: RECOMMENDATIONS OF VARIOUS COMMITTEES PERTAINING TO NURSING EDUCATION PowerPoint Presentation: Health survey and development committee (Bhore committee 1946 ) Establishment of nursing college. Creation of an all India nursing council. PowerPoint Presentation: Shetty committee 1954 Improvement in conditions of training of nurses. Minimum requirement for admission to be in accordance with regulation of the INC. PowerPoint Presentation: Health survey  and planning committee  ( Mudaliar committee 1959-61 ) Three grades of nurses viz.  The basic nurses (4yrs), auxiliary nurse midwife (2yrs) and nurses with a degree qualification. For GNM minimum entrance qualification  matriculation For degree course passed higher secondary or Pre University. Medium of instruction preferably English in General nursing. Degree course should be taught only in English. PowerPoint Presentation: Mukherjee  committee , 1966 . Training of nurses and ANM'S required for family planning. PowerPoint Presentation: Kartar singh committee,1972-73 Multipurpose health worker scheme Change in designation of ANM's and LHV Setting up of training division at the ministry of health and family  welfare PowerPoint Presentation: Sarojini varadappan committee, 1990 (A high power committee on  nursing and nursing profession .) Post basic BSc  nursing degree to continue Masters in nursing programme to be increased and strengthened. Doctorate in nursing programme to be started in selected university. Continuing education and staff development for nurses. PowerPoint Presentation: Working group on nursing education and manpower, 1991. By 2020  the GNM programme to be phased out Curriculum of  BSc  nursing to be modified Staffing norm should be as per INC There should be deliberate plan for preparation of teachers MSc/MPhil and PhD  degrees . Improvement in functioning of  INC Importance of continuing education for nurses. PowerPoint Presentation: DEVELOPMENT OF NURSING EDUCATION PowerPoint Presentation: Basic General Nursing and Midwifery Education   1. Training of Dais (Birth Attendant ). The Dai training continued past independence. The goal was to train one  Dai in each village and ultimate goal was to train all the practicing Dais in country. Duration of training was 30 days. No age limit was prescribed, training include theory and practice, more emphasis on field practice. This training was done at sub centre and equipment’s provided by UNICEF. PowerPoint Presentation: 2. Auxiliary Nurse  Midwife The first course was started at St. Marys Hospital Punjab, 1951 . Entrance qualification : up to 7/8 years of schooling. The period of training was 2 years  ( 9 month of midwifery and 3 months of community experience .) In 1977,  curriculum was revised a designed to have 1.5 year of vocationalized ANM programme and six months of general education. The entrance qualification was raised from 7th passed to matriculation passed . PowerPoint Presentation: Lady Health Visitor Course Training of LHV course continued post-independence. The syllabus prepared and prescribed by INC in 1951 . The entrance qualification was matriculation . The duration was two and a half years which subsequently reduced to 2 years. PowerPoint Presentation: 4. General Nursing and Midwifery Course In 1951 , syllabus was prescribed by INC. In 1954 public health was integrated into basic nursing course. First revision of course was done in 1963. In 1964-65 Psychiatric nursing was included in curriculum. The duration of course was reduced from 4 years to 3 1 / 2 years. Second revision was done in 1982. The duration of the course reduced to 3 years. PowerPoint Presentation: General Nursing and Midwifery Course The Midwifery training of one year duration was gradually reduced to 9 months and then six months, finally three year integrated programme of GNM was prescribed in 1982 . The present basic programme for nursing education throughout the India consists of a three-year programme in General nursing and six to seven months in midwifery. PowerPoint Presentation: 5. Post-Basic/Post Certificate Short-Term Courses and Diploma Programmes During 1948-50 four nurses were sent to the U.K. by Govt. of India for mental health nursing diploma. During 1954 Manzil Medical Health centre, Lucknow gave psychiatric nursing orientation course of 4 – 6 weeks duration. In 1951 a one year course in public health was started at college of nursing Delhi. Govt. of India felt urgent need for psychiatric nurses during 1953-54; this resulted in first organized course at All India Institute of Mental Health .   PowerPoint Presentation: Post-Basic/Post Certificate Short-Term Courses and Diploma Programmes In 1962 diploma in paediatric nursing was established at J.J.Group of Hospitals, Bombay. Post-certificate courses were first offered in nursing administration, supervision and teaching. These originated at the college of Nursing, CMC hospital, Vellore and Government General Hospital, Chennai At present there are many other courses of three months duration which are monitored and recognized by INC. PowerPoint Presentation: University-Level Programmes Basic BSc Nursing First university programme started just before independence in 1946 at university of Delhi and CMC Vellore. In 1949, on recommendation of university education committee and education commission (1964-66) and conference & workshop held by TNAI, The WHO and UGC, some more colleges came up in different state affiliated to different state university . PowerPoint Presentation: Basic BSc Nursing INC prescribes the syllabus which has been revised three times; the last revision was done in 1981. At present the BSc Nursing programme which is recommended by the INC is of four years and has foundations for future study and specialization in nursing . PowerPoint Presentation: Post Basic BSc Nursing The need for higher training for certificate nurses was stressed by the Mudaliar Committee in 1962. Two years post basic certificate  BSc(N) programme  was started in December 1962 for nurses with diploma in general and midwifery with minimum of 2 years’ experience. First started by university of Trivandrum in 1963 . At present there are many colleges in India offering Pc BSc (N) Course. PowerPoint Presentation: Post Basic Nursing by Distance Education Mode In 1985 Indira Gandhi   National Open University was established. In 1992 post Basic BSc Nursing programme was launched, which is three years duration course, is recognized by INC. PowerPoint Presentation: Post- Graduate Education-MSc Nursing First two years course in masters of nursing was started at RAK College of Nursing in 1959.and in 1969 in CMC Vellore. At present there are many colleges imparting MSc Nursing degree course in different specialties. PowerPoint Presentation: M.Phil. INC felt need for M.Phil. Programme as early on 1977, for this purpose committee was appointed. In 1986 one year full time and two years part time programme was started in RAK College of nursing Delhi. PowerPoint Presentation: Ph.D. in Nursing Indian nurses were sent abroad for Ph. D programme earlier. From 1992 PhD in nursing is also available in India. MAHE is one of the universities having PhD and MPhil programme.(1996) In 2001, PhD at NIMHANS PowerPoint Presentation: Current Educational Patterns in Nursing Non University Programme Basic - ANM-GNM Advance-Post-Certificate diploma 2. University Programme Basic- BSc(N) Post-Basic BSc(Regular) Post-Basic BSc(N).IGNOU Advance: MSc (Nursing) M. Phil Ph.D. PowerPoint Presentation: SUMMARY

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