HIROSHIMA

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Published on November 13, 2007

Author: Mikhail

Source: authorstream.com

The Manhattan Project:  The Manhattan Project The research on the atom bomb was called the Manhattan Project. In August 1942, the United States launched the Manhattan Project to produce an atomic bomb. On July 16, 1945, the United States successfully carried out the world's first nuclear weapons test in the desert of New Mexico. The Background:  The Background World War II in Europe was scientific enough with pilotless planes and rockets but it had drawn to its end. Yet, wearily and savagely, the war in the east went on. The Pearl Harbour in America had been bombed and the allied nations wanted revenge. (pictures from MS-Encarta) Chain reaction using Uranium235 :  Chain reaction using Uranium235 With Uranium 235 scientists finally achieved a substance which proliferated explosion, accelerated to something like the speed of light. (from MS-Encarta) ‘TO DROP OR NOT TO DROP :  ‘TO DROP OR NOT TO DROP In the debate between high principles and low practice, the savagely vindictive protagonists argued, “They started it ,didn’t they? They asked for it-well, let them have it. To hell with it.” THE ULTIMATE DECISION LAY IN THE HANDS OF THESE THREE MEN :  THE ULTIMATE DECISION LAY IN THE HANDS OF THESE THREE MEN Harry S Truman, 33rd US President Chiang-Kai-shek of China Clement Richard Atlee of Britain (from MS-Encarta) Slide8:  The Bomb behind the Blast. “Little Boy” was a gun-type fission bomb that generates a nuclear explosion by firing one piece of fissile material into another of the same type. A mass of uranium about the size of an apple produced an explosion as powerful as 20 kilotons of TNT. (from MS-Encarta) Slide9:  Seven Boeing Super-Fortresses were detailed for the operation. Three were sent ahead, to report on weather conditions and to consider alternative targets (including Nagasaki which, a few days later, was able to ‘atomized). Two aircrafts were detailed to carry instruments and observers. One, stationed as Iwo Jima, was ready to take over the bomb if anything happened to the B29 into which it was actually loaded. Slide10:  From Tinian, in the Mariana islands, Colonel Paul W. Tibben of the U.S.A. Air Force, took off at a quarter to three in the morning of 6th August 1945; for over five hours he sailed serenely through the lightning sky. It was bright sunshine when he arrived more than five miles above his target, flying at some 31,000 feet...... A Bomb Day. Slide11:  Just Another Day in Hiroshima. The summer sun gave promise of fair weather and the air-raid warned the inconvenient routine of the day’s war work. Slide12:  The bomb was fused, set to explode not on contact but after dropping the height, of Everest 29,000 feet. It was to burst just 2000 feet above the town, ‘thereby achieving the maximum destruction, disseminating its force as widely as possible’. For just 42 seconds after the bomb-doors were opened, nothing happened-absolutely nothing. The instrument fell in its irresistible acceleration- 32 feet per second is the formula – gathering speed and impetus. In the final second of its descent it travelled screaming unheard, for something like a quarter of a mile. Slide13:  The Blast. The sun went out, eclipsed not by shadow but by a blindingly incandescent lights that the familiar ball of fire which travels through the sky seemed for an instant extinguished. The brilliant morning was obscured as if a sudden mist had been cast by an enchanter’s hand; a mist formed of infinitesimal particles of brick and stone, of earth and vegetation and human tissue.Explosions generated heat which fused tiles with a melting point of 1,300 0 c as far as 600 yards away. Slide14:  (MS-Encarta) Slide15:  The Unbearable Sufferings Girls shivering though they burned skin sloughing or suppurating, sealed flesh.Ten thousand causalities went to a single hospital-and the only light the surviving doctors had to work by were candles held by the nurses and, of course, the conflagration outside. The victims had not eaten all day but the whole area surrounding the hospital was so nauseating that they could not swallow. Slide16:  Four and Seven tenths square miles of Hiroshima were devastated. Eight percent of the city’s buildings were damaged or destroyed. In a settlement of, at that time, a quarter of a million inhabitants, three fifths were causalities, major or minor. Slide17:  People sustained severe burns from the powerful heat rays and thousands died as a direct result. The burns were only on the side directly facing the epicenter, but as far as 3.5 kilometers away people suffered burns on exposed skin. Slide18:  The surface of roof tiles within 600 meters of the hypocenter melted and blistered. Out to 1.8-2 kilometers, clothing on bodies or drying on the line ignited. Approximately 2.5 kilometers away, thatched roofs went up in flames. Many trees spontaneously ignited. Within 3 kilometers, electric poles, trees, and lumber were charred. Slide19:  The Radiation made several victims permanently sterilized; pregnant women aborted and did not conceive again. Others were affected by wasting diseases, where the corpuscles of the blood diminish. Surface wounds – grazes, abrasions, scratches – would close and for no reason, re-open. Hair would suddenly start falling and a minor burn would take months to heal. Fever accompanied by an almost dysentery-like diarrhea, would send temperatures rocketing up as high as 106of. Then nearly a month later, would come bleeding, usually from the gums followed by a drop in the white blood count and in the red blood count. Slide20:  Some of the charred material evidences of the blast A pocket watch showing the time of the blast. Slide21:  A Bomb over Nagasaki. On August 9, 1945, three days after Hiroshima was destroyed, a United States Army Air Force plane released an atomic bomb on Nagasaki. Some 66,000 people were killed or injured. Slide22:  References War and peace ---- Leo Tolstoy. And Quiet Flows Down. --- Mikhail Sholokhov. MS-Encarta 2000 MS-Clipart Gallery 2002

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