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Published on October 12, 2007

Author: Malden

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (WIIW) by Peter Havlik Russia, European Union and EU Enlargement Slide2:  EU, CEECs and Russia: economic asymmetries Impacts of EU enlargement on Russia Towards a Common European Economic Space ? Russia, European Union and EU Enlargement Slide3:  Russia: EUR 366 bn 143 mn people EU(15): EUR 8800 bn 377 mn people EU, CEECs and Russia: GDP and Population, 2002 CEEC(10): EUR 460 bn 104 mn people EU-Russia Asymmetry: Real GDP:  EU-Russia Asymmetry: Real GDP Russian real GDP is only 5% higher than CEECs‘ Russian real GDP is only 12% of EU(15) Russian real GDP is only 10.5% of enlarged EU(25) Real GDP (EUR at PPP) year 2002 EU-Russia Asymmetry: Income Gaps:  EU-Russia Asymmetry: Income Gaps Russian real per capita GDP is 31% of EU(15) average With EUR 8140, Russian per capita real GDP is 13% lower than in CEEC(10) Income catching-up: so far minor (CEECs) or nonexistent (Russia) Real GDP per capita EU(15)=100 Russian trade with EU and CEECs, USD bn:  Russian trade with EU and CEECs, USD bn 35% of Russian exports go to EU(15) 14% of Russian exports go to CEEC(10) 40% of Russian imports come from EU(15), and 7% from CEEC(10) Surplus with EU(15) was USD 19.3 bn, with CEECs USD 11.6 bn, altogether 61% of the total surplus Russian foreign trade (USD bn) EU-Russia Asymmetry: Trade Volumes:  EU-Russia Asymmetry: Trade Volumes 13.5% of EU exports go to CEEC(10), but only 2.8% to Russia 12.6% of EU imports come from CEEC(10), but only 4.6% from Russia EU(15) trade deficit with Russia reached USD 9.5 bn in 2001 EU trade with CEECs and Russia (USD bn) Structure of EU trade with Russia, in %, 2002:  Structure of EU trade with Russia, in %, 2002 Oil, Gas Refined Fuels Basic Metals Slide9:  in % of total FDI stocks in Russia, CEECs and China, 2001:  FDI stocks in Russia, CEECs and China, 2001 Slide11:  CEEC(10): EUR 23.7 bn Russia: EUR 7.8 bn motor vehicles furniture refined petroleum, nuclear fuel fish and fish products office machinery nuclear fuel first processing of iron, steel Top 5 market share gains in the EU, 1995-2002 parts of motor vehicles TV, radio, recording equipment sawmilling, wood Impact of EU enlargement on Russia:  - Russia is sceptical, though not explicitly opposed (as in the case of NATO enlargement) - Russian fears regarding deteriorating trade conditions are largely unfounded - EU external tariff (6.3%) is more favourable than CEECs’, though some non-tariff barriers persist - Schengen visa regime will create problems, Baltic borders not yet fully recognized - EU policies towards Russia are more friendly than those in many CEECs (example of Russian minorities in the Baltics) Impact of EU enlargement on Russia What does it all mean for EU-Russian relations?:  - EU and Russia are very unequal economic partners - Russia is just a supplier of energy and metals for Europe, its current market size is small - But the EU is the main trading partner for Russia, and will absorb 50% of Russian exports after enlargement - Russia has a huge trade surplus with both EU(15) and CEEC(10) - USD 31 bn (50% of the total surplus) - EU is interested in democratic and prosperous Russia, but its economic interests are currently limited. What does it all mean for EU-Russian relations? Towards a Common European Economic Space?:  Towards a Common European Economic Space? - EU concerns are unbalanced trade structure, dependency on energy imports and market access restrictions in Russia - After “market economy status”, Russia wants more (an upgrading of institutional relations) - EU offers “Wider Europe Neighbourhood” program Practical steps on the road - EU: PCA deepening, energy dialogue, Northern Dimension Action Plan and the Kaliningrad region - Russia: WTO accession and sustained reform efforts

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