His 102 a short introduction to the crimean war

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Published on March 17, 2014

Author: dcyw1112

Source: slideshare.net

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Crimean War

A short introduction to the Crimean War 1853 - 1856

Romantic Politics 1830 - 1848

Background: The Congress of Vienna  Organized in 1814  Conference of Ambassadors (meeting informally between 1814 and June 1815)  England  Prussia  Austria  Russia  Goals  Organize a peace to bring stability to Europe (and ensure the maintenance of their own power)  Contain but not punish France  Who was left out?  Ottoman Empire  France  Forced back to borders of 1792  Loss of Netherlands

Background: The Congress of Vienna  Organized in 1814  Conference of Ambassadors (meeting informally between 1814 and June 1815)  England  Prussia  Austria  Russia  Goals  Organize a peace to bring stability to Europe (and ensure the maintenance of their own power)  Contain but not punish France  Who was left out?  Ottoman Empire  France  Forced back to borders of 1792  Loss of Netherlands

Balance of Power  Resize the ―Great Powers‖ so they could balance each other off and remain at peace.  Argument: if no one kingdom was more powerful than all the others, there would be peace.  Any kingdom that moved to grab more territory would be opposed by the rest.  Maintain the power of monarchs and aristocrats against liberals and nationalists.  System of Balance of Power created by Congress of Vienna lasted until outbreak of WWI in 1914  Leaders:  Klemens Wenzel Furst von Metternich- Austria  Viscount Castlereigh-England  Tsar Alexander I-Russia  Frederick Willhelm I –Prussia  Maurice de Tallyrand-France  Conservatives: maintain the status quo politically against liberalism and nationalism

Territorial Borders Set by Congress of Vienna 1815 In central Europe, Germany and Italy remained lose confederations of smaller principalities. The Austrian Empire contained ethnic territories and diverse cultures and languages. The Hapsburg Dynasty was ruled by the Hapsburg emperor and various ethnic princes. The biggest threats to Hapsburg power were Nationalist movements in these smaller territories which clamored for independence. The Ottoman and Russian empires also contained many diverse ethnic territories where nationalist independence movements might erupt. All of the great powers hoped to repress nationalist movements for territorial independence while at the same time containing any other Great Power that moved to gain additional territory and power.

The Holy Alliance  Russia, Austrian Empire and Prussia  Signed 26 September 1815  Alexander I primary architect  Purpose  Coalition of Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant Christians  Protect Divine Right of Kings  Promote Christian values  Opposed  Britain  Ottomans  Papal States in Italy  Romantic propaganda designed to portray Ottoman Empire as a dangerous enemy against which peoples in Russia, Austria and Prussia had to remain united: the Muslim Ottoman rulers repressed Christian minorities in the Ottoman Empire.  Anti-Muslim sentiment was also used to repress Muslim minorities in the Russian and Austrian Empires  Caucasus Mountains: Chechnya, Dagestan  Balkan Peninsula: Bosnia, Herzegovina

 Romantic politics: liberty, history, and nation  The Romantic uniqueness of cultures  Johann von Herder (1744–1803)  Civilization arises out of the Volk (common people), not elites  The Volkgeist—spirit or genius of the people  Brothers Grimm  Collected German folktales  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2rVy3RBJmNo

 Romantic politics: liberty, history, and nation  Victor Hugo (1802–1885)  Dealt sympathetically with the experience of the common people  Les Miserables, The Hunchback of Notre Dame  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dOlKBX7BzpI  François de Chateaubriand (1768–1848)  Religious experiences of the national past are woven into the present  What is a ―Christian Nation‖ or ―Christian Kingdom‖?  Against what is the Christianity of the nation opposed?  Jews, Muslims, Socialists, Orthodox vs. Roman Catholic; Protestant vs. Roman Catholic;  Accent on religious emotion, feeling, and subjectivity  ―Christianity is under attack and must be preserved‖  God blesses the ―Christian‖ kingdom or nation

The Decline of Ottoman Power and International Relations The Crimean War (1853-1856)  Russia invaded Ottoman territories of Moldavia and Walachia (Romania) to protect Russian Orthodox Christians from Catholics (Issue: who would be supreme Christian authority in Ottoman Empire provinces of Moldavia and Walachia?).  France, Britain, Ottoman Empire, Sardinia opposed Russia  Austria remained neutral but garrisoned its troops which helped Britain, France and Ottomans  Russia gained upper hand by sinking Ottoman fleet at Sinope Photo of Ottoman Era postcard of Sinope by Tsolag K. Dildilian (2010)

Moldavia and Walachia  Moldavia & Walachia: Modern Romania  Provinces of Ottoman Empire in 1853  Also claimed by Ukraine in 16h and 17th centuries.

Background  Crimea was a disputed region throughout the 15-20 centuries  Claimants and rulers included Kossaks (Ukraine), Poland, Russia, Ottoman Turks Right Bank Ukraine Closer ties to Europe Left Bank Ukraine Closer ties to Russia

Importance of Crimea to Russia  Strategic location on the Black Sea  Essential to Russian access to a warm water port

Russia and Sevastopol  Russia held Sevastopol (where its fleet was harbored) for one year  Russia temporarily lost Sevastopol and had to scuttle most of its fleet there.  Treaty of Paris (March 31, 1856)  Russia returned Moldavia and Wallachia to Ottomans  Control of Sevastopol and Balaclava returned to Russia  Tsar and Sultan agree not to create naval or military arsenals along Black Sea Coast  Treaty of Paris ended in 1871 with French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War and Britain could not enforce the treaty alone.  Russia established military bases in Black Sea  Impact of history on modern Russo- Ukraine conflict?

The Crimean War: (October 1853 – February 1856)

Sevastopol Panorama of Sevastopol Harbour: Photo by Petar Milosevic, August 2011

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