Historical Background

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Information about Historical Background

Published on April 24, 2008

Author: Patrizia



BIENVENUE !:  BIENVENUE ! Class Material:  Class Material On campus resources:  On campus resources French Library: Language Center (Room 216)   French TV Channel  TV5  on AIT Network:   French Mailing List: AIT Francophones Mailing list (registration)   French on the Internet (our selection) WHY BOTHER:  WHY BOTHER LEARNING FRENCH ? ? ? ? Slide5:  French is an official language in major international organizations : UN – EU - Olympic Commitee… Slide6:  French is spoken in many countries French companies:  French companies Slide8:  There’s one more good reason why you should learn French. A reason you probably never thought about before... Slide9:  Improve your knowledge of ENGLISH Language! How can it be? Let’s go back in time to find out:  Let’s go back in time to find out Indo-european languages:  Indo-european languages South-Asia Central Asia Language groups in today’s world light green = Indo-European group:  Language groups in today’s world light green = Indo-European group Indo-European split:  Indo-European split Germanic Celtic Italic Greek Slavic Iranian Sanskrit West (Centum) East (Satem) MOTHER TONGUE Centum group (Western) :  Centum group (Western) GERMANIC: German, Dutch, Scandinavian and English ITALIC: Latin and Romance languages: French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian CELTIC: Irish, Gaelic, Breton (nearly extinguished) GREEK: Ancient & Modern Greek Germanic languages (North):  Germanic languages (North) English German Dutch Danish Swedish Norwegian Romance languages (South) Roman empire:  Romance languages (South) Roman empire From LATIN French Italian Spanish Portuguese Romanian Remaining Celtic nations today:  Remaining Celtic nations today Ireland Brittany Scotland Wales France Cornwall Western Europe North-South Split :  Western Europe North-South Split - Language split Human split Climate split Culture split French Vs English:  French Vs English Key historical facts and effects on languages Slide20:  2 000 years ago, the Romans invaded Gaul (France) and ruled for 500 years. The native Celtic language disappeared and was replaced by a local form of LATIN. The Roman Empire 1st BC – 5th :  The Roman Empire 1st BC – 5th Germanic tribes Slide22:  In the 5th century, the Franks a German tribe from the North East of Europe invaded Roman Gaul and created a new kingdom FRANCE. Lot’s of Germanic vocabulary was introduced but the language remained Latin. At the same time, other German tribes (Angles & Saxons) invaded Britain, occupied then by the Celts, and created ENGLAND. The Kingdom of the Franks Slide23:  In 1066 the Duke of Normandy William the Conqueror invaded England. Old French became England official language for 2 centuries. Old English language merged then with Old French. The Normans Invasion Slide24:  When French was the language of the rich and powerful for centuries, English remained the language of the street and was thus overlooked by grammarians. As a consequence, English went through a great process of simplification. English is unique in Europe for it has -no genders for nouns -no complex declension for nouns and verbs, -no cases (accusative, dative...) The second BIG consequence Slide25:  LATIN and GREEK have influenced both French & English continuously being the languages of science, politics, religion ... photography / telephone / acquaculture phenomena /biology /democraty /centimeter cardiovascular/homonym/diagram/economy hybrid/nanotechnology/hydrogen... Through time and up to now... English is often called an hybrid language (half Germanic/half Latin):  English is often called an hybrid language (half Germanic/half Latin) It has accumulated lot’s of vocabulary from both worlds and is thus a very rich language. French words in the English language:  French words in the English language English & Latinate homonymes :  English & Latinate homonymes English is still a Germanic language:  English is still a Germanic language language:  language Useful generalities for language learners And review of grammar terms Like many other languages, French is composed of::  Like many other languages, French is composed of: Grammatical words include…:  Grammatical words include… Determiners (articles – possessive…) specify the noun: the - a - some - one - my - your - our - his - this – these – several... Pronouns replace the noun: I - she - they - it - me - you - them - us - her - him – that Prepositions link nouns together or to the verb: to - at - of - from – in - with – for – on – under – down - against – without... conjonctions link sentences together: and - or - but / that – when – if – because – though - unless … Vocabulary words includes…:  Vocabulary words includes… Nouns: table – football – region - mother... Adjectives: great – lazy – small – easy ... Verbs: to go – to do – to sleep – to learn ... Adverbs: well – often – quickly – always ...

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