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Published on January 29, 2008

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Slide1:  The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES): Measuring the Infrared Galaxy Formation History of the Universe Evanthia Hatziminaoglou ESO Garching on behalf of the SPIRE High-z Specialist Astronomy Group (SAG) Slide2:  (or The SPIRE SAG1 Team) S. Oliver, University of Sussex, UK J.J. Bock, JPL, US M.J. Griffin, Cardiff University, UK A. Franceschini, University of padova, IT W.K. Gear, Cardiff University, UK J. Glenn, University of Colorado, US S. Madden, CEA, FR M. Page, MSSL, UK I. Perez-Fournon, IAC, ES M. Rowan-Robinson, Imperial College, UK L. Vigroux, IAP, FR G. Wright, Astronomy Technology Centre, UK B. Altieri, R. Arendt, H. Aussel, T. Babbedge, A. Blain, A. Boselli, V. Buat, N. Castro-Rodriguez, J.Cepa, P. Chanial, S. Church, D. Clements, A. Cooray, J. Davies, F.C. Dobbs, D. Dowell, G. De Zotti, E. Dwek, S. Dye, S. Eales, D. Elbaz, E. Ellingson, M. Frost, F. Galliano, K. Ganga, J. Glenn, B. Guiderdoni, M. Halpern, M. Harwit, E. Hatziminaoglou, G. Helou, K. Isaak, R. Ivison, G. Lagache, G. Laurent, B. Maffei, P. Maloney, H. Nguyen, A. Omont, F. Orieux, P. Panuzzo, D. Rizzo, M. Sanchez-Portal, M. Sauvage, R. Savage, B. Schulz, D. Scott, L. Spinoglio, J. Stevens, M. Vaccari, I. Valtchanov, I. Waddington, T. Waskett, C. Wilson, K. Xu Culprits Slide3:  Herschel Space Observatory Will perform Photometry and Spectroscopy in the FIR and submm region (60-670 μm) 3.5m Diameter Telescope, ~80K two cameras/medium resolution spectrometers (PACS & SPIRE) + very high resolution heterodyne spectrometer (HIFI) To be launched in 2008, minimum 3 years lifetime • Study the formation of galaxies in the early universe and their subsequent evolution • Investigate the creation of stars and their interaction with the interstellar medium • Observe the chemical composition of the atmospheres and surfaces of comets, planets and satellites • Examine the molecular chemistry of the universe Slide4:  • 3-Band Imaging Photometer - 250, 360, 520 μm (simultaneous) - broad band photometry (λ/Δλ ~ 3) - 4 x 8 arcmin field of view - Diffraction limited beams (18”, 25”, 36”) SPIRE: Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver • Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer - two bolometric arrays (200 - 325; 315 - 670 μm) complete range covered simultaneously - 2.6 arcmin diameter field of view - Adjustable spectral resolution Slide5:  Photometer Spectrometer SPIRE Slide6:  HerMES Is the Olympian God of boundaries and of the travelers who cross them, of shepherds and cowherds, of orators and wit, of literature and poets, of athletics, of weights and measures, of invention, of commerce, of the cunning, of thieves and liars. the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey HerMES is a 900hr = 3.2Ms, Guaranteed Time Key Project to study the evolution of galaxies at high redshift using ESA's Herschel Observatory. The survey is carried out by the SPIRE high-z Specialist Astronomy Group in Close coordination with the PACS Evolutionary Probe survey Slide7:  The Importance of FIR Surveys SCUBA sampled the z>2 Universe Spitzer sampled the z<1 Herschek will bridge the gap Slide8:  Scientific Goals Provide a Legacy Study of the FIR Galaxy Populations over the Wavelengths at which the Galaxies and CIRB peak Measure the Bolometric Luminosity Function of Galaxies At Redshifts z<3 in a Range of Environments Characterise the Contribution of different Redshifts, Luminosities and Environments to the SF History Study the Galaxy Formation below the Herschel Confusion Limit Combine all this with Surveys from the X-Rays to the Radio to understand the overall Picture of FIR Galaxy Formation and Evolution Slide9:  Survey Design Consists of Six Separate Surveys of Different Depths and Areas (“Wedding Cake”) Slide11:  Survey Design Consists of Six Separate Surveys of Different Depths and Areas (“Wedding Cake”) Designed to Sample the Hight Luminosity Objects in the Wide & Shallow Tiers, and the Fainter Galaxies in the Deep & Narrow Tiers Uniformly Sample the L,z plane of Star-Forming Galaxies with Sufficient Statistics to z~2.5 Field Selection Driven by the Confusion Limit Selected Fields are among the Best in the Sky for Multi-Wavelength Coverage Slide12:  Fields, Areas, Depths Slide13:  Fields, Areas, Depths Slide14:  Example of Fields and Available Data 9 sq. deg. SWIRE IRAC/MIPS CFHTLS 8.75 sq. deg. J,H,K from UKIDSS (ongoing) Subaru XDF optical and X-ray NOAO WDS SHADES submm GALEX VIMOS deep spectroscopy survey XMM-LSS X-ray survey Slide15:  Structure Formation; clustering on angular scales < 10 arcmin Lensing, SZ SEDs of Galaxies Contributing to the CIB Clusters:  10 rich clusters from z = 0.2 to > 1 Deepest (possible) layer of a wedding cake survey for galaxies at z~1 and above Excellent existing (archival) data: HST-ACS/NICMOS, radio (μJy), Spitzer, Chandra & XMM Unique imaging to beneath the confusion limit Clusters Slide18:  Clusters Lensing: Extend below blank field confusion limit to about 5 mJy About 180 detections expected P(D) Analysis (or IR background fluctuations analysis):  P(D) Analysis (or IR background fluctuations analysis) Even with Herschel much of the background radiation will be unresolved, especially at larger λ (i.e. higher z) P(D) Provides unique information on the sources of the CIB that are too faint to be detected individually Analysis of the Fluctuations in the 3 SPIRE Bands provides Statistical Information on SEDs Powerful Method to distinguish between Different Number count Models Slide20:  Beyond the Confusion Limit Dole et al. 2006 Input: Spitzer and/or PACS catalogues Homogeneous Classes of Galaxies to be Stacked (IRS Spectra) Redshifts Required to Stack Sources in Redshift Bins Slide21:  A few more Things ... • Three Data Releases Foreseen: EDR (in time for the 2nd OT call), DR1 (~1 year after the start of routine Herschel Observations), and DR2 (at the end of nominal mission) • Related links: Herschel@ESA SPIRE@Cardiff HerMES

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