Heat Exchangers

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Information about Heat Exchangers

Published on April 11, 2009

Author: baher

Source: authorstream.com

Heat Exchangers Design and Construction : Heat Exchangers Design and Construction By: Baher EL Shaikh Mechanical Engineer EMetahnex 1 Introduction: : Shell and tube heat exchangers are one of the most common equipment found in all plants Introduction: How it works? 2 What are they used for? : What are they used for? Heat Exchanger Cooler Heater Condenser Reboiler Both sides single phase and process stream One stream process fluid and the other cooling water or air One stream process fluid and heating utility as steam One stream condensing vapor and the other cooling water or air One stream bottom stream from a distillation column and the other a hot utility or process stream Classification according to service . 3 Design codes: : Code Design codes: Standard Specifications Is recommended method of doing something ASME BPV – TEMA is the degree of excellence required API 660-ASME B16.5–ASME B36.10M–ASME B36.19-ASME B16.9–ASME B16.11 Is a detailed description of construction, materials,… etc Contractor or Owner specifications 4 Main Components : Main Components 2- Channel 3- Channel Flange 4- Pass Partition 5- Stationary Tubesheet 6- Shell Flange 7- Tube 8- Shell 9- Baffles 10- Floating Head backing Device 11- Floating Tubesheet 12- Floating Head 13- Floating Head Flange 14 –Shell Cover 1- Channel Cover 5 TEMAHeat Exchanger : TEMAHeat Exchanger 6 TEMA Heat Exchanger : TEMA Heat Exchanger Front Head Type A - Type B - Type C - Type 7 TEMA Heat Exchanger : TEMA Heat Exchanger Shell Type E - Type F - Type J - Type K - Type 8 TEMA Heat Exchanger : TEMA Heat Exchanger Rear End Head Types M - Type S - Type T - Type Fixed Tubesheet Floating Head Pull-Through Floating Head 9 Classification: : Classification: U-Tube Heat Exchanger Fixed Tubesheet Heat Exchanger Floating Tubesheet Heat exchanger 10 Example : Example AES 11 Example : AKT Example 12 Heat Exchangers Mechanical Design : Terminology Design data Material selection Codes overview Sample calculations Hydrostatic test Sample drawing Heat Exchangers Mechanical Design 13 Terminology : ASME TEMA API MAWP MDMT PWHT NPS – DN – NB – NPT Sch - BWG Terminology 14 Design Data : Design Data Heat Exchanger Data Sheet : Design pressure Design temperature Dimensions / passes Tubes ( dimensions, pattern) Nozzles & Connections TEMA type 15 Baffles (No. & Type) Material Selection : Material Selection 16 Strength : Strength A – Yield Strength B – Tensile Strength C – Rupture point A B C 17 Strength : Creep Strength a slow plastic strain increased by time and temperature (time and temperature dependant) for stressed materials Fatigue Strength The term “fatigue” refers to the situation where a specimen breaks under a load that it has previously withstood for a length of time Toughness The materials capacity to absorb energy, which, is dependant upon strength as well as ductility 18 Strength Slide 19: ASME code Overview ASME BPV code Sec.I Power Boilers Sec.II Materials Sec.III Nuclear Fuel Containers Sec.IV Heating Boilers Sec. V Non Destructive Examination Sec. VI Operation of heating boilers Sec. VII Operation of power boilers Sec. VIII Pressure vessels Sec. IX Welding and Brazing Sec. X Fiber-Reinforced plastic PV Sec. XI Inspection of nuclear power plant Sec. XII Transport tanks 19 Slide 20: ASME code overview Sec. II: Materials Part A : Ferrous material specifications Part B : Non-Ferrous material specifications Part C : Specifications of welding rods, electrodes and filler metals Part D : Properties Sec. VIII: Rules of construction of pressure vessels Division 1 : 3 Subsections + mandatory Annex + non mandatory Annex Division 2: Alternative rules Division 3 : Alternative rules of high pressure 20 Slide 21: 21 ASME code overview Slide 22: TEMA code overview TEMA classes: Class R: Generally severe requirements for petroleum and related processing applications Class C: Generally moderate requirements of commercial and general processing applications Class B: Chemical Process service TEMA subsections 10 subsection 22 Slide 23: Sample Calculations Shell thickness calculations under Internal Pressure: t : Min. Required Shell Thickness P : Design Pressure of Shell Side S: Max. Allowable Stress of Shell Material R: Shell Inside Radius (corroded conditions) E : Joint Efficiency CA: Corrosion Allowance UT: Under Tolerance (if applicable) 23 Slide 24: Sample Calculations Channel thickness calculations under Internal Pressure: t : Min. Required Channel Thickness P : Design Pressure of Tube Side S: Max. Allowable Stress of Channel Material R: Channel Inside Radius (corroded conditions) E : Joint Efficiency CA: Corrosion Allowance UT: Under Tolerance (if applicable) 24 Slide 25: Sample Calculations Body Flanges: 25 Slide 26: Sample Calculations Body Flanges: Trial and error calculations Gasket seating conditions No. of bolts and size Bolt circle diameter Inside and outside diameters Check min. and max. bolt spacing Detailed analysis of the flange Forces calculations Moment calculations Stresses calculations 26 Operating conditions Slide 27: Sample Calculations Precautions in body flanges design and installations: Pairs of flanges Bolt holes shall straddle center line Corrosion Allowance Bolts shall be multiple of 4 Bolting shall be allowed to be removed from either side 27 Calculated thickness not include the RF Cladding Slide 28: 28 Sample Calculations Nozzles and standard flanges: Flange Rating (ASME B16.5) Nozzle neck thickness calculations Area replacement calculations Sample Impingement protection Slide 29: 29 Sample Calculations Tubesheet: Tubesheet is the principal barrier between shell side and tube side Tubes shall be uniformly distributed Tubesheet thickness shall be designed for both sides Tubesheet shall be designed for bending stresses and shear stresses Corrosion allowance Made from around flat piece of metal with holes drilled for the tubes Slide 30: 30 Sample Calculations Tubesheet: Tubesheet thickness for bending T: Effective tubesheet thickness S: Allowable stress P: Design pressure corrected for vacuum if applicable at the other side ?: Ligament efficiency G: Gasket effective diameter F: Factor Slide 31: 31 Sample Calculations Tubesheet: Tubesheet thickness for Shear: T: Effective tubesheet thickness DL: Effective diameter of the tube center parameter DL=4A/C C: Perimeter of the tube layout A: Total area enclosed by the Perimeter C P: Design pressure S: Allowable stress do: Outside tube diameter Slide 32: 32 Tube-to-Tubesheet joint Expanded Seal welded Strength welded Slide 33: 33 Hydrostatic Test Test pressure : 1.3 X MAWP Test Procedure Gasket change Slide 34: 34 Sample drawing Construction drawing is the design output Sample drawing 1 Sample drawing 2 Thank You : 35 Thank You Baher EL Shaikh baherfm@yahoo.com

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