HCR 107 Overheads

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Information about HCR 107 Overheads

Published on August 6, 2007

Author: Flemel

Source: authorstream.com

Welcome!:  Welcome! HCR 107 Stress Management and Relaxation Theresa J. Landis, M.A., Ed.S. Chapter 1What Is Stress?:  Chapter 1 What Is Stress? Page 4 What Is Stress?:  What Is Stress? Response-A physical response going on within you. Stimulus-An outside force that puts demands on you. Transaction-An exchange between a stimulus, our perception of it, and the response it causes. Holistic Phenomenon-Describes stress as part of a larger whole taking into account lifestyles and other circumstances. Chapter 9Using Relaxation Techniques to Offset the Effects of StressChapter 10Using Physical Activity to Dissipate the Effects of Stress:  Chapter 9 Using Relaxation Techniques to Offset the Effects of Stress Chapter 10 Using Physical Activity to Dissipate the Effects of Stress Pages 238-254 andamp; 265-277 Relaxation Techniques:  Relaxation Techniques Systematic Muscle Relaxation Yoga Static Stretching T’ai Chi Ch’uan Massage Deep Breathing Meditation Visual Imagery Autogenic Training Hobbies andamp; recreational activities End of Lecture 1:  End of Lecture 1 Chapter 1 Continued:  Chapter 1 Continued Pages 4-12 Blonna’s Definitions::  Blonna’s Definitions: Stress- A holistic transaction between an individual and a potential stressor resulting in a stress response. Holistic Transaction- Is an appraisal process. It takes into account the person’s perception of the situation. Blonna’s Definitions::  Blonna’s Definitions: Potential Stressor-Stimuli that may cause a stress response. Actual Stressor- Stimuli which do cause a stress response. Stress Response- A set of physiological adaptations of the body to regain homeostasis in the face of threat, harm, or loss. Homeostasis:  Homeostasis The steady state of the body’s internal processes. (normalcy or balance) BP, heart rate, hormone levels and other vital functions are maintained within a narrow range. Early Pioneersof Stress Response:  Early Pioneers of Stress Response Claude Bernard- 'Milieu Interieur,' the body’s internal environment. Walter Cannon- 'Homeostasis,' the steady state of the body’s internal processes. Hans Selye- 'General Adaptation Syndrome' General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS):  General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) Alarm Phase- (Fight-or-Flight reaction) the body mobilizes energy to meet the demands of stressors. Resistance Phase- The body attempts to maintain homeostasis. Exhaustion Phase- A body part or system breaks down as a result of the energy demands of chronic stress. Stress as Stimulus:  Stress as Stimulus Life Events- Refers to life-changing experiences that use energy and can cause stress. Can be joyous (marriage, birth of child, new job) or sad (death of loved one, loss of job). Readjustments- The body’s physiological adaptations to life events. Stress as a Transaction:  Stress as a Transaction Symbolic threats (Albert Simeons) Eustress (positive stressors) vs Distress (negative stressors) WellnessA state of Optimal Health:  Wellness A state of Optimal Health 6 Dimensions of Wellness: Physical Emotional Intellectual Spiritual Social Environmental/Occupa-tional Dimensions of Wellness…:  Dimensions of Wellness… Physical- How well the body performs its intended functions. Influenced by genetics, nutrition, fitness, body composition, and immune status. Social- Being connected to others. Able to form friendships, intimate relationships, give/receive love andamp; affection, and share in joy and sorrow. Dimensions of Wellness…:  Dimensions of Wellness… Emotional- Being in touch with feelings, having the ability to express them, and being able to control them. Emotions helps us get in touch with what is really important in our lives. Intellectual- The ability to process information effectively and rationally, to problem solve and grow. Also includes creativity, spontaneity, and openness to new ways of viewing situations. Dimensions of Wellness…:  Dimensions of Wellness… Spiritual- Feeling connected to something beyond oneself. This can be through organized religious activities, service to others, nature, art, meditation, etc. Environmental/Occupa-tional- Involves protection from environmental hazards and minimizing the negative impact of your behavior on the environment. End of Lecture 2:  End of Lecture 2 Chapter 2 The Emotional and Intellectual Basis of Stress:  Chapter 2 The Emotional and Intellectual Basis of Stress Pages 33-42 Personality TypesStress-ResistanceversusStress-Prone:  Personality Types Stress-Resistance versus Stress-Prone Type A Personality Type C Personality Type B Personality The Hardy Personality Irrational, Illogical Personality Type A PersonalityA stress-prone personality characterized as being::  Type A Personality A stress-prone personality characterized as being: Competitive Verbally aggressive Hard-driving Unable to relax Very time conscious Easily angered Hostile Type C PersonalityReferred to as “cancer prone” or helpless hopeless personality:  Type C Personality Referred to as 'cancer prone' or helpless hopeless personality Responds to repeated failure and stress by: Giving up Wants to be people pleasers Suppresses anger and negative feelings Interacts synergistically with other risk factors (smoking and exposure to second hand smoke) Type B Personality(The opposite of Type A):  Type B Personality (The opposite of Type A) Relaxed and easy going Not as competitive Do not exhibit time urgent tendencies Do not exhibit anger tendencies The Hardy PersonalityA stress-resistant personality characterized by commitment, control, and challenge.They thrive on pressure.:  The Hardy Personality A stress-resistant personality characterized by commitment, control, and challenge. They thrive on pressure. Low blood pressure Few sick days Low triglycerides Happy personalities Little psychological distress Irrational, Illogical Personality:  Irrational, Illogical Personality 'Awfulizers'- exaggerates the negative 'Musterbators'- sets illogical demands on oneself and everything must be their way 'Evaluators'- implies that some people or things are a complete waste of time 'Needy'- sets unrealistic, unattainable requirements for happiness and nothing is ever good enough NegativeSelf Talk:  Negative Self Talk Over time, continued negative self-talk undermines self-esteem and can become a self-fulfilling prophecy. End of Lecture 3Meditation Video:  End of Lecture 3 Meditation Video Chapter 4The Social and Spiritual Basisof Stress:  Chapter 4 The Social and Spiritual Basis of Stress Pages 86-101 Social Dimension:  Social Dimension Interpersonal issues- occurring between two or more people. Intrapersonal issues- occurring within an individual. Social Networks- the interconnectedness of our social relationships (both formal and informal). Social Support- the perceived resources we get from our relationships (emotional, informational, and tangible). How Social Support Moderates Stress:  How Social Support Moderates Stress Being cared for, loved andamp; opportunity for shared intimacy. Being esteemed, valued andamp; gaining a sense of self-worth. Having a sense of belonging through companionship and mutual obligations with others. Having informational support including advice and guidance. Having a safety net (access to physical and material assistance) Social Support, Stress and Illness:  Social Support, Stress and Illness The Direct Effect Theory- a social support network has a protective effect against stress. The Stress Buffering Theory- social-support networks helps buffer (off-set or disperses) the negative effects of stressors. Other Aspects of Social Dimension& Stress:  Other Aspects of Social Dimension andamp; Stress Life events and stress Daily hassles and uplifts Post –traumatic stress disorder Chronic negative social problems Poverty Unemployment Stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination Chapter 4The Social and Spiritual Basisof Stress:  Chapter 4 The Social and Spiritual Basis of Stress Pages 101-105 andamp; 109 Stress and Religion, Spirituality, and Faith:  Stress and Religion, Spirituality, and Faith Faith- The belief in something that can not be proven empirically. Religion- An organized system of worship andamp; belief that includes faith andamp; spirituality. Spirituality- A sense of interconnectedness with something or someone beyond the self. Spiritual Distressand Illness:  Spiritual Distress and Illness Those who are spiritual and/or religious have greater faith in life and tend to experience greater physical and psychological health. Spiritual Distress- the state in which an individual experiences a disturbance in the belief or value system which provides strength, hope, meaning, etc. in life. Chapter 5The Physical Basisof Stress:  Chapter 5 The Physical Basis of Stress Pages 132-140 The Nervous System:  The Nervous System Central Nervous System- brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System- all other nerves, connects spinal cord to organs, glands andamp;b tissues. -Somatic nervous system: under voluntary control (conscious) -Autonomic nervous system: under involuntary control (unconscious). Sympathetic nervous system- activates the organs, etc. when a threat is perceived. Parasympathetic nervous system- turns off the autonomic system when the threat is over. The Endocrine System:  The Endocrine System Hypothalamus (Thermostat)- regulates bodily functions by responding to feedback from the nervous and endocrine systems. Pituitary (Master Gland) Adrenal Glands -Medulla (inner part)- Adrenaline andamp; Noradrenalin -Cortex (outer shell)- Cortisol Alarm PhaseFight-or-Flight Response:  Alarm Phase Fight-or-Flight Response Endocrine system releases hormones (cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine) Hearing andamp; vision becomes acute. Heart rate accelerates to pump more oxygen. Liver releases extra sugar to provide energy boost to muscles. Endorphins are released to relieve pain in case of injury. Increased sweating to cool skin. Increased metabolic rate. Decreased digestive activity. Resistance Phase:  Resistance Phase Chronically fatigued More susceptible to illness Less efficient and happy Exhaustion Phase:  Exhaustion Phase The loss of potassium ions The loss of adrenal glucocorticoids The weakening of vital organs End of Lecture 4Finish Meditation Video:  End of Lecture 4 Finish Meditation Video Chapter 6The Effectsof Stress on the Body and Mind:  Chapter 6 The Effects of Stress on the Body and Mind Pages 147-148, 153-166 Psychosomatic Disease- “The interaction of the mind and body in the disease process.”:  Psychosomatic Disease- 'The interaction of the mind and body in the disease process.' Psychogenic Disease- refers to psychosomatic illnesses that are without a causative organism or germ. Somatogenic Disease- refers to psychosomatic illness that involves a causative germ. Heart Disease:  Heart Disease Hypertension Atherosclerosis Elevated serum cholesterol Other Disease/Conditions related to Chronic, Low-Level Stress:  Other Disease/Conditions related to Chronic, Low-Level Stress Sexual disorders Chronic muscle tension Headache Backache TMJ Syndrome Muscle pain Digestive problems Diarrhea Constipation Spasms of the esophagus andamp; colon Ulcers Other Disease/Conditions related to Chronic, Low-Level Stress continued…:  Other Disease/Conditions related to Chronic, Low-Level Stress continued… Anxiety Disorders Phobias Depression Bipolar Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) Suicide Stress and theImmune System:  Stress and the Immune System Lymphocytes (white blood cells) protect us from disease Primary responsibilities: Recognize foreign substances (germs, allergens, irritants) called antigens Attack these invaders (with antibodies) Protect you from reinfection Look for and destroy mutant cells (that can lead to cancer) Resist recurrences of chronic infections Burnout:  Burnout A condition in which people lose concern and feelings for others Risk factors: Extreme dedication to work Putting in long hours Taking work home on a regular basis Taking personal responsibility for all uncompleted work Feeling anxiety and guilt about work undone. End of Lecture 5Mid-Term Exam:  End of Lecture 5 Mid-Term Exam Chapter 7Rethink: Changing the Way You View Things:  Chapter 7 Rethink: Changing the Way You View Things Pages 174-184, 192-194 Changing the way You View Things:  Changing the way You View Things Know what you 'value' Set realistic goals Decide what you want to work on, improve or explore Prioritize goals Break large goals down into smaller segments Set goals you can reach Make goals measurable Set a reasonable time frame Reward yourself for success Anger Management:  Anger Management Step 1. Acknowledge you’re angry andamp; the response Step 2. Accept your anger Step 3. Target the source Step 4. Do not give in to uncontrolled venting Step 5. Dissipate anger healthfully Shift your attention Attack the problem not the person Identify and replace illogical beliefs andamp; negative self-talk Deal with anger promptly Get physical Step 6. Become proactive in your anger management Putting Things in Their Proper Perspective:  Putting Things in Their Proper Perspective The only constant in life is change Focus on the bright side Have a sense of joy in being alive Put more humor andamp; laughter into your life Rethink the pace of your life Chapter 8Reduce: Finding Your Optimal Level of Stimulation:  Chapter 8 Reduce: Finding Your Optimal Level of Stimulation Pages 213-219 ManagingYour Time:  Managing Your Time Goal setting Assessing your time use Self-Care School time Work time Commuting time Before and after time Play time Sleep time Time Management: A Matter of Priority:  Time Management: A Matter of Priority The ACT Technique: A – activities that absolutely must be done today or suffer immediate, severe consequences. C – activities that could get done when A-list tasks are finished. T – activities you could try to do if all As and Cs get finished. Finding Time By Becoming More Efficient:  Finding Time By Becoming More Efficient Get organized at school/work Start with your desk Start a file system Develop a master list Protect your time Get organized at home Don’t procrastinate Major reasons: Fear of failure Laziness or apathy Need for instant gratification Break the procrastination habits: Don’t overbook Give yourself more time Insure privacy andamp; limit interruptions Complete more difficult tasks first Reward yourself Additional Strategies(as discussed in class):  Additional Strategies (as discussed in class) Physical Fitness Physical Activity Surgeon’s General's Report on Physical Activity and Health Nutrition Food Pyramid Reduce sugar Avoid caffeine and alcohol Sleep Deprivation:  Sleep Deprivation If your brain needs an alarm clock to wake up, it still needs more sleep Rapid Eye Movement (REM)- where dreaming occurs Non-rapid Eye Movement- deep sleep Getting Help:  Getting Help Apply techniques from this class Self-help books Peer counseling Support group Psychotherapy End of Lecture 6:  End of Lecture 6

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