Herschel and Planck: ESA's New Astronomy Missions – an introduction

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Information about Herschel and Planck: ESA's New Astronomy Missions – an introduction
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Published on March 24, 2009

Author: eurospaceagency

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ESA Space Science Talks March 2009. Martin Kessler: Herschel and Planck: ESA's New Astronomy Missions – an introduction.

Herschel and Planck: ESA’s New Astronomy Missions – an introduction Martin Kessler Schloss Braunshardt 19/03/2009

Missions in Operations Newton Integral Hubble Ulysses SOHO Cluster Rosetta Mars Express Venus Express Herschel Planck

Herschel and Planck – Two missions, One programme Two Missions Herschel : space observatory : unlock secrets of star & galaxy formation in unexplored wavelengths Planck : survey mission : measure Cosmic Microwave Background radiation, relic of the Big Bang Two Spacecraft Herschel , three axis stabilised, pointing satellite Planck , a low-spin-rate sky scanning satellite Two Cryogenic Telescopes Herschel : 3.5 meter aperture telescope - largest ever flown in space – cryogenic temperature Planck : off-axis, 1.5 meter aperture cryogenic telescope Two Cryogenic Payloads Herschel , superfluid-Helium cryostat down to 1.7 K, instrument coolers down to 0.3 K Planck , passive cooling to 60 K and instrument active coolers down to 0.1 K One Orbit Type First ESA missions to orbit around the 2nd Lagrangian point in space – 1.5 million km from Earth One Launcher Ariane 5 ECA with single launch for both Spacecraft One Programme One ESA project team, One industrial Architect, One development concept

Two Missions

Herschel : space observatory : unlock secrets of star & galaxy formation in unexplored wavelengths

Planck : survey mission : measure Cosmic Microwave Background radiation, relic of the Big Bang

Two Spacecraft

Herschel , three axis stabilised, pointing satellite

Planck , a low-spin-rate sky scanning satellite

Two Cryogenic Telescopes

Herschel : 3.5 meter aperture telescope - largest ever flown in space – cryogenic temperature

Planck : off-axis, 1.5 meter aperture cryogenic telescope

Two Cryogenic Payloads

Herschel , superfluid-Helium cryostat down to 1.7 K, instrument coolers down to 0.3 K

Planck , passive cooling to 60 K and instrument active coolers down to 0.1 K

One Orbit Type

First ESA missions to orbit around the 2nd Lagrangian point in space – 1.5 million km from Earth

One Launcher

Ariane 5 ECA with single launch for both Spacecraft

One Programme

One ESA project team, One industrial Architect, One development concept

 

Herschel Space Observatory Mission named in honour of Sir William Herschel (1738 – 1822), who demonstrated the existence of infrared radiation in 1800. Both he and his sister, Caroline, were pioneering and successful astronomers.

Mission named in honour of Sir William Herschel (1738 – 1822), who demonstrated the existence of infrared radiation in 1800.

Both he and his sister, Caroline, were pioneering and successful astronomers.

The sky is different at different wavelengths!

Herschel special strengths: large telescope: more collecting area and sharper view spectral coverage: opening up new window – cool universe designed for wide area mapping and spectral line scans designed to capture the most interesting physics Herschel Science Formation and evolution of galaxies and large-scale structure nature of galaxies as function of time energy and ‘metal’ production history of the universe Formation and evolution of stars and stellar systems physics and chemistry of the interstellar medium from clouds to stars, planets, and potentially life Our Galaxy and solar system as examples our Galaxy as template for other galaxies comets and other pristine bodies, planetary atmospheres,…

Herschel special strengths:

large telescope: more collecting area and sharper view

spectral coverage: opening up new window – cool universe

designed for wide area mapping and spectral line scans

designed to capture the most interesting physics

Formation and evolution of galaxies and large-scale structure

nature of galaxies as function of time

energy and ‘metal’ production history of the universe

Formation and evolution of stars and stellar systems

physics and chemistry of the interstellar medium

from clouds to stars, planets, and potentially life

Our Galaxy and solar system as examples

our Galaxy as template for other galaxies

comets and other pristine bodies, planetary atmospheres,…

Large telescope 3.5 m diameter New spectral window 55-672  m – bridging the far infrared & submillimetre Three novel instruments photometry in 6 ‘colours’ imaging spectroscopy very high resolution heterodyne spectroscopy 3 years of operations Herschel Tools

Large telescope

3.5 m diameter

New spectral window

55-672  m – bridging the far infrared & submillimetre

Three novel instruments

photometry in 6 ‘colours’

imaging spectroscopy

very high resolution heterodyne spectroscopy

3 years of operations

Herschel Spacecraft

 

Planck Mission named in honour of the German scientist Max Planck (1858 – 1947), Nobel Prize for Physics in 1918. Max Planck started the quantum revolution, explaining the spectrum of a blackbody based on the quantisation of radiation. Cosmic Microwave Background is the most perfect blackbody known in nature

Mission named in honour of the German scientist Max Planck (1858 – 1947), Nobel Prize for Physics in 1918.

Max Planck started the quantum revolution, explaining the spectrum of a blackbody based on the quantisation of radiation.

Cosmic Microwave Background is the most perfect blackbody known in nature

Planck: The History of the Universe 370000 yrs after the Big Bang The first three minutes 10 9 yrs after the Big bang 5x10 9 yrs ago The first instant

Planck: Looking back in time ! The Cosmic Microwave Background

Planck Science Will provide all-sky maps at unprecedented angular resolution and sensitivity of the remnants of the radiation that filled the Universe shortly after the Big Bang. Next major milestone in space Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) research, plus huge impact in many other areas of astrophysics Addresses fundamental questions, as examples v alues of fundamental cosmological constants, search for support that the early Universe passed through an inflationary phase , search for primordial gravitational waves.

Will provide all-sky maps at unprecedented angular resolution and sensitivity of the remnants of the radiation that filled the Universe shortly after the Big Bang.

Next major milestone in space Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) research,

plus huge impact in many other areas of astrophysics

Addresses fundamental questions, as examples

v alues of fundamental cosmological constants,

search for support that the early Universe passed through an inflationary phase ,

search for primordial gravitational waves.

Telescope aperture of 1.5m. Two instruments (LFI and HFI) I mage the sky in 9 frequency bands from 27 – 77 GHz and 83 Ghz – 1 THz. 2 (possibly 4) complete scans of t he sky in 15 (27) months. Planck Tools

Telescope aperture of 1.5m.

Two instruments (LFI and HFI)

I mage the sky in 9 frequency bands from 27 – 77 GHz and 83 Ghz – 1 THz.

2 (possibly 4) complete scans of t he sky in 15 (27) months.

Planck Spacecraft

Planck Data Processing CMB Clusters Thermal Doppler Galaxies Galactic Free-free Synchrotron Dust Detector noise Converting time-ordered data to maps of the sky emission at many frequencies Converting frequency maps to component maps, e.g. the Cosmic Microwave Background Estimating the CMB angular power spectrum and cosmological parameters Acquiring and processing time-ordered information

Herschel and Planck missions – Mission and Science Operations Mission Control Center (ESOC, Germany) Ground Station (New Norcia) Spacecraft (L2) Herschel HIFI Instrument Control Center Herschel PACS Instrument Control Center Herschel SPIRE Instrument Control Center NASA Herschel Science Centre Scientific community ESA Herschel Science Centre ESA Planck Science Office Planck HFI Data Processing Center Planck LFI Data Processing Center

Almost Ready for Launch …

After Herschel/Planck, now in development … GAIA Deconstructing our galaxy P recursor for Gravitational Wave Observatory LISA PF JWST The most distant universe the first light ExoMars Mars Bepi Colombo Mercury

Medium Missions, under study, for launch opportunities in 2017 and 2018 Cosmic Vision, 2015 – 2025 Marco Polo EUCLID Cross Scale Cross Solar Orbiter

Large Missions, under study, for launch opportunities around 2020 Cosmic Vision, 2015 – 2025 Europa Jupiter System Mission, (was Laplace) IXO International X ray observatory (was Xeus) LISA Gravitational waves measurement

THANK YOU Martin Kessler Head, Science Operations Department [email_address]

THANK YOU Martin Kessler Head, Science Operations Department [email_address]

Martin Kessler Head, Science Operations Department [email_address]

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