Hawaiian Mythology

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Information about Hawaiian Mythology

Published on March 8, 2008

Author: Stella

Source: authorstream.com

Hawaiian Mythology:  Hawaiian Mythology Slide3:  Key Events in the History of Hawai`I Since Contact with Western Culture 1778 Captain Cook lands at Waimea, Kaua`i Gonorrhea, syphilis, tuberculosis, guns, alcohol and tobacco are introduced April, 1810 Kamehameha unites/conquers (except Kauai) the Hawaiian Archipelago under his rule (with the aid of Western weapons) May 8, 1819 Kamehameha dies Liholiho, Kamehameha II, becomes Mo`i (King) June 1819 Kapu system abolished March 31, 1820 First American Calvanist Missionaries arrive July 1824 Liholiho dies of measles in London June 6, 1825 Kauikeaouli, Kamehameha III, become Mo`i Ka`ahumanu becomes Kuhina Nui (Regent) 1826 America recognizes Hawai`i's independence October 8, 1840 First Constitution enacted by Kauikeauoli, Kamehameha III 1843 British Navy seizes Hawai`i for Great Britain, then restores the Kingdom five months later November 28, 1843 Great Britain and France recognize Hawai`i's independence March 8, 1848 Mahele, land division - first private ownership of land June 1850 First foreign ownership of land December 15, 1854 Kauikeaouli dies and is succeeded by Alexander Liholiho, Kamehameha IV November 30, 1863 Liholiho dies and Lot Kapuaiwa, Kamehameha V, becomes Mo`i August 20, 1864 New Constitution decreed by Lot December 11, 1872 Lot dies 1873 - 74 William Lunalilo elected as King Slide4:  February, 1874 King Lunalilo dies David Kalakaua elected King December, 1882 `Iolani Palace completed July 7, 1887 "Bayonet Constitution" forced on King Kalakaua by all-white “Hawaiian League,” stripping the power of the sovereign and Kanaka Maoli of their land rights July, 1889 Robert Wilcox rebellion fails to overturn Bayonet Constitution January, 1891 King Kalakaua dies in San Francisco Lydia Kamaka`eha becomes Queen Lili`uokalani January 17, 1893 Queen Lili`uokalani deposed by conspiracy of American businessmen with support of United States Marines and diplomatic representative "Provisional Government" established December 18, 1893 President Cleveland sends a message to Congress calling for the restoration of Queen Lili`uokalani as sovereign July 4, 1894 Republic of Hawai`i declared January, 1895 Unsuccessful attempt by Royalists to restore the Queen, Lili`uokalani and 200 others arrested and tried, Queen abdicates throne under duress July 7, 1898 President McKinley signs illegal resolution to annex Hawai`i 1900 Hawai`i becomes territory of the United States through the Organic Act imposed on Hawai`i 1921 Congress passes Hawaiian Homes Commission Act to provide land for Kanaka Maoli settlement, in response to severely declining population and conditions of life (fails miserably by design) 1945 Hawai`i placed under Article 73 of the United Nations Charter as a Non-Self-Governing Territory, under the administering authority of the United States August 21, 1959 United States claims Hawai`i as a state of the union after illegal "plebiscite" vote is held, which does not offer the option of independence, as required by international law 1978 Office of Hawaiian Affairs created in state Constitutional Convention November 23, 1993 United States apologizes for the illegal overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawai`i, recognizes the inherent sovereignty and right of self-determination of the Kanaka Maoli people According to the Big Bang theory, the universe originated in an infinitely dense singularity. Space has expanded with the passage of time, objects being moved farther away from each other. This illustration shows abstracted "slices" of space at different points in time. It is simplified as it shows only two of three spatial dimensions, to allow for the time axis to be displayed conveniently. :  According to the Big Bang theory, the universe originated in an infinitely dense singularity. Space has expanded with the passage of time, objects being moved farther away from each other. This illustration shows abstracted "slices" of space at different points in time. It is simplified as it shows only two of three spatial dimensions, to allow for the time axis to be displayed conveniently. Kumulipo:  Kumulipo O ke au i kahuli wela ka honua At the time when the earth became hot O ke au i kahuli lole ka lani At the time when the heavens turned about O ke au i kuka'iaka ka la At the time when the sun was darkened E ho'omalamalama i ka malama To cause the moon to shine O ke au o Makali'i ka po The time of the rise of the Pleiades O ka walewale ho'okumu honua ia The slime, this was the source of the earth O ke kumu o ka lipo, i lipo ai The source of the darkness that made darkness O ke kumu o ka Po, i po ai The source of the night that made night O ka lipolipo, o ka lipolipo The intense darkness, the deep darkness O ka lipo o ka la, o ka lipo o ka po Darkness of the sun, darkness of the night Po wale ho--'I Nothing but night Hanau ka po The night gave birth Hanau Kumulipo i ka po, he kane Born was Kumulipo in the night, a male Hanau Po'ele i ka po, he wahine Born was Po'ele in the night, a female Hanau ka 'Uku-ko'ako'a, hanau kana, he 'Ako'ako'a, puka Born was the coral polyp, born was the coral, came forth Hanau ke Ko'e-enuhe 'eli ho'opu'u honua Born was the grub that digs and heaps up the earth, came forth Hanau kana, he Ko'e, puka Born was his [child] an earthworm, came forth Hanau ka Pe'a, ka Pe'ape'a kana keiki puka Born was the starfish, his child the small starfish came forth…. Slide7:  A Little Hawaiian Vocabulary Ka’ao – Fictional story or a story with fantastic aspect to it. Mo’olelo – Sacred true stories about gods; told only by day and listeners must not move in front of speaker. Mana – Supernatural or divine power, miraculous power, authority; outstanding character. Ohana – Family, relative, kin group, extended family, clan. Kama’aina – Native-born, one born in a place, host; native plant; acquainted, familiar. Kumulipo – Origin, genesis, source of life, mystery; name of the Hawaiian creation chant. Kanaloa – A major god. Akua – God, goddess, spirit, ghost, devil, image, idol, corpse; divine, supernatural, godly. Akua might mate with humans and give birth to normal humans. Kahuna – Priest, sorcerer, magician, wizard, minister, expert in any profession (whether male or female); in the 1845 laws doctors, surgeons, and dentists were called kahuna. Pō – Night, darkness, obscurity; the realm of the gods; pertaining to or of the gods, chaos, or hell; dark, obscure, benighted; formerly the period of 24 hours beginning with nightfall (the Hawaiian “day” began at nightfall) Heiau – Pre-Christian place of worship, shrine; some heiau were elaborately constructed stone platforms, others simple earth terraces. Many are preserved today ‘Aumākua – Family or personal gods, deified ancestors who might assume the shape of sharks (all islands except Kaua’i), owls (as at Mānoa, O'ahu and Ka’ū and Puna, Hawai’i), hawks (Hawai’i), ‘elepaio, ‘iwi, mudhens, octopuses, eels, mice, rats, dogs, caterpillars, rocks, cowries, clouds, or plants. A symbiotic relationship existed; mortals did not harm or eat ‘aumākua (they fed sharks), and ‘aumākua warned and reprimanded mortals in dreams, visions, and calls. wahi pana –Legendary or sacred place. Pau – Finished, ended, through, terminated, completed, over, all done; final, finishing; entirely, completely, very much; after; all, to have all; to be completely possessed, consumed, destroyed. Slide8:  The Kapu System separated Hawaiian society into four groups of people:   1.   The Ali’i, chiefs who ruled specific territories and who held their positions on the basis of family ties and leadership abilities - the chiefs were thought to be descendants of the gods and the highest chiefs, Ali’i Kapu, were considered gods 2.   The Kahuna, priests or skilled craftspersons that performed important religious ceremonies and served the Ali’i as close advisers 3.   The Maka’ainana, commoners (by far the largest group) who raised, stored, and prepared food, built houses and canoes, and performed other daily tasks 4.   The Kauwa, outcasts forced to lead lives segregated from the rest of Hawaiian society.   The Kapu (laws) regulating conservation of natural resources were usually farsighted and just. However, prohibitions upon the commoners were sometimes severe. There were different Kapu for different infractions. The most serious were laws of the gods, Kapu Akua, and laws of the chief, Kapu Ali’i. The chief had power over life and death. All he had to do was utter the word and a person would be killed. The chief could also utter a word to spare a life. As formidable as some Kapu were there was also a Kapu Akua (a law of the gods) providing for pardon, clemency, absolution, and mercy. This was known as Puuhonua or "refuge" from capital punishment. Slide9:  Some Principal Gods of Hawaii Akua or Kupua – The actual gods who created everything, and keeps everything working. Ha'iaka – Sister of the goddess Pele. Haumea – She was daughter to Papa (a fertility goddess) and mother to Pele (female-volcanoes) and Hi'aika (dance-specifically the hula). Kanaloa – Kanaloa is coupled with the God Kane. Kanaloa is the old Polynesian sea god of death, darkness, water, and squid. Under the influence of sorcery, Kane has the character to heal: Kanaloa, god of the squid, Kane – Hawaiian god of the forests and trees. Kane was the leading god of the great gods named by the Hawaiians. He represented the god of procreation and was worshipped as ancestor of chiefs and commoners. Kane is the creator and gives life associated with dawn, sun and sky. Hina – The first woman; she is represented with two heads, i.e. night and day. She is the guardian of the underworld, as well as a patroness of arts and crafts. Kapua – The divine tricksters or mischief-makers of Hawaii. Ki'i – Hawaiian creator god or first created man. Kupua – Generic term for the demigods of Hawaii, as opposed to the Akua,the gods proper. Ku – Ku (male or husband), and Hina (female or wife) were the rulers of the ancient people and are the earliest gods. They are great ancestral gods of earth and heaven who have general control over the bounty of earth and generations of mankind. Ku freed one from their faults and errors. He is associated with sacrifice and prisoners. Ku represents the East, or the sun rising, which indicates morning. Ku equals "rising upright." Hina represents the West, or the sun setting, which indicates evening. Hina means "leaning down." Laka – Hawaiian goddess of song and dance. Lono – Clouds and the phenomena of storms are associated with Lono. Lono brings on the rains and dispenses fertility. Lono is the god of harvest. Lono-makua (Father Lono) is the name given to portray the god during the Pre-Contact time. Pele – Hawaiian goddess of volcanic fire, personification of the female power of destruction. Hawaiian Artifacts:  Hawaiian Artifacts Feather Helmet Feather cape Shark tooth club European Drawings of “Sandwich Islanders”:  European Drawings of “Sandwich Islanders” Pictures of Hawaiians:  Pictures of Hawaiians Queen Lili’uokalani King Kalakaua ‘Aumākua Offspring of mortals who had mated with the akua (primary gods) also ancestors whose bones had been specially stripped of flesh upon death, wrapped in kapa and ceremonially prepared before the bones were placed in the custody of another descendant:  ‘Aumākua Offspring of mortals who had mated with the akua (primary gods) also ancestors whose bones had been specially stripped of flesh upon death, wrapped in kapa and ceremonially prepared before the bones were placed in the custody of another descendant More ‘Aumākua Figures:  More ‘Aumākua Figures Temple figures Ku-kaili-moku? (God of War):  Temple figures Ku-kaili-moku? (God of War) He’i’au (Sacred Places):  He’i’au (Sacred Places) Pele:  Pele Volcanoes:  Volcanoes Maui:  Maui

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