Heart Failure

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Information about Heart Failure
Science-Technology

Published on October 15, 2008

Author: aSGuest1014

Source: authorstream.com

Heart Failure : Heart Failure EMS Professions Temple College Heart Failure : Heart Failure Inability of heart to pump blood out as rapidly as it enters Often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF) Congestive Heart Failure : Congestive Heart Failure Congestion of pulmonary or systemic circulation (backward failure) Reduced output to body tissues (forward failure) Causes : Causes Diffuse coronary artery disease Myocardial ischemia Myocardial infarction Arrhythmias Tachycardia Bradycardia Causes : Causes Valvular heart disease Acute Hypertensive Crisis Chronic Hypertension Idiopathic Causes CHF : CHF May develop acutely or may be a chronic disease Acute Onset CHF: Suspect Acute MI Dysrhythmia Hypertensive Crisis CHF : CHF Chronic CHF may worsen acutely from: Respiratory infection Pulmonary embolism Emotional stress Increased salt and water intake Congestive Heart Failure : Congestive Heart Failure Left sided Right sided Biventricular Left-Sided Heart Failure : Left-Sided Heart Failure Left ventricle fails as effective pump Left ventricle cannot eject blood delivered from right heart through pulmonary circulation Blood backs up into pulmonary circulation Left-Sided Heart Failure : Left-Sided Heart Failure Increase pressure in pulmonary capillaries forces blood serum out of capillaries into interstitial spaces and alveoli Increase respiratory work and decrease gas exchange occur Left-Sided Heart Failure : Left-Sided Heart Failure Common causes ACUTE MI especially if involves left ventricle Chronic hypertension Dysrhythmias especially tachydysrhythmias Left-Sided Heart Failure : Left-Sided Heart Failure Pulmonary Signs/Symptoms Left Heart Failure Symptoms : Left Heart Failure Symptoms Dyspnea on exertion Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea Orthopnea Fatigue, generalized weakness Left Heart Failure Signs : Left Heart Failure Signs Anxiety, confusion, restlessness Persistent cough Pink, frothy sputum Tachycardia Tachypnea Noisy, labored breathing Rales, wheezing (“cardiac asthma”) Cyanosis (late) Third heart sound (S3) Right-sided Heart Failure : Right-sided Heart Failure Right ventricle fails as effective pump Right ventricle cannot eject blood returning through vena cavae Blood backs up into systemic circulation Right Heart Failure : Right Heart Failure Increased pressure in systemic capillaries forces fluid out of capillaries into interstitial spaces Tissue edema occurs Right Heart Failure Causes : Right Heart Failure Causes Most Common Cause:Left sided Heart Failure Right Heart Failure Causes : Right Heart Failure Causes Others Chronic hypertension COPD (cor pulmonale) Pulmonary embolism Right ventricular infarction Right-Sided Heart Failure : Right-Sided Heart Failure Systemic Signs/Symptoms Right Heart Failure Signs/Symptoms : Right Heart Failure Signs/Symptoms Tachycardia Jugular vein distension Pedal, pre-tibial, sacral edema Hepatomegaly Splenomegaly Classic Triad of Right Ventricular Failure:JVD, Hypotension, Clear Lungs Right Heart Failure Signs/Symptoms : Right Heart Failure Signs/Symptoms Anasarca (generalized edema) Fluid accumulation in body cavities Ascites Pleural effusion Pericardial effusion Management of Heart Failure : Management of Heart Failure Goals of Management : Goals of Management Improve oxygenation, ventilation Decrease venous return to heart Decrease cardiac work, O2 demand Improve cardiac output by Reducing afterload Increasing myocardial contractility Management : Management Sit patient up, dangle feet Do not lay flat Oxygen by non-rebreather mask Consider positive pressure ventilation Management : Management Consider intubation if: O2 saturation cannot be kept >90% on 100% O2 PaO2 cannot be kept >60 torr on 100 % O2 Patient displays signs of worsening cerebral hypoxia PaCO2 progressively increases Patient becoming exhausted Management : Management Monitor ECG Hypoxia, increased heart wall tension leads to dysrhythmias IV NS TKO via microdrip or lock Limit Fluids If RVF only, fluid challenges to  preload CHF First Line Drug Therapy : CHF First Line Drug Therapy Nitroglycerin 0.4mg SL q 5 min prn Systolic BP should be > 90 - 100 mm Hg Nitrate therapy before IV is started Reduces preload/afterload Improves coronary artery perfusion Caution in RVF NTG, Lasix or MS may worsen hypotension Use inotropes if fluid does not improve BP following NTG administration CHF First Line Drug Therapy : CHF First Line Drug Therapy Furosemide (Lasix®) - 40 mg (0.5 - 1 mg/kg) slow IV Patients already on furosemide may have tolerance Increase dose to 2X daily oral dose Direct vasodilation leads to decreased venous return Diuresis leads to decreased intravascular volume May cause hypokalemia, dysrhythmias especially dangerous if patient on digitalis May worsen hypotension in RVF CHF First Line Drug Therapy : CHF First Line Drug Therapy Morphine Sulfate 2 mg IV push slowly q 10-15 min Peripheral vasodilation leads to Decreased preload Decreased afterload Decreased venous return leads to Decreased cardiac work Decreased O2 demand Decreased anxiety Decreased release of catecholamines Monitor Ventilations and BP Systolic BP should be > 90 - 100 mm Hg CHF Second Line Therapy : CHF Second Line Therapy Dobutamine 2 - 20 mcg/kg/min Potent 1 stimulation Increases contractility Increases level of cardiac output Drug of choice if systolic BP >100 and diastolic BP <110 CHF Second Line Therapy : CHF Second Line Therapy Nitroglycerin 10 mcg/min increased by 5-10 mcg/min q 5 min Vasodilation Decreased venous return leads to Decreased cardiac work Decreased O2 demand Decreased afterload leads to increased cardiac output CHF Third Line Drug Therapy : CHF Third Line Drug Therapy Bronchodilators (beta agonists) May be useful if wheezing is present Mild peripheral vasodilator Myocardial and respiratory stimulant May cause arrhythmias in hypoxic patients or those with coronary artery disease CHF Management : CHF Management What if the BP is too low for the first and second line drug therapies? BP < 70 mm Hg norepinephrine, 0.5 - 30 mcg/min IV infusion BP > 70 but < 100 mm Hg dopamine, 5 - 15 mcg/kg/min IV infusion After BP improves, treat pulmonary edema with first and second line therapies CHF Management : CHF Management Long Term Management usually includes Fluid minimization Diuretics (+ Potassium if non-potassium sparing) Diet restrictions Increase contractility Digitalis Blood pressure control ACE Inhibitors Coronary artery perfusion Nitroglycerin Cardiogenic Shock : Cardiogenic Shock Cardiogenic Shock : Cardiogenic Shock Diminished cardiac output leading to impaired tissue perfusion Most extreme form of pump failure Cardiogenic Shock : Cardiogenic Shock Occurs in about 15% of acute MI patients Usually occurs when 40% or more of the left ventricular muscle mass infarcts Mortality is 85% or more with treatment Signs/Symptoms : Signs/Symptoms Confusion, restlessness, anxiety, stupor, coma Cool, clammy skin Pallor Weak or absent extremity pulses Tachycardia Slow or absent capillary refill Signs/Symptoms : Signs/Symptoms BP < 90 systolic or > 30mmHg below normal BP is NOT the same as perfusion Shock can be present with a “normal” BP Evaluate signs of peripheral perfusion in addition to BP Cardiogenic Shock : Cardiogenic Shock Very difficult to assess in presence of arrhythmias, hypovolemia, decreased vascular tone Cardiogenic Shock : Cardiogenic Shock Treatment Priorities: Rate Rhythm BP (Volume, Pump/Vascular tone) Correct major disorders of rate, rhythm before directly treating BP Goals of Management : Goals of Management Improve oxygenation and peripheral perfusion Avoid increasing cardiac workload myocardial oxygen demand Management : Management Primary assessment & Focused Hx Identify source of problem Acute pulmonary edema Volume problem Pump problem Rate problem Acute Pulmonary Edema : Acute Pulmonary Edema First line interventions IV/O2/ECG Monitor If BP > 90-100 mm Hg: furosemide 0.5 – 1.0 mg/kg slow IV (or twice patient’s single daily dose up to 120 mg) Morphine 2 – 10 mg slow IV Nitroglycerin 0.4 mg SL If BP < 90 mm Hg: Vasopressors based on SBP Volume Problem : Volume Problem IV/O2/ECG Monitor Fluid challenge until rales or if evidence of anterior wall AMI Vasopressors based on SBP Pump Problem : Pump Problem IV/O2/ECG Monitor SBP <70 mmHg: norepinephrine 0.5 – 30 mcg/min IV inf SBP 70 – 100 mm Hg & shock dopamine 5 – 15 mcg/kg/min IV inf SBP > 100 mm Hg w/o shock dobutamine 2 – 20 mcg/kg/min IV inf Management : Management Keep patient supine Difficult in presence of pulm edema Do not elevate lower extremities Oxygenate via NRB Consider assisting ventilations Decrease work of breathing may benefit patient in shock Consider intubation Monitor ECG Management : Management IV TKO with microdrip set or lock Limit fluids unless suspect RVF Correct major disorders of rate, rhythm Increase rate in bradycardias Terminate tachycardias with cardioversion Suppress frequent ectopic beats Management : Management If rate/rhythm adequate, treat BP Consider fluid challenge of 250cc LR over 10-15 minutes if relative or absolute hypovolemia possible, including RVF and NO pulmonary edema Avoid use of vasopressors until volume deficits corrected or pulmonary edema presents BP Treatment Review : BP Treatment Review If rate, rhythm, volume adequate, treat BP with vasopressors: Norepinephrine, or Dopamine Norepinephrine : Norepinephrine 0.5 - 30 mcg/min Inotropic and vasoconstrictive properties Can be used if systolic BP < 70 If systolic BP > 70, use dopamine instead DO NOT use until hypovolemia corrected DO NOT allow infiltration Dopamine : Dopamine 2 - 20 mcg/kg/min Place 200 mg/250cc of D5W Begin at 5 mcg/kg/min In 2 - 10 mcg/kg/min range,  effects dominate > 20 mcg/kg/min  effects dominate Use lowest dose that produces good perfusion Use as initial vasopressor if BP 70-100 systolic If dopamine infusion rate is > 20 mcg/kg/min use norepinephrine Dopamine : Dopamine May cause tachycardia, ectopy, nausea DO NOT use until hypovolemia is corrected DO NOT allow to infiltrate

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