Helping People To Change

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Information about Helping People To Change

Published on September 22, 2008

Author: drpattron68


Helping People to Change : Helping People to Change Dr. Deryck D. Pattron, Ph.D. Public Health & Safety Consultant 66 J Endeavour Ext. Rd., Chaguanas Trinidad, West Indies Role of Attitudes, Beliefs & Values in Human Behaviour : Role of Attitudes, Beliefs & Values in Human Behaviour Definitions : Definitions Attitude Relatively stable feelings towards particular issues Made up of two components Cognitive-knowledge and information Affective-feelings and emotions and evaluations of what is important Definitions : Definitions Beliefs Information a person has about an object or action Information can influence beliefs and beliefs can influence behaviour or Knowledge Attitude Behaviour (KAB) Model Definitions : Definitions Values Emotionally charged beliefs Acquired through socialization Make up what a person thinks is important Drives : Drives Used to describe motivations Some strong motivating factors Pain Hunger Sex Thirst Addiction ___________________ Are drives and instincts the same thing? Provide supporting evidence. Health Belief Model (Becker, 1974) : Health Belief Model (Becker, 1974) Focus is at the individual level Predicting healthy behaviour Perception of the threat of a health problem Appraisal of recommended behaviour Perceived benefits of action vs cost Requirements for Behavioural Change : Requirements for Behavioural Change Incentive to change Threatened by current behaviour Belief that change would be beneficial Competent to carry out change Theory of Reasoned Action & Planned Behaviour (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980) : Theory of Reasoned Action & Planned Behaviour (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980) Focus is at the individual level Dependent on three variables: (i) Attitudes-beliefs about outcomes and evaluations of outcomes (ii) Subjective norms-beliefs about important others’ attitudes to the behaviour and motivation to comply with important others (iii) Importance of subjective norms The Stages of Change Model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1984) : The Stages of Change Model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1984) About how people change and not why people change Any change is not final but an ongoing cycle of change Most people go through a number of stages when trying to change or acquire behaviours Five stages of change: Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance Precontemplation Stage : Precontemplation Stage Unaware of any potential risk in their behaviour Do not considered changing their lifestyle Contemplation Stage : Contemplation Stage Individuals may be aware of the benefits of change May be seeking more information May last a short while or several years Individuals not ready for change Preparation Stage : Preparation Stage Benefits outweigh the cost Change seem possible and worthwhile Extra support may be required Action Stage : Action Stage A clear goal A realistic plan Support Rewards Maintenance Stage : Maintenance Stage New behaviour is sustained Some may revert to previous stages A relapse may not necessarily mean a failure The Prerequisites of Change (Pill & Stott’s, 1990) : The Prerequisites of Change (Pill & Stott’s, 1990) People will only change if they want to The change must be self-initiated The behaviour must become salient or significant The salient behaviour must become habitual The behaviour must make use of the individual’s alternative coping strategies Limit to a person’s capacity to adapt and change Social support encourages and reinforces behavioural change Conclusion : Conclusion The application of social psychology to health promotion has met with its share of criticisms Behavioural change is not the most important determinant of health Behavioural change remains a prominent feature in most health promotion programmes Providing conducive environmental conditions that make the healthier choice the easier choice The adoption of policies that encourage the development of health promoting environment None of the psychological theories provide a full explanation about behavioural change All models identified show: Perceptions of risk and vulnerability Perceptions of severity of diseases Perceived effectiveness of behaviour Perception of own ability to change Perception of how significant others evaluate the behaviour Critical Thinking : Critical Thinking Factors identified in a fitness survey which motivated people to take exercise include: To feel in good shape physically To feel a sense of achievement To improve or maintain health To get out of doors What are some of the barriers to participation? How would you support someone to take up regular exercise? References : References Naidoo J & Wills J. (2000). Health Promotion: Foundations for Practice. Edinburgh: Bailliere Tindall. WHO. (1988). Education for Health: A manual on health education in primary health care. Geneva: WHO.

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