Published on March 17, 2014
The Early Republic and the Dynamics of Growth Chapters 8-9
The Federalist Era Chapter 8
Alexander Hamilton’sVision for the Nation Raising revenue ◦ Exchange war bonds for interest bearing bonds ◦ Bonds accepted at face value Rewarded speculators Economic policy: Tariffs ◦ Encouraging manufactures ◦ The emergence of sectional differences Establishing the public credit ◦ A national bank 10 million in capital 4/5ths supplied by private investors 1/5th supplied by government 5 directors named by private investors 5 directors named by government National currency back by government bonds Source of capital loans Safe Place to keep government funds
The Republican Alternative Birth of the first political parties ◦ Federalists ◦ Republicans aka Democratic Republicans Opposed to monarchy Strict construction of Constitution If it’s not spelled-out in the Constitution, the Federal government can’t do it. No National Bank Jefferson’s agrarian view ◦ Nation of small farmers ◦ Wage laborers were dependent on others for their livelihood. Subject to political manipulation Economic exploitation
Crises Foreign and Domestic • Citizen Genet • French Revolution 1789 • King Louis XVI executed in 1793 • Britain, Spain, Austria, Prussia allied against France • US treaty with France following RevolutionaryWar (perpetual allies) • Citizen Genet hired Spanish privateers to harass British shipping off Florida coast • Washington revoked his Diplomatic privilege and was sending him back to France when Jacobins seized power from the National Assembly • Genet requested and was granted asylum
Crises Foreign and Domestic John Jay: US Supreme Court Chief Justice Crisis with Britain during French Revolution ◦ 1793 Britain began confiscating any ship carrying French goods or sailing for French Port in the Caribbean Impressment of American seamen ◦ 1794 British arming Indians on frontier along Ohio River valley ◦ British seized forts along Great Lakes ◦ Democratic Republicans support for embargo on British goods Jay’sTreaty (1794) ◦ Accepted British definition of neutral rights Tar, pitch and products for warships could not be shipped to enemy ports by neutral ships Trade prohibited in peacetime could not be opened in wartime Britain: most favored nation trading status French privateers cannot be outfitted in American Ports Forgive reparations for African slaves who escaped during Revolutionary War ◦ British concessions Evacuation of British forts in Great Lakes by 1796 Reparations for seized American ships and cargo Trade with BritishWest Indies
Jay Treaty Slogan by Democratic Republicans Damn John Jay! Damn everyone that won't damn John Jay! Damn every one that won't put lights in his window and sit up all night damning John Jay!
Whiskey Rebellion FederalTax on Liquor (1791) WesternTerritories: Cheaper to ship liquor than grain or corn ◦ Bushel of corn worth $.25= 2.5 gallons of liquor worth $2.50 ◦ Farmers saw tax as a scheme by Hamilton to enrich urban speculators by “picking the pockets of farmers.” 1794 in PA “Whiskey Boys” ◦ burned stills of farmers who paid the tax ◦ Threatened federal revenue officers ◦ Robbed the mails ◦ Interrupted court proceedings ◦ Threatened to assault Pittsburgh ◦ “The Copper Kettle”: A song about theWhiskey Rebellion http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XW1mEj2DQNI
Washington Proclamation • Called out 12,000 men in militias fromVirginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania and New Jersey • General Henry Lee commanded 13,000 men • Whiskey Boys vanished • 20 men captured • 2 convicted of treason • Both pardoned byWashington • Simpleton • Insane
America, 8th Edition Copyright © 2010 W.W. Norton & Company Pinckney’s Treaty, 1795
Settlement of New Land Land policy ◦ Cost of land Parcels Land Act of 1796:Townships-- 640 acre sections @ $2/acre Land Act of 1804: Minimum unit 160 acre sections @ $1.64/acre Daniel Boone and theWilderness Road ◦ 1769 discovery of “Warrior’s Path” foot path through the Cumberland Gap (over the Appalacian Mountains) ◦ 1771 Boone and 30 woodsmen cut a larger road called “Wilderness Road” 300,000 settlers used theWilderness Road over the next 25 years.
Chester Harding, Unfinished Portrait of Daniel Boone,” 1820
Transfer of Power • Washington’s farewell • Avoid political parties • Avoid the entanglements of Europe • The election of 1796 • Federalist Candidates • John Adams (President) • Thomas Pinckney (Vice President) • Democratic Republicans • Thomas Jefferson (President) • Aaron Burr (Vice President)
Campaign of 1796 • Democratic Republicans called John Adams “his rotundity” • Federalists called Jefferson “a French loving atheist” • French ambassador public appeal for Jefferson • Foreign interference in US election • Adam’s elected: 70 electoral votes to 68 electoral votes
X Y Z Affair
Europe: NapoleonicWar Caribbean: JayTreaty required US to intercept ships bound for French ports ◦ French intercepted American shipping 300 times and broke diplomatic relations with Americans by 1797 American delegation to Paris: ◦ Thomas Pinckney; John Marshall, Eldridge Gerry ◦ X,Y,Z (French Diplomats) negotiations could only begin if Americans paid $250,000. “Millions for defense, not one cent for tribute!” Logan Act (1799) private citizens may not negotiate with foreign governments without authorization UndeclaredWar with France
American Navy 1797: The Constitution,The United States, The Constellation 1797 Congress authorized an army of 10,000 men to serve 3 years each GeorgeWashington called from retirement to command ◦ Washington demanded that Hamilton be 2nd in command Convention of 1800 ◦ Suspension of quasi-naval war with France ◦ Suspension of Perpetual Alliance of 1778 American Military
Federalists vs. Democratic Republicans Adams vs. Jefferson ◦ James Callender: Muckraker & sex scandals Maria Reynolds & Alexander Hamilton The Prospect Before Us Jailed for Sedition under Alien and Sedition Acts Pardoned by Jefferson but refused position as Postmaster General Published letters between Callender and Jefferson that proved Jefferson funded Callender’s pamphlets against Federalists Jefferson supporters accused Callender of abandoning his wife to die of a venereal disease Callender broke story ofThomas Jefferson & Sally Hemming Election of 1800
Deficiencies in Election Procedures • No Distinction between votes for President &Vice President: Electoral vote resulted in a tie. • Constitution calls for a vote in the House of Representatives in case of a tie • House voted 36 times over 5 days: all votes tied • Hamilton encouraged legislators to vote for Jefferson as “lesser of two evils” • On February 17,1801 on the 37th vote, Jefferson was elected President
• New President walked from his lodgings to the Senate on Capitol Hill • Administered oath by Chief Justice John Marshall • Read his inaugural address • Returned to boardinghouse for dinner Jeffersonian Simplicity
We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists. If there be any among us who would wish to dissolve this Union or to change its republican form, let them stand undisturbed as monuments of the safety with which error of opinion may be tolerated where reason is left free to combat it. I know, indeed, that some honest men fear that a republican government can not be strong, that this Government is not strong enough; but would the honest patriot, in the full tide of successful experiment, abandon a government which has so far kept us free and firm on the theoretic and visionary fear that this Government, the world's best hope, may by possibility want energy to preserve itself? I trust not. I believe this, on the contrary, the strongest Government on earth. I believe it the only one where every man, at the call of the law, would fly to the standard of the law, and would meet invasions of the public order as his own personal concern. Sometimes it is said that man can not be trusted with the government of himself. Can he, then, be trusted with the government of others? Or have we found angels in the forms of kings to govern him? Let history answer this question. --Thomas Jefferson, First Inaugural Address, March 4, 1801 Peaceful Transition of Power
Jefferson in Office • Adams’s Midnight Appointments • Federalists wanted FederalistJudges • Appointed FederalistJudges to positions before midnight on Adams’s last day in office • Marbury v. Madison • Jefferson’s administration refused to deliver the appointments • Marbury requested Mandamus • Court ruled: • Jefferson could not withhold appointment • Court had no jurisdiction to hear the case under the Constitution • Supreme Court assumed the right of “Judicial Review”
Divisions in the Democratic- Republican Party • John Randolph and the Old Republicans • States rights • Strict construction • No tariffs • No compromise—ever • The Burr conspiracy • Burr and General JamesWilkinson • Louisiana territory secede and rule • Jefferson had him arrested for treason • Executive Privilege • Strict Construction ofTreason as a crime • Burr was acquitted
War in Europe • Harassment by Britain and France • Trade with one led to harassment by the other • Impressment • The embargo 1807 • Commerce clause • Hurt only U.S. Shipping (repealed in 1809) • The drift to war • The Chesapeake • “…a dish of skim milk curdling at the head of our nation.”
Federalist Campaign Broadside (flyer)
Election of 1808 Electoral Vote 122 67 States Carried 12 5 Popular Vote 124,732 62,431 Percentage 64.7% 32.4% James Madison Democratic-Republican Charles Pinckney Federalist
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