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Heart Reports

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Information about Heart Reports
Education

Published on May 2, 2008

Author: Irvette

Source: authorstream.com

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The Cardiovascular System:  The Cardiovascular System By Cody Collins Atria:  Atria heart is made up of four chambers two chambers on each side of the heart, one on the bottom and one on the top two chambers on top are called the atria (atrium). left atrium and a right atrium. atria fill with blood returning to the heart from the body and lungs.   Ventricles:  Ventricles The two chambers on the bottom are the ventricles. The heart has a left ventricle and a right ventricle. Their job is to return blood to the body and lungs. Left ventricle distributes blood to the body. Right ventricle distributes blood to the lungs. The Heart:  The Heart The atria and ventricles work together. The atria fill with blood, and pump it into the ventricles. The ventricles then squeeze, pumping blood out of the heart. The atria refill and prepare for the next contraction while the ventricles are squeezing. Slide5:  blood relies on four special valves inside the heart valves lets something in and keep it there by closing Example: Think of walking through a door. The door shuts behind you and keeps you from going backward. Valves Valves :  Valves Mitral valve and Tricuspid valve Purpose-allow blood flow from the atria to the ventricles. Aortic valve and Pulmonary valve Purpose- in charge of controlling the flow as the blood leaves the heart. These valves work to keep the blood flowing forward. open to let blood move ahead close quickly to keep the blood from flowing backward. The Heart:  The Heart Slide8:  Visuals Pig Heart Enlarged Heart Human Heart Anatomy of a Heart History:  History The valves of the heart were discovered by a physician of the Hippocratean school around the 4th century BC. Herophilus distinguished veins from arteries but thought that the pulse was a property of arteries themselves. The Greek physician Galen knew that blood vessels carried blood and identified venous (dark red) and arterial (brighter and thinner) blood. References:  References http://www.kidshealth.org/kid/body/heart_noSW.html http://anatquest.nlm.nih.gov/VisibleHuman/ImageData/Rendered/jpg/DPR100007226.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiovascular http://www.stayinginshape.com/3chsbuffalo/libv/libgraph/heart.gif Heart Valves By: Tracey D. Smith:  Heart Valves By: Tracey D. Smith What it does:  What it does The heart has four chambers The upper two are the right and left atria The lower two are the right and left ventricles Blood is pumped through the chambers, aided by four heart valves The valves open and close to let the blood flow in only one direction What it looks like:  What it looks like The four heart valves:  The four heart valves The tricuspid valve The pulmonary or pulmonic valve The mitral valve The aortic valve Problems:  Problems Heart valves don’t always work as they should. A person can be born with an abnormal heart valve. A valve can also become damaged by: Infections Rheumatic fever Changes in valve structure Defective Heart Valve:  Defective Heart Valve Can you fix it?:  Can you fix it? To fix a defective heart valve you have to have surgery. A number of durable and highly efficient artificial valves have been developed from animal parts, plastic, and metal. There are also newer surgical techniques to reconstruct defective heart valves. Physician scientists at Columbia are currently investigating the potential of a non-invasive procedure for mitral valve repair procedure known as Evalve. Effects of heart valve disease:  Effects of heart valve disease Valves that don’t shut properly cause the regurgitation of blood back across the valve in the wrong direction. Valves that won’t open properly is known as stenosis of the valve, which means that blood flow through the valve is limited. Aortic valve stenosis:  Aortic valve stenosis References:  References http://www.google.com/ http://www.ask.com/?o=0#subject:ask/pg:1 http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/conditions/heartvalve1.shtml Heart Murmurs:  Heart Murmurs By: Katie Cox MURMURS:  MURMURS Extra, abnormal, or unexpected sound caused by the flow of blood through the heart SYMPTOMS:  SYMPTOMS Chest pain Rapid or pounding heartbeat Shortness of breath Fatigue Dizziness Weakness Fever cough Paleness CAUSES:  CAUSES Defective Heart Valve Holes in the heart wall Surgical repair of congenital heart defects Fever Anemia PREVENTION:  PREVENTION Proper treatments of: Strep throat Rheumatic Fever Hypertension SIX ATTRIBUTES:  SIX ATTRIBUTES Intensity Pitch Configuration Quality Duration Timing INTENSITY/PITCH:  INTENSITY/PITCH Grade I: Faintest, Heard with difficulty Grade II: Faint but identified immediately Grade III: Moderately loud Grade IV: Loud, associated with palpable thrill Grade V: Very loud, can’t be heard with stethoscope Grade VI: Loudest, can be heard without stethoscope CONFIGURATION:  CONFIGURATION Crescendo: increasing Decrescendo: decreasing Crescendo-Decrescendo: diamond-shaped Plateau: unchanged QUALITY:  QUALITY Squeaky Musical Harsh Scratchy Rumbling Grunting Blowing DURATION & TIMING:  DURATION & TIMING Length of systole or diastole a murmur occupies Most important in determining cause In relation to normal cardiac cycle TYPES:  TYPES Diastolic Muscle relaxation Systolic Muscle contraction Continuous Throughout cardiac cycle REFERENCES:  REFERENCES http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_murmur http://www.childrenshospital.org/az/site497/mainpageS497PO.html http://heartlink.mcw.edu/article/880000049.html http://atoz.iqhealth.com/HealthAnswers/encyclopedia/HTMLfiles/3168.html Pacemakers:  Pacemakers The study of the heart Introduction :  Introduction Electrical impulses from the heart muscle cause your heart to beat (contract). This electrical signal begins in the sinoatrial (SA) node, atrium). The SA node is sometimes called the heart’s “natural pacemaker.” A pacemaker (or "artificial pacemaker”):  A pacemaker (or "artificial pacemaker”) so as not to be confused with the heart's natural pacemaker) is a medical device designed to regulate the beating of the heart. The purpose of an artificial pacemaker is to stimulate the heart when either the heart's native pacemaker is not fast enough or if there are blocks in the heart's electrical conduction system preventing the propagation of electrical impulses from the native pacemaker to the lower chambers of the heart, known as the ventricles. Heart Regulators:  Heart Regulators Pacemakers are small electrical generators that control your heart beat. They are often just called pacers. You may need a pacemaker if you have a chronic rhythm problem. The pacemaker is one sealed unit, with a battery, some circuitry, and a connector block inside.      The battery supplies the power. The circuitry is like a little computer inside the pacemaker - it changes energy from the battery into tiny electrical pulses that go to your heart through wires called leads. The connector block is plastic, on top of the pacemaker. That's where the leads connect to the generator unit. Devices that will not affect or damage pacemakers:  Devices that will not affect or damage pacemakers CB Radios Electric Drills Electric Blankets Electric Shavers Ham Radios Heating Pads Metal Detectors Microwave Ovens TV Transmitters TV Remote controls X-Ray Machines Airport Security Detectors Devices that will affect or damage the pacemaker:  Devices that will affect or damage the pacemaker Power Generating Equipment Welding Equipment Certain pieces of equipment used by dentists Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) machines Radiation machines for treating cancer Heavy equipment or motors that have powerful magnets Electrocardiogram:  Electrocardiogram This picture represents the ECG for a normal heart Reads the electric pulses in the heart A pacemaker is about the size of a matchbox. It is made up of two parts. :  A pacemaker is about the size of a matchbox. It is made up of two parts. A pulse generator, which includes the battery and several electronic circuits Wires called leads, which are attached to the heart wall. Depending on the type of pacemaker you need, there may be one or two leads An X-Ray of a real working pacemaker looks like this:  An X-Ray of a real working pacemaker looks like this Pacemaker Patients :  Pacemaker Patients For most people, work, hobbies, sexual activity, travel, and other aspects of their lifestyles are no different once they have a Guidant implanted device. It will help you enjoy as active and productive a lifestyle as your overall health permits. High Blood Pressure:  High Blood Pressure By Vincent Espinoza What is high blood pressure?:  What is high blood pressure? High blood pressure is when you have a blood reading of 140/80mmHg(millimeters in mercury) or higher. It is high tension in the arteries. Also called hypertension. It does not mean excessive tension or stress. It is able to cause heart disease, kidney disease, and stroke. Facts about high blood pressure:  Facts about high blood pressure One in three Americans has high blood pressure. It is often called the silent killer because there are no symptoms. Some people may not find out until they have trouble with their hearts, brains, and kidneys. If not found and treated:  If not found and treated It can cause the heart to become larger, which may lead to heart problems. Small bulges form on the blood vessels. Blood vessels in the kidney to narrow. Arteries in the body to harden. Blood vessels in the eyes the burst or bleed, which may cause vision changes or blindness. The types of high blood pressure:  The types of high blood pressure Essential hypertension Secondary hypertension Essential hypertension:  Essential hypertension Is a far more common condition and accounts for 95% of hypertension. It is multilateral in the sense that there are many causes. Secondary hypertension:  Secondary hypertension Is 5% of hypertension. Secondary to a specific abnormality in one or more of the organs. Treatment:  Treatment Keep in mind that hypertension occurs way before it does any damage. Increased public awareness is a good treatment. Some others are diastolic pressures in association with the organs. Goals :  Goals The public awareness is to warn the people of the dangers and the good chance that they might have it. This is because it is obviously easier to treat it earlier than later. Sources:  Sources www.medicinet.com www.will-net.com Slide55:  Cassie Humphrey Bio. Med. 2006 Summer Institute What Is It?:  What Is It? Chest pain or discomfort that occurs when the heart muscle doesn’t get enough blood. Symptom of coronary artery disease. The heart doesn’t receive enough oxygen due to a narrowed coronary artery. What Does It Look Like?:  What Does It Look Like? The coronary artery is narrowed reducing the flow of oxygen to the heart. It is easier for plaque to get inside a narrower artery. What Does It Feel Like?:  What Does It Feel Like? May feel like pressure or a squeezing pain in your chest. Pain could also occur in the shoulders, arms, neck, jaw, or back. Could also feel like indigestion. Types of Angina:  Types of Angina Stable Angina Unstable Angina Variant Angina Stable Angina:  Stable Angina Most common type of angina. Occurs when the heart is working harder than usual. Regular pattern. Pain goes away a few minutes after resting or taking medicine. Makes it more likely to have a heart attack in the future. Unstable Angina:  Unstable Angina Very dangerous condition that requires emergency treatment. Could be a sign that heart attack might occur soon. Does not follow a pattern. Can occur without physical exertion. Not relieved by rest or medicine. Variant Angina:  Variant Angina Very rare. Usually occurs when one is at rest between midnight and in the early morning. Pain can be severe. Relieved by medicine. Treatments:  Treatments Do It Yourself Treatments Control high blood pressure Quit smoking Control cholesterol levels Control weight Physical activity Regular exercise which must be ensured by a doctor that it will not trigger angina. Control diabetes Avoid stress Avoid getting cold Avoid excessive alcohol More Treatments:  More Treatments Medications Nitroglycerin Glycerin Trinitrate Tablets Beta Blockers Calcium and Channel Blockers Surgery Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Balloon Angioplasty Artery Stent Sources:  Sources http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/a/angina/treatments.htm http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Angina/Angina_WhatIs.html http://www.umm.edu/patiented/graphics/images/en/18054.jpg Heart Attack:  Heart Attack By: Tesia Muth Definition:  Definition Heart attack (myocardial infarction) is a medical emergency in which some of the heart’s blood supply is suddenly and severely reduced or cut off, causing the heart muscle (myocardium) to die because it is deprived of its oxygen supply. Symptoms:  Symptoms chest pain or discomfort in the center of the chest, “heaviness” or “crushing” feeling that lasts for more than a few minutes or goes away and comes back pain or discomfort in other areas of the upper body including arms, back, neck, jaw, or stomach More Symptoms:  More Symptoms difficulty breathing, shortness of breath sweating or “cold sweat” fullness, indigestion, or choking feeling (may feel like “heartburn”) nausea or vomiting light-headedness extreme weakness or anxiety rapid or irregular heart beats Causes:  Causes usually occurs when a blockage in a coronary artery reduces or cuts off the blood supply to an area of the heart a blood clot is the most common cause of a blocked coronary artery More Causes:  More Causes uncommonly, a heart attack results when a clot forms in the heart itself, breaks away, and lodges in a coronary artery Complications:  Complications A person who has a heart attack may experience any of the following complications: Myocardial Rupture, Scar Tissue, Ventricular Aneurysm, Blood Clots, and Heart Failure. Rehabilitation:  Rehabilitation Cardiac rehabilitation, an important part of recovery, begins at the hospital. Barring complications, people who have had a heart attack can usually progress to sitting in a chair, passive exercise, use of a commode chair, and reading on the first day. More Rehabilitation:  More Rehabilitation By the second or third day, people are encouraged to walk to the bathroom and engage in nonstressful activities, and they can perform more activities each day. Getting Back on Track:  Getting Back on Track Most people can return to work and the activities they enjoy within a few months of having a heart attack. For the first few days after your heart attack, you may need to rest and let your heart heal. You may do stretching exercises and get up and walk. Risk Factors for Another Heart Attack:  Risk Factors for Another Heart Attack not exercising being overweight high cholesterol level high blood sugar level if you have diabetes high blood pressure smoking too much stress in your life References:  References http://www.clevelandclinic.org/heartcenter/pub/guide/disease/cad/mi_symptoms.htm http://www.merck.com/mmhe/print/sec03/ch033/ch033c.html http://www.familydoctor.org.xml Coronary Bypass Surgery:  Coronary Bypass Surgery By Sara Lilly What is coronary artery bypass surgery? :  What is coronary artery bypass surgery? type of heart surgery reroutes, ”bypasses” blood around clogged arteries improves blood flow and oxygen flow to the heart Why is bypass needed?:  Why is bypass needed? Coronary arteries (the arteries that carry blood to the heart) can become clogged clogging is caused by plaque (fat, cholesterol, and other substances) buildup hinders blood flow through vessels lack of blood flow can cause chest pain and or a heart attack How is coronary bypass done?:  How is coronary bypass done? segment of healthy blood vessel is taken from leg to reroute blood through heart one end of the vein is sewn onto the aorta and the other is grafted below the blockage on the coronary artery patients can undergo one, two, three or more bypasses depending on the extent of the damage Slide82:  Portion of saphenous vein is used to bypass blood through the heart. After surgery…:  After surgery… Patients’ blood pressures and heart activity are monitored for three to five days Patients are given pain killers to keep them comfortable Tests are done to evaluate patient’s condition A healthy diet and exercise plan are recommended Side Effects:  Side Effects loss of appetite constipation swelling fatigue depression difficulty sleeping muscle pain or tightness Alternatives to Bypass:  Alternatives to Bypass Medications Stent a wire mesh tube used to prop open an artery Angioplasty a tiny balloon is inserted into the blocked blood vessel and inflated to widen the opening Facts :  Facts Woman have a higher mortality rate than men with coronary bypass surgery About 7 million Americans suffer from Coronary Heart Disease. Heart Disease is the number one killer of men and women in the U.S. each year 500,000 Americans die of heart attacks caused by CHD (Coronary Heart Disease). Slide87:  normal heart blockage occurs heart becomes deprived of blood saphenous vein used to bypass blockage vein graft restores normal blood flow to heart Works Cited:  Works Cited http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4484 adam.about.com/ surgery/100190.htm www.americanheart.org Google images Slide90:  Congestive heart failure (CHF), is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to the body's other organs. Slide93:  Narrowed arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle — coronary artery disease. Past heart attack, with scar tissue that interferes with the heart muscle's normal work. High blood pressure. *&* many more… Slide94:  Frequent bathroom usage. Tired and weak. Weight gain from excess fluid. Chest pain. Swollen feet, legs, and/or ankles. Loss of appetite. Swollen neck veins. Skin is cold and sweaty. Pulse is irregular. Slide95:  Most doctors can make a tentative diagnosis of CHF from the presence of edema(accumulation of fluid) and shortness of breath. Crackling sounds of fluid in the lungs can be heard with a stethoscope. A chest x-ray can show if your heart is enlarged. Slide96:  If you smoke, quit. Learn to control high blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and diabetes. Eat a sensible diet that is low in calories, saturated fat, and salt. Limit how much alcohol you drink. Weigh yourself daily to watch for fluid buildup. Slide97:  Vasodilators, such as nitroglycerin, which open up narrowed vessels. Calcium channel blockers, which keep vessels open and lower blood pressure. ACE inhibitors, which keep vessels open and lower blood pressure. Slide98:  Heart valve repair or replacement Pacemaker insertion Correction of congenital heart defects Coronary artery bypass surgery Mechanical assist devices Heart transplant Slide99:  The heart weakens and can lead to death. Slide100:  http://www.americanheart.org http://www.texasheartinstitute.org http://www.mayoclinic.com http://en.wikipedia.org Slide102:  Diabetes is when your pancreas does not produce enough insulin for your body. It is a leading factor in developing heart disease. Slide103:  ♥ Increased thirst ♥ Extreme hunger ♥ Rapid weight loss ♥ Blurred Vision ♥ Fatigue Slide104:  ♥ Genetics ♥ Not eating right ♥ Exposure to certain viruses Slide105:  Family History Race ♥ ♥ Slide106:  * Random blood sugar tests * Fasting blood glucose tests Slide107:  Low Blood Sugar *&* Increased Blood Acids Slide108:  * Cardiovascular disease * Nerve damage * Kidney damage * Eye damage * Skin conditions Slide109:  Blood Sugar Monitoring Eating Right Exercising Medications Pancreas Transplants Islet Cell Transplants Slide110:  Make a commitment to manage your diabetes Yearly Physical Have needed vaccinations Take care of your feet Don’t smoke Slide111:  Avoid alcohol Take aspirin daily Monitor your blood pressure Monitor blood fats Learn to manage stress Slide112:  http://www.mayoclinic.com http://www.uab.edu http://www.diabetes.com http://www.lifeclinic.com

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