Health problems in racing sled dogs Part 1

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Information about Health problems in racing sled dogs Part 1

Published on May 5, 2008

Author: dominiquegrandjean


Slide 1: Dominique GRANDJEAN DVM, PhD, HDR Colonel, Chief veterinarian, Paris Fire Brigade Professor, Alfort National Veterinary School Head of Canine Breeding and Sport Medicine Unit Racing sled dogs most frequent health problems : an update (part 1) Slide 2: BIOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL SURVEY GENETIC SELECTION TRAINING PROGRAMS NUTRITION PLANS RESPECT OF HIGH MOTIVATION KEYS TO PERFORMANCE IN RACING DOGS TRANSPORTATION LIFE IN KENNEL EQUIPMENTS Genetic selection : Genetic selection Respect of high motivation Specific education Dedicated equipments Housing and handling Biological and medical survey Sled dog Performance Physical training Adapted nutrition Slide 4: What are the main pathological problems seen by veterinarians during sled-dog races ? SPRINT RACES STAGE RACES ULTRAMARATHON RACES   Slide 5: TOP FIVE PATHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS ON SPRINT RACES IN EUROPE, FROM 1991 TO 1996 (national, european and world championships) 1. Traumatology 2. Diarrhea 3. Cardiorespiratory 4. Dehydration 5. Feet 40.9 p.1cent 27.3 p.cent 13.6 p.cent 11.4 p.cent 6.8 p.cent Slide 6: REPARTITION OF PATHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS DURING THE ALPIROD SLED DOG RACE 88 TO 95 (100 p.cent = all racing dogs) 1. Diarrhea 2. Feet 3. Shoulders 4. Wrists 5. General fatigue 6. Muscles 7. Dehydration 8. Tendons 9. Stress fractures 10. Hips 11. Cardiorespiratory 12. Elbows 13. Ligaments 14. Non specific soreness 15. Cutaneous wounds 16. Frostbites 19.3 p.cent 10 p.cent 9.7 p.cent 8.0 p.cent 7.8 p.cent 6.4 p.cent 6.1 p.cent 4.6 p.cent 3.5 p.cent 2.1 p.cent 2.0 p.cent 1.1 p.cent 1.1 p.cent 0.7 p.cent 0.4 p.cent 0.1 p.cent Slide 7: REPARTITION OF PATHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS DURING YUKON QUEST (100 p.cent = all racing dogs) 1. Feet 2. Diarrhea 3. Frostbite 4. General fatigue 5. Shoulders 6. Cardiorespiratory 7. Wrists 8. Non specific soreness 9. Cutaneous wounds 10. Dehydration 19.2 p.cent 7.5 p.cent 4.9 p.cent 3.4 p.cent 3.0 p.cent 2.7 p.cent 2.3 p.cent 2.3 p.cent 1.4 p.cent 1.3 p.cent Slide 8: TOP FIVE REASONS GIVEN FOR DROPPING DOGS DURING IDITAROD 1. Fatigue 2. Shoulders 3. Wrists 4. Foot 5. Diarrhea 22.1 p.1cent 20.4 p.cent 19.7 p.cent 15.0 p.cent 9.5 p.cent Main pathological problemsStage race : La Grande Odyssée 2005-2007 : Main pathological problemsStage race : La Grande Odyssée 2005-2007 Main pathological problemsUltramarathon race : Finnmarkslopet : Main pathological problemsUltramarathon race : Finnmarkslopet « Chronic » traumatology  Shoulder bursitis ++++  Carpus tenosynovitis ++++  Rhabdomyolisis +++ Feet inflammations  +++ Stress – Diarrhea - Dehydratation  ++ Fatigue – Loss apetite  + Slide 11: Optimisation of performance Prevention/Treatment of specific problems Nutrition Traumatology Stress related affections Loss of performance Fast rehabilitation Sled dogs Genetics Behaviour Training Keys to performance Sled dogs Slide 12: STRESS A KEY WORD FOR SLED DOGS Stamina Situation Oxigen Metabolic stress Mental stress Cellular stress Specific pathological problems Slide 13:  Central release of corticotropin in Releasing Factor  Slowsdown gastric emptying  Inhibits antral motricity  Diminishes small intestine transit  Increases colonic muscular activity  Reduces absorption of electrolytes  Modifies intestinal permeability  intestinal inflammation  Decreases splanchnic blood flow  Modifies physical properties of intestinal mucus  Induces production of hydroperoxides and free radicals IMPACT OF EXERCISE INDUCED STRESS Slide 14: Stress Exercise Environnement Free radicals Sport anemia Endocrine imbalances Digestive tract ailments Stress related dysfunctions Stress induced digestive tract disorders : Loose stools Stress diarrheoa Vomiting Digestive tract stress Stress induced digestive tract disorders Slide 16:  Stool frequency, volume, consistency, color highly variable  Extracellular dehydration (electrolytes losses)  Cachexia (nutrient losses)  Anorexia  ± vomiting, ± hyperthermia  ± tenesmus  ± melana and/or hematochezia THE DIARRHEA-DEHYDRATION-STRESS SYNDROM Slide 17: Stress Diarrhea Dehydration Syndrom Anorexia W O C Stress Diarrhea Extracellular Dehydration Vicious circle Stress related dysfunctions Slide 18: EXERCISE BLOOD FLOW  MUSCLES  DIGESTIVE TRACT DIGESTIVE MUCOSA DAMAGES SLOWED MUCUS TURN OVER DECREASE IN WATER REABSORPTION EROSION OF INTESTINAL BLOOD VESSELS OSMOTIC DIARRHEA ± FRESH BLOOD SECONDARY ISCHEMIC COLITIS EXERCISE ENTERAL ISCHEMIA Slide 19:  “CAECAL SLAP SYNDROM”  “RUNNER’S TROT”  INDUCED EXTRACELLULAR DEHYDRATION - Microtraumas of the mucosa - Too much iron in the diet - Uncontrolled spasmodic contractions of colonic muscles - Soreness, tenesmus and bloody diarrhea OTHER FACTORS INVOLVED IN “STRESS“ DIARRHEA Slide 20: Number of participations 1 2 or more 1993 2.00 0.75 1994 4.74 2.48 1995 3.50 1.35 Cases of diarrhea per team INFLUENCE OF THE FIRST PARTICIPATION TO ALPIROD ON STRESS DIARRHEA Slide 21: ORIGIN Central Europe Scandinavia North America 1993 0.79 3.33 1.33 1994 2.88 4.77 3.44 1995 1.25 3.12 2.75 Cases of diarrhea per team INFLUENCE OF THE ORIGIN OF THE DOG TEAM ON THE INCIDENCE OF STRESS DIARRHEA Slide 22: ► Acute osmotic diarrhea ► Non digested blood ► Fast induced extra cellular dehydration ► Possible death in 48 hours (sled dogs) Symptoms Stress Diarrhea Dehydration Syndrom Stress related dysfunctions Slide 23: Stress Diarrhea Dehydration Syndrom Stress related dysfunctions Treatment Antibiotics Antispasmodics (loperamide) Mucosa protectors (smectite, clays) Intrarectal antihemorragics Rehydration Slide 24: Nutrition : a key point for prevention Stress Diarrhea Dehydration Syndrom Prevention through practical feeding Slide 25: NELSON’S IDITAROD PILOT STUDY  ASCARIDS  GIARDIAS  YEASTS  PARVOVIRUS  CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS A  SALMONELLA SPP NO STATISTICAL CORRELATION WITH DIARRHEA SIGNIFICANT PUBLIC HEALTH RISK ? DIARRHEA AND ENTERIC PATHOGENS Slide 26: Stress related dysfunctions Gastric ulcers Overtraining + Hostile environment + - « Doping » Gastric ulcers Bloody vomit Stomach rupture/Death REST + MEDICAL TREATMENT Slide 27:  STRESS FACTORS  DRUG ABUSE - Overtraining - Overracing - Traumas - Sepsis - Restraint 1. ORIGINS - NSAIDs GASTRIC ULCERATIONS Slide 28: - Dramatic cases are rare - Unexplained vomiting - Blood in the vomitus - Sudden death GASTRIC ULCERATIONS 2. CLINICAL APPROACH Gastric ulcers in racing sled dogs : Gastric ulcers in racing sled dogs Studies conducted during Iditarod 2000 and 2001 [Davis, Oklahoma State University] Prevalence of gastric ulceration, erosion, hemorrage or dropped dogs 35 p100 in 2000 48.5 p100 in 2001 Study on the relation between durantion of exercise and gastric diseases [Davis, Oklahoma State University] 42 dogs randomly chosen for examination after 1 to 5 consecutive days of running 100 miles/days Endurance exercise increases intestinal protein loss Substancial exercise causes gastric alterations Gastric ulcers in racing sled dogs : Gastric ulcers in racing sled dogs Study conducted on beagles [Bersenas, Ontario Veterinary College] Ranitidine [Zantac] Fanotidine [Pepcid] Pantoprazole [Protonox] Omeprazole [Mopral] Study on Racing alaskan huskies [Wialliamson, Oklahoma Sate University]] Famotidine [pepcid] is effective in reducing the severity of exercise-induced gastric diseases  22 mg/dog/peros/24 hours Slide 31: 1. ENVIRONMENT : NO STRESS ACCUMULATION 2. TRAINING PROGRAM 3. CHOICE OF FOOD 4. FEEDING PLAN 5. PRACTICAL FEEDING 6. USEFULL SUPPLEMENTS 7. IMMEDIATE TREATMENT 8. AVOID ANTIBIOTICS IF POSSIBLE 9. NO DOPING AT ANY TIME 10. KNOWLEDGE OF DOGS AS INDIVIDUALS 10 RULES TO AVOID GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES IN RACING SLED DOGS Slide 32: Pathological consequences of metabolic stress Endocine imbalances Hydric regulation Thermal regulation Thryroidic regulation Slide 33: Endocrine stress related Imbalances Stress related dysfunctions Basedow / Addison like syndroms [Overtraining]  Rest Water Diabetis [Heat][Cumulative stress aquired form of renal unresponsiveness to ADH]  Regulation of water intake after exercise  Oral Potassium gluconate [5 to 10 meq/kg/day]  Desmopressin acetate [0.2 μg IM t a d] Pitessin tannate in oil [3 to 5 Units IM]  Biological survey Slide 34: Wrong training is a source of disease Overtraining Basedow-like (symp.) Early fatigue Hyperexcitation Sleep troubles Anorexia Body weight loss Tachycardia Slight hyperthermia Delayed recovery Exercise hyperpnea Tremors Addison like (parasymp.) Early fatigue Inhibition Sleep normaly Eats normaly Body weight constant Bradycardia Temperature normal Recovery normal Respiration normal Dyscoordination Slide 35: Muscular Alopecia Syndrom Stress related dysfunctions Origine Hyper-adrenocorticism ? Hypothyroidism Prooved in greyhounds alaskan huskies Equaly observed in untrained dogs Responds to L-thyroxin Slide 36: Muscular Alopecia Syndrom Stress related dysfunctions Treatment L Thyroxin Examine genetic line Fight environmental stresses Slide 37: Overheating Stress related dysfunctions RADIATION (60%) CONVECTION (3 à 12 %) Chemical Energy 100 Mecanical Energy 25 Heat Accumulation 75 Heat transfers during stamina VAPORISATION (28 to 37%) Slide 38: « Work » anemia Stress related dysfunctions  Protein level in food  Antioxidants in food Evolution of hemoglobinemia as a function of the percentage of protein in the ration during the racing season Slide 40: Working in cold conditions No important risk when temperature > - 30°C ▪ Heat produced by muscles work ▪ Inhaled air is warmed-up ▪ At rest : cover or mantel ▪ Increased energy requirement ▪ Feet problems Slide 41: Working in cold conditions Risks appear for temperatures < - 30°C ▪ Negative thermal balance even at work ▪ Important dehydration if dry air ▪ Early fatigue  Apetite  when energy / water requirements  ▪ Frosbites (penis, vulva, lungs…)  Never on feet Slide 42: Working in cold conditions Prevention : Nutrition ▪ High fat level dry food ▪ Fatty snacks, honey balls ▪ Water intake : x 2 to x 4 ▪ Energy intake : x 2 to x 10 ▪ High level of palatability f (work, temperature) Slide 43: Working in warm conditions Heat syncope Heat stroke ▪ Real emergency ▪ Water cooling, cold perfusion, trinitrine spray ▪ Choc treatment Slide 44: Working in cold conditions Prevention : equipments Slide 45: Exercise bronchospasms Dry unproductive cough Low hygrometry / very cold air 5 to 10 minuts after strenuous stamina Back to normal in 30 minuts Treatment :- inhalation β2 agonists (clenbuterol, salbutamol…) - corticoïds Prevention : - warm-up 30 minuts then rest 15 mn  2 to 24 hours without crisis Stress related dysfunctions Exercice induced airway inflammation in racing sled dogs : Exercice induced airway inflammation in racing sled dogs Training and Racing in cold weather  « ski asthma » can persist despite 3 to 4 months of rest leads to chronic airway diseases  Prevention ? Treatment ? Conclusion : avoid very cold weather for « fragile » dogs Slide 47: Intrabronchial hemorrage « Bleeding horse » like syndrom Occurs after very intense exertion Rupture of small pulmonary vessels No treatment Prevention through furosemide Stress related dysfunctions Slide 48: Pathology of muscles and tendons Cramp Rupture Lesion No Lesion Inflammation Rupture Rhabdomyolysis consequence Tendon rupture Precise diagnosis Muscle rupture Stress related dysfunctions Pain and its origins in sporting / working dogs : Pain and its origins in sporting / working dogs The effects of pain during the run/work usually go unnoticed [will to go, endorphines…] Altered movement Multiple painfull spots Vicious circle Pain and its origins in sporting / working dogs : Pain and its origins in sporting / working dogs 1. Muscles and tendons No lesion Lesion Cramping Contracture Strechteched fibers Rupture Hematoma Rhabdomyolysis Pain and its origins in sporting / working dogs : Stress fractures 2. Bones and fractures Pain and its origins in sporting / working dogs Tendinitis, bursitis Sprains, dislocations Slide 52: Equipments as a cause of problems  Shoulder and back problems  Feet problems

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