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Published on October 4, 2007

Author: Sabatini

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Cellulosic Biomass Feedstocks and Logistics for ETOH:  Cellulosic Biomass Feedstocks and Logistics for ETOH GEC Meeting February 27-28, 2007 Washington, DC Richard Hess, Kevin Kenney, Chris Wright, Corey Radtke Idaho National Laboratory Bob Perlack Oak Ridge National Laboratory Slide2:  DOE Biorefining Industry 2030 Goals ~1.3 Billion tons/yr Biomass Potential in the U.S. Displace a significant fraction of gasoline demand ~ 60 billion gallons/year by 2030 Sugar Platform Syngas Platform Including Corn Grain, an Estimated 600 – 700 Million Tons of Biomass per Year is Needed for 60 B gal of ethanol. http://bioenergy.ornl.gov Slide3:  Biochemical Conversion (Hybrid Saccharification & Fermentation) Pretreatment HSF Ethanol Yields Ethanol Concentration Sugar Losses Feedstock Variation Feedstock Quality Enzyme Cost Rate Hydrolyzate Toxicity Feedstock Cost NREL. 2007. Biochemical Ethanol Process and Barriers. 30by30 (in press) Thermochemical Conversion:  Thermochemical Conversion NREL. 2007. Thermochemical Ethanol Process and Barriers. 30by30 (in press) What is the Time-Frame for Required Feedstock Tonnages?:  What is the Time-Frame for Required Feedstock Tonnages? Chart representing ethanol volumes predicted from the high oil case using the transition model for the 30x30 NREL report. Date: 09/05/06, contact – Bob Wooley, National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2012 – 2017 Time Frame: Grain Ethanol >7 billion gal. Cellulosic Ethanol 3-4 billion gal. (estimated 35-45 M tons) 2030 Time Frame: Grain Ethanol 13-20 billion gal. Cellulosic Ethanol 40-50 billion gal. (estimated 400-500 M tons) Feedstock R&D to Achieve Ethanol Production Goals:  Feedstock R&D to Achieve Ethanol Production Goals Feedstock Supply must Answer: What are the Feedstocks? Feedstock and characteristics Location What are the Feedstock Tonnages and Costs? Supply potential Availability and demand What are the feedstock locations’ opportunities / constraints? Production practices Infrastructure constraints What are the feedstock supply options and costs? Regional engineering designs Dry, wet, and woody Biorefining Capacity based on Preliminary Feedstock Resource Estimates – Map developed by Bob Perlack, ORNL, October 2006 Slide7:  Biomass Feedstock Resource Base Forest resources Logging residues Forest thinnings (fuel treatments) Fuelwood Primary wood processing mill residues Secondary wood processing mill residues Pulping liquors Urban wood residues Agricultural resources Crop residues Grains to biofuels Perennial grasses Perennial woody crops Animal manures Food/feed processing residues MSW and landfill gases US land resources can provide a sustainable 1.3 billion ton annuals biomass supply and still meet food, feed, and export demands Estimates are reasonable given trends and time for biorefinery scale-up/deployment Biomass Feedstock Cost Target and Metrics:  Grower Payment [$/ton] Biomass Feedstock Cost Target and Metrics $/ton = + Efficiency [$/hr] + Capacity [ton/hr] Quality [$/ton] Therefore $35/ton = $10-$50/ton $25/ton + Feedstock Resource R&D Plan Contributes: Analysis and characterization Projections based on technology development and supply demand assumptions Technology development through “Regional” and “Office of Science” Partnerships Feedstock Supply System R&D Plan Contributes: Engineering Designs Technology Development 2012 Industry initiation/low demand Cost Target (2002$) Lignocellulosic Feedstock Supply Types:  Lignocellulosic Feedstock Supply Types Dry Herbaceous – Agriculture Residues/Crops at less than 15% moisture Wet Herbaceous - Agriculture Residues/Crops greater than about 50% moisture Energy Crops – Wet, Dry, and Woody Woody – Forest resources and woody energy crops Feedstock Cost Reduction by Cost Elements (Dry):  Feedstock Cost Reduction by Cost Elements (Dry) Feedstock Cost Reduction by Cost Elements (Wet):  Feedstock Cost Reduction by Cost Elements (Wet) Estimated Field Moisture Content:  Estimated Field Moisture Content Characterize Feedstock Tonnages and Costs? (Resource Assessment):  Characterize Feedstock Tonnages and Costs? (Resource Assessment) Line represents tonnage needed for projected yearly ethanol demand Increased tonnage due to advances in supply system technologies Increased tonnage due to improved supply / conversion technologies (or policies) so that more can be paid for the feedstock resource Dry Woody Wet Price determined by what the conversion process can pay for feedstocks Characterize Feedstock Tonnages and Costs? (Resource Assessment):  Characterize Feedstock Tonnages and Costs? (Resource Assessment) Superfluous / Niche Supply (Excess from another Enterprise) Subventionary Supply (Aided by another Enterprise) Dry Woody Wet Grower Payment influenced by production / sustainability issues Self Sustaining Crops & Crop Residues Supply Spot Market Supply Feedstock Categories and Characteristics:  Feedstock Categories and Characteristics Subsidized Self Sustaining Spot Market Crop Residue Removal; Farm Budget Plan Example:  Crop Residue Removal; Farm Budget Plan Example Farm Statistics and Management Practices: 1700 acres (1200 acres wheat, 500 acres potatoes) 3 year crop rotation (wheat, wheat, potatoes) If harvested, 1 ton / acre straw removal Straw Contract Price ($10-$15 / ton in the field) Potato yield impact $10/ton straw value adds the equivalent of $0.10/bu to the wheat crop gross returns Straw agronomic value is offset by elimination of residue management Agronomic Factors Limiting Corn Crop Potential:  Agronomic Factors Limiting Corn Crop Potential Management Strategy Studies; Fractional Single-Pass vs. Mow and Rake:  Management Strategy Studies; Fractional Single-Pass vs. Mow and Rake Single-pass High cut harvested 72% of stover produced (i.e., 12% more stover collected per acre than billion ton study assumptions), so 70% removed with combine Low moisture Reduced pretreatment severity Short soil half-life (Kumar and Goh, 2000; Eiland et al. 2001) 30% of stalk left behind High moisture Highly recalcitrant Long soil half-life 40% removed with mow and rake – mostly stalk material Feedstock Supply System Barriers and Interface Point:  Feedstock Supply System Barriers and Interface Point Biomass Production Agricultural Resources: Crop Residues Energy Crops Forest Resources: Logging Residues Harvested for Energy Harvest and Collection Storage Preprocessing Transportation Handling and Queuing at the Biorefinery Conversion Pathway’s Reactors: Agricultural Residues Energy Crops Forest Products Feedstock Interface Boundary Equipment Capacity Compositional Impacts Pretreatment Impacts Shrinkage Compositional Impacts Pretreatment Impacts Soluble Sugar Capture Equipment Capacity Material Bulk Density Compositional Impacts Pretreatment Impacts Truck Capacity Loading compaction Loading efficiencies Handling efficiencies Handling compaction Material Bulk Properties Performance Metrics: Efficiency ($/hr) Equipment Capacity (ton/hr) Biomass Quality ($/ton) Feedstock Supply System Models and Business Elements :  Feedstock Supply System Models and Business Elements Bales or other formats Bale-Based Feedstock Supply System Bulk Feedstock Supply System Agri business Agriculture Distributed On-farm Storage Centralized Agri-business Storage Farm Gate Harvest and Collection:  Harvest and Collection Costs in $/dry ton, 2002 $ Cost per ton estimates can vary based on yield, feedstock type and operational size assumptions. Description: ID Straw: combine, bale (4’x4’x8’), roadside KS Straw: combine, (4’x4’x8’), roadside KS Stover: combine, swath, bale (4’x4’x8’), roadside Explanation of Difference: Logistics Swathing cost for stover Equipment utilization (ID: 1 crop, KS: 3 crops) Roadside distance (ID: 0.5 mi., KS: 5 mi.) Harvest and Collection (Continued):  Harvest and Collection (Continued) Costs in $/dry ton,, 2002 $ Cost per ton estimates can vary based on yield, feedstock type and operational size assumptions. Needed Improvements: Single-Pass/Selective Harvest – full bulk system Eliminate swathing ($5.78/dTon) Eliminate baling ($8.52/dTon) Sweet Corn Harvester (Photo Not Available) Storage:  Storage Description: Costs include shrinkage, insurance, land rent for stack, stack maintenance, and cover Explanation of Difference: Location (Environment) ID: Low precipitation , no cover needed KS: Higher precipitation, bale wrap for loss mitigation KS Stover: Higher harvest & collection cost results in higher shrinkage cost Needed Improvements: GIS/weather-data based method for determining loss mitigation requirements. 100% mitigation is not necessary  KS $35 Stover assumes 50% of feedstock inventory does not need cover. Costs in $/dry ton, 2002 $ Cost per ton estimates can vary based on yield, feedstock type and operational size assumptions. Slide24:  Feedstock/Process Interface Quantify changes in wet storage Radtke, INL Ibsen, NREL Ensiling can adversely affect sugar content and Ultimately ethanol yield and cost. The interface task will address these issues and look for processing advantages like increased digestibility. R&D Details: Verify ensiled biomass value Verify values of biomass fractions Measure levels of inhibitors Screen with upgraded SSF system Distributed Grinding:  Distributed Grinding Description: Grinding occurs at the stack Current grinder performance: Capacity = 26 tons/hr, Bulk Density = 8 lbs/ft3, Explanation of Difference: Economies of Scale Equipment utilization (grinders are under-utilized in KS scenario) Needed Improvements: Increase grinder capacity 25% (32.4 tons/hr) Costs in $/dry ton, 2002 $ Cost per ton estimates can vary based on yield, feedstock type and operational size assumptions. Bulk Biomass Handling and Transportation:  Bulk Biomass Handling and Transportation Description: Self-unloading belt trailers, trailer configuration varies to maximize load Explanation of Difference: Location (State Regulations) State road limits: Idaho: 105 ft., 115,500 GVW Kansas: 85 ft., 85,500 GVW Needed Improvements: Increase truck-loaded densities to 14 lb/ft3 to gross-out trucks (increase by 25%) Increase conveyor-loaded densities to 10.4 lb/ft3 (increase by 100%) Costs in $/dry ton, 2002 $ Cost per ton estimates can vary based on yield, feedstock type and operational size assumptions. Bulk Receiving and Handling:  Bulk Receiving and Handling Description: 72-hr inventory Eurosilo storage Conveyor density 5.2 lb/ft3, bin density 14.1 lb/ft3 Explanation of Difference: Economies of Scale Economies of scale favor larger Idaho biorefinery Idaho: 95 tons/hr; 943,000 ft3 inventory Kansas: , 38 tons/hr; 389,000 ft3 inventory Needed Improvements: Increase conveyor-loaded bulk density Improve rheological properties Costs in $/dry ton, 2002 $ Cost per ton estimates can vary based on yield, feedstock type and operational size assumptions. Slide28:  Feedstock value for $1.07/gal cost target: Wet storage conditions affecting composition changes created a $28* range in feedstock value Dry storage conditions affecting composition changes created a $22* range in feedstock value Selective harvest composition changes created a $10* range in feedstock value Mechanical Preprocessing and fractionation composition changes created a $12* range in feedstock value Biochem Feedstock Fractions Quality *Value estimations based on NREL Aspen model analysis Wet Storage Dry Storage Selective Harvest Preprocessing Biorefining Depends on Feedstock :  Biorefining Depends on Feedstock

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