Heat Stress Essentials Training by Occupational Health Clinics for Ontario Workers Inc.

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Information about Heat Stress Essentials Training by Occupational Health Clinics for...
Business & Mgmt

Published on March 16, 2014

Author: complianceandsafety

Source: slideshare.net

Heat StressHeat Stress EssentialsEssentials Occupational Health Clinics for Ontario Workers Inc. Prevention in Action

OutlineOutline • Heat stress/strain health effects • What you can do to prevent them • What the law says • Simple ways to monitor the heat

Symptoms: General feeling of tiredness or fatigue. First Aid: Fluid replacement and rest. Transient Heat Fatigue:Transient Heat Fatigue:

First Aid: Practice good personal hygiene; keep the skin clean and the pores unclogged, allow skin to dry, wear loose clothing, see doctor if rash persists. Heat Rash (prickly heat)Heat Rash (prickly heat) Symptoms: Skin becomes reddened and may itch, feel prickly or hurt.

Symptoms: Syncope means “fainting.” First signs are dizziness, feeling light-headed and perhaps nauseous, then the person may faint. Usually occurs in the beginning of heat stress season before the circulation system is adapted. First Aid: Lay victim in a cool location horizontally with feet elevated. If conscious, give fluids. Treatment the same as shock. HeatHeat SyncopeSyncope (fainting)(fainting)

Symptoms: Cramping of either active muscles (arms, legs) or involuntary (usually abdominal) muscles (or both). First Aid: Replenish electrolytes through drinking of fluids such as Gator-Ade, Squincher, PowerAde, etc-Ade. Rest in a cool environment. Heat Cramps:Heat Cramps:

Symptoms: Nausea, dizziness, weakness headache, blurred vision, profuse sweating, cold/wet (clammy) grayish skin, unconsciousness, coma and death. First Aid: Place victim in a prone position in a cool location, administer fluids if the victim is conscious. If unconscious, seek medical care or transport to a medical emergency room. Heat Exhaustion:Heat Exhaustion:

Symptoms: Chills, restlessness, irritability, euphoria, red face and skin, disorientation, hot/dry skin (not always), collapse, unconsciousness, convulsions and death. First Aid: Immediate, aggressive cooling of the victim’s body using wet cloths, immersion into cold water or alcohol wipes. Transport to emergency medical facility ASAP! Heat Stroke:Heat Stroke:

Watch out for each other!Watch out for each other! • A worker heading into a heat stroke will no longer realize what’s happening to him/her • It is vital that co-workers be able to recognize what’s happening and intervene • Without quick attention, the co-worker may die!

Indirect Health Effects:Indirect Health Effects: Reduced Work Performance: tired, fatigued workers perform with reduced accuracy, efficiency Increased Accidents: tired, fatigued workers are more susceptible to accident and injury Reproductive Problems: heat has been shown to reduce both male and female fertility and can be a problem for the fetus Heart/Lung Strain: if you already have heart, lung, kidney or circulatory problems; heat stress is an added strain on your body which in severe situation may precipitate serious episodes of acute problems

PredisposingPredisposing Factors:Factors:  very small body size  overweight  over 40 years old (the older the more sensitive)  previous heat illness  heart disease  high blood pressure  diabetes  inactivity  physical activity  …sooner or later we’re all vulnerable …

…… with all thesewith all these vulnerabilities who typicallyvulnerabilities who typically gets heat stroke?gets heat stroke? young physically fit males and sick older people

S S Cooling evaporation of sweat Heat Balance H H Internal Heat sources muscle activity H External Heat sources hot weather radiant heat sources

External heatExternal heat source controlssource controls • At the source – Replace/isolate heat producing processes – Block radiant heat with barriers (shade) • Along the path – Isolate worker from heat – Air condition workplace (booth) – Capture hot air with exhaust ventilation External Heat sources hot weather radiant heat sources H

Internal sourceInternal source controls:controls: • At the source – Reduce workload • improve ergonomics, • provide assistance, • increase relief time • slow down – Provide adequate water – Actively cool body – Gradually acclimatize – Ensure good nutrition and rest Internal Heat sources muscle activity H H

Promoting CoolingPromoting Cooling • Wear loose clothes that allow sweat to evaporate easily (cotton) • Take internal heat sources into account when using any personal protective clothing that prevents sweat from evaporating • Wash clothes regularly and maintain good personal hygiene S S Cooling evaporation of sweat

Body Changes due toBody Changes due to Acclimatization:Acclimatization: • Gradually build up your ability to handle heat (increase exposure time by an hour/day) • When your body gets used to the heat (acclimatized) your sweating becomes more “efficient” (more sweat, quicker but with less salt in sweat) • blood flow to skin is reduced; more blood is available to muscles • heart rate more stable, heart stoke volume increases and blood volume increases

See your doctorSee your doctor • If you are having trouble getting used to the heat or • If you have questions about how heat may affect a medical condition you have … see your doctor!

Drink Water Acclimatization does not decrease your body’s need for water. Drink plenty of water!

What to drink:What to drink: • Electrolyte drinks (e.g. Gatorade) are usually not needed for typical North American diet (can be used for first aid for cramps). • Stay away from caffeinated carbonated, diet drinks and alcohol as they take water out of your body. • Water is the best; juices and/or noncaffeine sport drinks are also good (juices contain energy restoring glucose).

Dehydration To prevent dehydration, take advantage of scheduled water breaks!

How Much WaterHow Much Water is Enough?is Enough? • More than you want just to satisfy your thirst • Sources of water are: 1. Fluids - 1 cup or 8 oz = 240 mL every 20 min 2. Foods - fruit & veggies are 90% water • Why 10-15°C? … to maximize the amount you drink (not too cold, not luke warm) • Does it need to be delivered to the work station? … depends on workplace logistics …

DehydrationDehydration fluid loss time* effect & symptoms (* timing may vary based on intensity of work and heat/humidity) 0.75 L 1 hr unnoticed (at 1.5% weight loss you are considered dehydrated) 1.5 L 2-3 hrs loss of endurance, start to feel thirsty, feel hot, uncomfortable 2.25 L 3-4 hrs loss of strength, loss of energy, moderate discomfort 3 L 4-5 hrs cramps, headaches, extreme discomfort 3.5-4 L 5-6 hrs heat exhaustion, nausea, faint 5+ L 7+ hrs heat stroke, collapse, unconsciousness taken from: OH&S Canada Volume 69, Number 5, page 52, May 2000

You can and should replace essential elements lost during sweating; Eat a balanced diet rather than taking salt tablets or drinking expensive sports drinks. Eat Healthy

Cooler FansCooler Fans • Purpose of a cooling fan is primarily to increase the rate of sweat evaporation but it also cools by convection if the air is cooler than the skin • Fan coolers may interfere with local exhaust ventilation for contaminant control, therefore be careful in where they are placed and how they are pointed

Cooler FansCooler Fans (limitations)(limitations) • If the relative humidity is over 75-80% the fan will no longer increase evaporation of sweat • The closer the air temperature is to skin temperature (35- 36°C) the less effective the cooling – if the air temperature exceeds skin temperature then the fan may even heat up the body (like a convection oven)!

Personal Protective EquipmentPersonal Protective Equipment Special cooling vests or ice vests have been developed to wear under chemical–resistant suits (use on a case by case basis – they may not work for everyone)

What’s the Law?What’s the Law? General Duty Clause: – 25(2)(h) “… an employer shall, … take every precaution reasonable in the circumstances for the protection of a worker;” taken from: OH&S Act MOL Heath and Safety Guidelines: Heat Stress: – “The MOL uses the TLVs® for Heat Stress published by the ACGIH”. taken from: http://www.gov.on.ca/LAB/english/hs/guidelines/gl_heat.html

1. clothing OK/adjustment? 2/3a. WBGT screening/ detailed action limit 2/3b. WBGT screening/ detailed TLV® 5. job-specific controls NONO 4. heat strain evaluation - heart rate - core temperature YESYES aboveabove belowbelow above or no dataabove or no data excessiveexcessive OKOK belowbelow 2007 ACGIH Heat Stress/ Strain TLV® keep monitoring general controls

What is a WBGT?What is a WBGT? 1. normal thermometer (dry-bulb) 2. wet-bulb thermometer • humidity 3. globe temperature • radiant heat WWet BBulb GGlobe TTemp.

Screening WBGTScreening WBGT (in °C )(in °C ):: work demands: light moderate heavy very heavy 100% work; (breaks incl.) 28.0 31.0 25.0 28.0 not allowed not allowed 75% work; 25% rest 28.5 31.0 26.0 29.0 24.0 27.5 not allowed 50% work; 50% rest 29.5 32.0 27.0 30.0 25.5 29.0 24.5 28.0 25% work; 75% rest 29.0 32.5 29.0 31.0 28.0 30.5 27.0 30.0 Action Level TLV®

How to measure heat stressHow to measure heat stress using temperature & humidityusing temperature & humidity 1. Find a representative place 2. Find temperature and humidity on chart and read off the Humidex 3. Take into account radiant heat (add 2° Humidex to measurement for full sun) 4. Need to take clothing into account (add 5° Humidex for overalls on top of summer clothes)

Humidex Heat Stress ResponseHumidex Heat Stress Response PlanPlan Temp RH = 100% 95% 90% 85% 80% 75% 70% 65% 60% 55% 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 47 46 45 44 43 45+ 42 42-44 50 41 40-41 48 40 38-39 49 47 39 34-37 49 47 45 38 30-33 49 47 45 43 37 25-29 49 47 45 44 42 36 50 49 47 45 44 42 40 35 50 48 47 45 43 42 40 39 34 49 48 46 45 43 42 40 39 37 33 50 48 47 46 44 43 41 40 39 37 36 32 50 49 48 46 45 44 42 41 40 38 37 36 34 31 50 49 48 47 45 44 43 42 40 39 38 37 35 34 33 30 48 47 46 44 43 42 41 40 39 37 36 35 34 33 31 29 46 45 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 33 32 31 30 28 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 27 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 37 36 35 34 33 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 26 25 24 35 34 33 33 32 31 30 29 28 28 27 26 25 23 33 32 31 31 30 29 28 28 27 26 25 w at er as needed 32-35 warning & double w at er 40-42 alert & w at er 36-39 50% relief 45-46 25% relief 43-44 only medically supervised work 75% relief 47-49 Moderat e Unacclimat i zed & Heavy Moderat e Acclimat iz ed & Light UnacclimatAct ion 50+ Temperature = 29°C Relative Humidity = 60% Humidex = 37°C

CAVEAT (warning)!CAVEAT (warning)! never ignore symptoms even if measurements meet standards!

Why Worry AboutWhy Worry About Heat Stress?Heat Stress? • Heat can kill! • Work-related heat stroke fatalities: 1990: student, second day collecting garbage 2001: bakery worker in Barrie • If global warming is happening, heat stress will become more important

August 9, 2001: Kim DouglasAugust 9, 2001: Kim Douglas Warner Died of Heat StrokeWarner Died of Heat Stroke • bakery worker was near the end of a 12 hour shift on the 5th day of a heat waver • according to Environment Canada on August 9, 2001 outdoor temperature in Barrie is 33.4°C, and humidity was 30%; so the outdoor humidex was 36°C • if temperature in the bakery was estimated to be 52°C and if the humidity inside was 10%, then Humidex would have been 54°C

Heat stress death 1990 -Heat stress death 1990 - Inquest Findings:Inquest Findings: • Brian Freeman, arts student, on the second day on a summer job as a garbage collector experienced a heat stroke; died 17 days later • He had received no training to recognize symptoms • Heat stress measurements are too difficult to apply and don’t take into account vulnerabilities • Rather than relying on measurements, train workers to enable them to self-regulate (recognize symptoms and know how to reduce heat stress with breaks and fluid intake) • issues around malignant hyperthermia, a genetic condition (1 in 200) which makes people more susceptible to heat strain

Remember, when it’s hot:Remember, when it’s hot: Heed your body! watch for symptoms! Ensure you’re drinking enough! Adjust your activity level – slow down! Take clothing/PPE into account!

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