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Published on September 28, 2007

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Slide1:  CLOSING THE ACHIEVEMENT GAP University of the State of New York Albany, NY November, 2005 Every year, thousands of children head toward school already behind.:  Every year, thousands of children head toward school already behind. 2005 NAEP Grade 4 Reading All Students, Nation:  2005 NAEP Grade 4 Reading All Students, Nation Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/ 2005 NAEP Grade 4 Reading by Race/Ethnicity, Nation:  2005 NAEP Grade 4 Reading by Race/Ethnicity, Nation Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/ 2005 NAEP Grade 4 Reading by Family Income, Nation:  2005 NAEP Grade 4 Reading by Family Income, Nation Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/ Sadly, rather than organizing our educational system to ameliorate this problem, we organize it to exacerbate the problem.:  Sadly, rather than organizing our educational system to ameliorate this problem, we organize it to exacerbate the problem. How?:  How? By giving students who arrive with less, less in school, too. Some of these “lesses” are a result of choices that policymakers make.:  Some of these “lesses” are a result of choices that policymakers make. New York: Universal Pre-K?:  New York: Universal Pre-K? New York State: Huge Inequities in State and Local Revenue Per Student:  New York State: Huge Inequities in State and Local Revenue Per Student Source: Kevin Carey, The Funding Gap, 2004. Data are for 2002. Gaps of This Sort Translate into...:  Gaps of This Sort Translate into... Even at the higher education level, we spend less per student in the institutions where most low-income students start.:  Even at the higher education level, we spend less per student in the institutions where most low-income students start. Source: NCES, Digest of Education Statistics, 2003. But some of these “lesses” are a function of choices that we educators make.:  But some of these “lesses” are a function of choices that we educators make. Students in Poor Schools Receive ‘A’s for Work That Would Earn ‘C’s in Affluent Schools:  Source: Prospects (ABT Associates, 1993), in Prospects: Final Report on Student Outcomes, PES, DOE, 1997. Students in Poor Schools Receive ‘A’s for Work That Would Earn ‘C’s in Affluent Schools Fewer Latino students are enrolled in Algebra 2:  Source: Council of Chief State School Officers, State Indicators of Science and Mathematics Education 2001. Fewer Latino students are enrolled in Algebra 2 Math and Science Classes of Mostly Minority Students Are More Often Taught by Misassigned Teachers:  Math and Science Classes of Mostly Minority Students Are More Often Taught by Misassigned Teachers Source: Jeannie Oakes, Multiplying Inequalities: The Effects of Race, Social Class, and Tracking on Opportunities to Learn Mathematics and Science (Rand, 1990). Poor and Minority Students Get More Inexperienced* Teachers:  Poor and Minority Students Get More Inexperienced* Teachers *Teachers with 3 or fewer years of experience. “High” and “low” refer to top and bottom quartiles. Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Monitoring Quality: An Indicators Report, December 2000. New York State: Low-Income Students 4 Times as Likely to be Taught by Teachers Not Certified in Any of their Current Assignments:  New York State: Low-Income Students 4 Times as Likely to be Taught by Teachers Not Certified in Any of their Current Assignments Source: Lankford, Loeb and Wyckoff. “Teacher Sorting and the Plight of Urban Schools: A Descriptive Analysis,” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 24 (1) (2002). New York State: Minority Students 3 Times as Likely to be Taught by Teachers Who Failed Licensure Exams at Least Once:  New York State: Minority Students 3 Times as Likely to be Taught by Teachers Who Failed Licensure Exams at Least Once Source: Lankford, Loeb and Wyckoff. “Teacher Sorting and the Plight of Urban Schools: A Descriptive Analysis,” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 24 (1) (2002). Results are devastating.:  Results are devastating. Kids who come in a little behind, leave a lot behind. By end of high school? :  By end of high school? African American and Latino 17-Year-Olds Do Math at Same Levels As White 13-Year-Olds:  African American and Latino 17-Year-Olds Do Math at Same Levels As White 13-Year-Olds African American and Latino 17-Year-Olds Read at Same Levels As White 13-Year-Olds:  African American and Latino 17-Year-Olds Read at Same Levels As White 13-Year-Olds These patterns are reflected, too, in high school completion, college entry and college graduation rates.:  These patterns are reflected, too, in high school completion, college entry and college graduation rates. Students Graduate From High School At Different Rates, 2001* * 4-Year Graduation Rates:  Students Graduate From High School At Different Rates, 2001* * 4-Year Graduation Rates Source: Jay P. Greene and Greg Forster, Public High School Graduation and College Readiness Rates in the United States, Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, September 2003. Of Every 100 White Kindergartners::  Of Every 100 White Kindergartners: (25-to 29-Year-Olds) Source: US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. March Current Population Surveys, 1971-2001, in The Condition of Education 2002. Of Every 100 African American Kindergartners::  Of Every 100 African American Kindergartners: (25-to 29-Year-Olds) Source: US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. March Current Population Survey, 1971-2001, In The Condition of Education 2002. Of Every 100 Latino Kindergartners::  Of Every 100 Latino Kindergartners: (25-to 29-Year-Olds) Source: US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. March Current Population Surveys, 1971-2001, in The Condition of Education 2002. Of Every 100 American Indian/Alaskan Native Kindergartners::  Of Every 100 American Indian/Alaskan Native Kindergartners: (24-Year-Olds) College Graduates by Age 26:  College Graduates by Age 26 Source: Tom Mortenson, Post Secondary Opportunity, 2004. These patterns are part —but by no means all— of the reason why we are falling behind other developed countries.:  These patterns are part —but by no means all— of the reason why we are falling behind other developed countries. TIMSS:  TIMSS Slide33:  Source: National Center for Education Statistics, 1999-081R, Highlights from TIMSS. (TIMSS is Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study.) Slide34:  Source: National Center for Education Statistics, 1999-081R, Highlights from TIMSS. (TIMSS is Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study.) PISA:  PISA US 15-Year-Olds Rank Near Middle of the Pack among 32 Participating Countries: 1999:  US 15-Year-Olds Rank Near Middle of the Pack among 32 Participating Countries: 1999 2003: U.S. Ranked 24th out of 29 OECD Countries in Mathematics:  2003: U.S. Ranked 24th out of 29 OECD Countries in Mathematics Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data available at http://www.oecd.org/. PISA is the Program for International Student Assessment. Problems are not limited to our high-poverty and high-minority schools . . . :  Problems are not limited to our high-poverty and high-minority schools . . . U.S. Ranks Low in the Percent of Students in the Highest Achievement Level (Level 6) in Math:  U.S. Ranks Low in the Percent of Students in the Highest Achievement Level (Level 6) in Math Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data available at http://www.oecd.org/. PISA is the Program for International Student Assessment. U.S. Ranks 23rd out of 29 OECD Countries in the Math Achievement of the Highest-Performing Students*:  U.S. Ranks 23rd out of 29 OECD Countries in the Math Achievement of the Highest-Performing Students* * Students at the 95th Percentile Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data available at http://www.oecd.org/. PISA is the Program for International Student Assessment. U.S. Ranks 23rd out of 29 OECD Countries in the Math Achievement of High-SES Students:  U.S. Ranks 23rd out of 29 OECD Countries in the Math Achievement of High-SES Students Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data available at http://www.oecd.org/. PISA is the Program for International Student Assessment. Problems not limited to math, either.:  Problems not limited to math, either. 2003 PISA Problem-Solving Results: US #23:  2003 PISA Problem-Solving Results: US #23 Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, PISA. Problem Solving for Today’s World, 2004. PISA is the Program for International Student Assessment. 55% of our 15-year-olds at problem-solving level 1 or below.:  55% of our 15-year-olds at problem-solving level 1 or below. Closest other country? LATVIA There is one measure on which we rank high. Inequality!:  There is one measure on which we rank high. Inequality! Performance Of U.S. 15-Year-Olds Highly Variable:  Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Knowledge and Skills for Life: First Results From PISA 2000, 2001. *Of 27 OECD countries Performance Of U.S. 15-Year-Olds Highly Variable But don’t we “make it up by having the best higher education system in the world” and “sending far more of our young people to college” than anybody else?:  But don’t we “make it up by having the best higher education system in the world” and “sending far more of our young people to college” than anybody else? Education Attainment: Then and Now:  Education Attainment: Then and Now 1970s 2003 Tertiary Completion* #1 #7 Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Education at a Glance (September 2005). College Completion Over Time:  College Completion Over Time College Graduates Last Year:  College Graduates Last Year China 2.5 million India 2.3 million US 1.3 million Can we do better?:  Can we do better? What We Hear Many Educators Say::  What We Hear Many Educators Say: They’re poor; Their parents don’t care; They come to schools without breakfast; Not enough books Not enough parents . . . The Postsecondary Equivalent?:  The Postsecondary Equivalent? They enter without the necessary skills; They have to work to support their families; Their peers and families don’t support and value their struggle… But if they are right, why are low-income students and students of color performing so high in some schools?:  But if they are right, why are low-income students and students of color performing so high in some schools? Central Elementary:  Central Elementary Paintsville, KY Central Elementary:  Central Elementary 71% Low-Income 99% White Outperformed the district and state in 4th- grade reading and 5th-grade math in 2003 Made considerable gains in 4th-grade reading and 5th-grade math scores Making Gains at Central 4th-Grade Reading:  Making Gains at Central 4th-Grade Reading Source: The Department of Education, http://www.schoolresults.org/ Making Gains at Central 5th-Grade Math:  Making Gains at Central 5th-Grade Math Source: The Department of Education, http://www.schoolresults.org/ Centennial Place Elementary School Atlanta, Georgia:  Centennial Place Elementary School Atlanta, Georgia 92% African American 64% Low income Performed in the top 2% of Georgia schools in 4th-grade reading in 2003 Performed in top 7% of Georgia schools in 4th-grade math in 2003 Source: Georgia Department of Education, http://www.doe.k12.ga.us Dispelling the Myth Online, http://www.edtrust.org School Information Partnership, http://www.schoolresults.org High Achievement at Centennial Place 2004 Reading Composite:  High Achievement at Centennial Place 2004 Reading Composite Source: Georgia Department of Education, http://www.doe.k12.ga.us High Achievement at Centennial Place 2004 Math Composite:  High Achievement at Centennial Place 2004 Math Composite Source: Georgia Department of Education, http://www.doe.k12.ga.us University Park High School Worcester, MA:  University Park High School Worcester, MA Grades 7-12; 70+% poverty; 50% ELL; Most students enter at least two grade levels behind. University Park Results: 2004:  University Park Results: 2004 Only one 10th grader didn’t pass MA high school exit exam on first attempt (turned out, didn’t attend the school). 87% passed at advanced or proficient level. Fifth most successful school in the state, surpassing many schools serving wealthy students. Slide64:  Source: Education Trust analysis of data from National School-Level State Assessment Score Database (www.schooldata.org). Slide65:  Source: Education Trust analysis of data from National School-Level State Assessment Score Database (www.schooldata.org). Slide66:  Source: Education Trust analysis of data from National School-Level State Assessment Score Database (www.schooldata.org). Slide67:  Source: Education Trust analysis of data from National School-Level State Assessment Score Database (www.schooldata.org). Data are from 2002. Poverty vs. Achievement in New York: 4th-Grade Math:  Poverty vs. Achievement in New York: 4th-Grade Math Guess What? Also very big differences in college results...even among those who serve “same” kinds of students.:  Guess What? Also very big differences in college results...even among those who serve “same” kinds of students. Doc/Research Institutions with Similar Students Getting Different Results:  Doc/Research Institutions with Similar Students Getting Different Results Masters Level Institutions with Similar Students Getting Different Results:  Masters Level Institutions with Similar Students Getting Different Results Bac General/Masters Institutions with Similar Students Getting Different Results:  Bac General/Masters Institutions with Similar Students Getting Different Results Bottom Line: At Every Level of Education, What We Do Matters a Lot! :  Bottom Line: At Every Level of Education, What We Do Matters a Lot! Doing More:  Doing More New York In recent years, New York has made important strides in raising achievement, especially among low-income students and students of color.:  In recent years, New York has made important strides in raising achievement, especially among low-income students and students of color. Between 1998 and 2005, for example, state was 3rd in reading growth among African American 4th graders and 2nd in growth among Latino 4th graders. But serious challenges remain.:  But serious challenges remain. 2005 NAEP Grade 4 Reading All Students, New York:  2005 NAEP Grade 4 Reading All Students, New York Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/ 2005 NAEP Grade 4 Reading by Race/Ethnicity, New York:  2005 NAEP Grade 4 Reading by Race/Ethnicity, New York Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/ 2005 NAEP Grade 8 Math All Students, New York:  2005 NAEP Grade 8 Math All Students, New York Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/ 2005 NAEP Grade 8 Math by Race/Ethnicity, New York:  2005 NAEP Grade 8 Math by Race/Ethnicity, New York Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/ NY: 9th Graders Graduating 4 Years Later (2004):  NY: 9th Graders Graduating 4 Years Later (2004) Includes both Regents and Local Diplomas; source, NYSED New York vs. Top 5 States:  New York vs. Top 5 States Frosh vs. Degrees, NY Statewide (2002):  Frosh vs. Degrees, NY Statewide (2002) 6-Year Graduation Rate at Largest State University: SUNY Buffalo:  6-Year Graduation Rate at Largest State University: SUNY Buffalo Changing these patterns is not about one more program. This is about whole systems. :  Changing these patterns is not about one more program. This is about whole systems. But remember, that’s us.:  But remember, that’s us. We are the ones who decide::  We are the ones who decide: Whether to move resources toward pre-k; What to expect of whom and which assignments to give; Which courses to require students to take; Whether to use our institutional aid dollars to increase opportunity for low-income student...or to buy more students who can increase our ratings points... Perhaps most important of all, WE are the ones who decide who teaches whom.:  Perhaps most important of all, WE are the ones who decide who teaches whom. And whether we are courageous enough to take on this perverse status hierarchy in our profession where status flows not from how good a teacher you are…but from how elite the kids are that you teach. Why Does All This Matter? What’s at Stake?:  Why Does All This Matter? What’s at Stake? Just one example. Nationally, there are 772 colleges where at least 5% of the undergraduates are black.:  Nationally, there are 772 colleges where at least 5% of the undergraduates are black. In 299 of those, the six-year graduation rates for black students are less than 30%; In 164, the six-year graduation rates for black students are less than 20%; In 68, the six-year graduation rates for black students are less than 10%. In colleges where more than 5% of students are Latino...:  In colleges where more than 5% of students are Latino... 25% have 6-year graduation rates for Latinos less than 30%. Surely we can do better.:  Surely we can do better. There are now about 890,000 African Americans between 25 and 34 who hold BA Degrees:  There are now about 890,000 African Americans between 25 and 34 who hold BA Degrees If we could simply cut the black-white graduation rate gap in half, the number of black college grads would grow by 10,000 per year. Over a decade, that would produce 100,000 more African Americans with access to opportunities currently denied.:  Over a decade, that would produce 100,000 more African Americans with access to opportunities currently denied. If we went further, and closed the gap, we could produce 200,000 more African Americans with such access.:  If we went further, and closed the gap, we could produce 200,000 more African Americans with such access. Similar improvement for Latino students would mean thousands more Latino graduates IN NEW YORK ALONE!:  Similar improvement for Latino students would mean thousands more Latino graduates IN NEW YORK ALONE! The Education Trust:  The Education Trust Download this Presentation www.edtrust.org Washington, DC: 202-293-1217 Oakland, CA: 510-465-6444

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