Published on March 16, 2014
HEAT STRESSHEAT STRESS Presented by:Presented by: Officeof Environmental Health and SafetyOfficeof Environmental Health and Safety
IndividualsAt RiskIndividualsAt Risk • All individualswho work in hot environmentsAll individualswho work in hot environments (insideand outside) areat risk of developing heat(insideand outside) areat risk of developing heat stress.stress. • Moreintenseand strenuousworkloads, putMoreintenseand strenuousworkloads, put individualsat agreater risk.individualsat agreater risk. • Wearing PPE such asrespiratorsand protectiveWearing PPE such asrespiratorsand protective suitscan also increasethisrisk.suitscan also increasethisrisk.
Contributing FactorsContributing Factors • Environmental FactorsEnvironmental Factors - Temperature- Temperature - Humidity- Humidity - Radiant Heat- Radiant Heat - Air Velocity- Air Velocity Temperatureisnot theonly indicator!!Temperatureisnot theonly indicator!!
Contributing FactorsContributing Factors • Personal FactorsPersonal Factors - Age- Age - Weight- Weight - Fitness- Fitness - Acclimatization – increased toleranceto heat that- Acclimatization – increased toleranceto heat that comesfrom working in ahot environment for acomesfrom working in ahot environment for a period 1-2 weeks.period 1-2 weeks.
TheBody’sResponseto HeatTheBody’sResponseto Heat • Increased Blood CirculationIncreased Blood Circulation - Blood iscirculated to theskin which increases skin- Blood iscirculated to theskin which increases skin temperatureand allowsthebody to giveoff excesstemperatureand allowsthebody to giveoff excess heat through theskin.heat through theskin. - Thisiswhy your faceturnsred when you arehot.- Thisiswhy your faceturnsred when you arehot. - However, physical labor requiresblood to fuel the- However, physical labor requiresblood to fuel the muscles; therefore, lessblood isavailableto flow tomuscles; therefore, lessblood isavailableto flow to theskin surfaceand becauseof this, lessheat istheskin surfaceand becauseof this, lessheat is released from thebody.released from thebody.
TheBody’sResponseto HeatTheBody’sResponseto Heat • SweatingSweating -- Sweating isan effectiveway to cool thebodySweating isan effectiveway to cool thebody when humidity isrelatively low.when humidity isrelatively low. - Sweating ismost effectivewhen thesweat- Sweating ismost effectivewhen thesweat evaporatesfrom theskin rather than dripsoff or isevaporatesfrom theskin rather than dripsoff or is wiped off.wiped off. - A young malecan sweat asmuch asonequart- A young malecan sweat asmuch asonequart per hour. (2-3 gallonsper day)per hour. (2-3 gallonsper day)
Heat DisordersHeat Disorders • Heat RashHeat Rash • Heat CrampsHeat Cramps • Heat ExhaustionHeat Exhaustion • Heat StrokeHeat Stroke
Heat DisordersHeat Disorders • Heat RashHeat Rash - Also known as“Prickly Heat.”- Also known as“Prickly Heat.” - Occurswhen sweat cannot freely evaporatefrom- Occurswhen sweat cannot freely evaporatefrom theskin and sweat ductsbecomeplugged. Thistheskin and sweat ductsbecomeplugged. This inflammation can causeared rash.inflammation can causeared rash. - Can beprevented by wearing clothesthat allow- Can beprevented by wearing clothesthat allow sweat to evaporateaswell asbathing regularly andsweat to evaporateaswell asbathing regularly and drying theskin.drying theskin.
Heat DisordersHeat Disorders • Heat CrampsHeat Cramps -- Crampsin thearms, legs, or abdomenCrampsin thearms, legs, or abdomen - Occur in individualswho sweat profusely then- Occur in individualswho sweat profusely then drink largequantitiesof water, but do notdrink largequantitiesof water, but do not adequately replacethebody’ssalt loss.adequately replacethebody’ssalt loss. - To prevent, ensurethat saltsarereplaced during- To prevent, ensurethat saltsarereplaced during and after heavy sweating.and after heavy sweating.
Heat DisordersHeat Disorders • Heat ExhaustionHeat Exhaustion Mild form of shock caused when thecirculatoryMild form of shock caused when thecirculatory system beginsto fail asaresult of thebody’ssystem beginsto fail asaresult of thebody’s inadequateeffort to giveoff excessiveheat.inadequateeffort to giveoff excessiveheat. Although not an immediatethreat to life, if notAlthough not an immediatethreat to life, if not properly treated, could evolveinto heat stroke.properly treated, could evolveinto heat stroke.
Heat DisordersHeat Disorders • Heat Exhaustion - SymptomsHeat Exhaustion - Symptoms - Skin isclammy and moist- Skin isclammy and moist - Extremeweaknessor fatigue- Extremeweaknessor fatigue - Nausea- Nausea - Headache- Headache - Complexion paleor flushed- Complexion paleor flushed - Body temperaturenormal or slightly elevated- Body temperaturenormal or slightly elevated
Heat DisordersHeat Disorders • Heat Exhaustion - TreatmentHeat Exhaustion - Treatment - Do not leavetheperson alone- Do not leavetheperson alone - Moveto acool placeto rest- Moveto acool placeto rest - Drink water or electrolytefluids- Drink water or electrolytefluids - Treat for shock, if necessary- Treat for shock, if necessary - If unconscious, failsto recover rapidly, has- If unconscious, failsto recover rapidly, has other injuries, or hasahistory of medicalother injuries, or hasahistory of medical problems, seek medical attention.problems, seek medical attention.
Heat DisordersHeat Disorders • Heat StrokeHeat Stroke Severeand sometimesfatal condition resultingSevereand sometimesfatal condition resulting from thefailureof thebody to regulateitscorefrom thefailureof thebody to regulateitscore temperature.temperature. Thebody’snormal cooling mechanismsstopThebody’snormal cooling mechanismsstop functioning,functioning, sweating stopssweating stops.. Truemedical emergency requiring immediateTruemedical emergency requiring immediate medical attention.medical attention.
Heat DisordersHeat Disorders • Heat Stroke- SymptomsHeat Stroke- Symptoms - Stop Sweating- Stop Sweating - Rapid Pulse- Rapid Pulse - Mental Confusion- Mental Confusion - Lossof Consciousness- Lossof Consciousness - Convulsions- Convulsions - Body Temperature- Body Temperature >> 105105 - Hot, dry skin- Hot, dry skin - Can dieunlesstreated promptly- Can dieunlesstreated promptly
Heat DisordersHeat Disorders • Heat Stroke- TreatmentHeat Stroke- Treatment - Call 911- Call 911 - Removevictim to acool area- Removevictim to acool area - Soak clothing with cool water and fan- Soak clothing with cool water and fan vigorously to increasecoolingvigorously to increasecooling - Monitor vital signs- Monitor vital signs
Prevention MethodsPrevention Methods • AcclimatizationAcclimatization • Work in pairsWork in pairs • Drink plenty of cool water or electrolyteDrink plenty of cool water or electrolyte replacement fluidseven if not thirsty. (Onesmallreplacement fluidseven if not thirsty. (Onesmall cup every 15-20 minutes)cup every 15-20 minutes) • Beableto recognizeearly signs& symptomsofBeableto recognizeearly signs& symptomsof heat-induced illnessand takeappropriateactionheat-induced illnessand takeappropriateaction to prevent seriousheat disorders.to prevent seriousheat disorders. • Schedulemost strenuouswork during theSchedulemost strenuouswork during the coolest timesof theday.coolest timesof theday.
Prevention MethodsPrevention Methods • Spend aslittletimeaspossiblein direct sunlight.Spend aslittletimeaspossiblein direct sunlight. • Takefrequent breaksin cool, shaded areas.Takefrequent breaksin cool, shaded areas. • Wear light, loosefitting, clothing.Wear light, loosefitting, clothing. • Avoid caffeine, which can makethebody loseAvoid caffeine, which can makethebody lose water.water. • Rotateworkersin and out of hot areasifRotateworkersin and out of hot areasif possible.possible.
Heat StressMeasurementHeat StressMeasurement AreaHeat StressMonitorAreaHeat StressMonitor Personal Heat StressMonitorPersonal Heat StressMonitor
Wet Bulb GlobeTemperatureIndexWet Bulb GlobeTemperatureIndex • WBGT is a number that is calculated as aWBGT is a number that is calculated as a combination of humidity, radiant, and ambientcombination of humidity, radiant, and ambient temperature readings.temperature readings. • This number is then combined with work loadThis number is then combined with work load to determine heat stress potential.to determine heat stress potential. • The following table displays the recommendedThe following table displays the recommended work/rest regimen for corresponding WBGTwork/rest regimen for corresponding WBGT values.values.
Work/Rest RegimenWork/Rest Regimen PERMISSIBLE HEAT EXPOSURE THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES Source: ACGIH 1992. ------------- Work Load* ------------ Work/rest regimen Light Moderate Heavy Continuous work 30.0°C (86°F) 26.7°C (80°F) 25.0°C (77°F) 75% Work, 25% rest, each hour 30.6°C (87°F) 28.0°C (82°F) 25.9°C (78°F) 50% Work, 50% rest, each hour 31.4°C (89°F) 29.4°C (85°F) 27.9°C (82°F) 25% Work, 75% rest, each hour 32.2°C (90°F) 31.1°C (88°F) 30.0°C (86°F) *Values are in °C and °F, WBGT. These TLV's are based on the assumption that nearly all acclimatized, fully clothed workers with adequate water and salt intake should be able to function effectively under the given working conditions without exceeding a deep body temperature of 38°C (100.4° F). They are also based on the assumption that the WBGT of the resting place is the same or very close to that of the workplace. Where the WBGT of the work area is different from that of the rest area, a time-weighted average should be used (consult the ACGIH 1992-1993 Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices (1992). These TLV's apply to physically fit and acclimatized individuals wearing light summer clothing. If heavier clothing that impedes sweat or has a higher insulation value is required, the permissible heat exposure TLV's in Table III:4- 2 must be reduced by the corrections shown in Table III:4-3.
Heat StressMonitoringHeat StressMonitoring If you are unsure of theIf you are unsure of the Heat Stress Potential thatHeat Stress Potential that your employees areyour employees are exposed to, contactexposed to, contact EH&S to conduct HeatEH&S to conduct Heat Stress Monitoring.Stress Monitoring.
QUIZQUIZ • Please complete the linkedPlease complete the linked QUIZQUIZ to satisfy yourto satisfy your training requirements.training requirements. If you have any questionsIf you have any questions please contact EHS atplease contact EHS at 328-6166 or328-6166 or firstname.lastname@example.org@ecu.edu
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