Published on March 6, 2014
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Introduction • Haptic technology, or haptics, is a tactile feedback technology which takes advantage of the sense of touch by applying forces, vibrations, or motions to the user. • Haptics are enabled by actuators that apply forces to the skin for touch feedback, and controllers. The actuator provides mechanical motion in response to an electrical stimulus. • Haptic technology does for the sense of touch what computer graphics does for vision.
Why it is called Haptic ? • The word haptic, from the Greek word haptikos, means pertaining to the sense of touch and comes from the Greek verb haptesthai, meaning to contact or to touch. • Touch can result in many different physiological reactions. • Of the five senses, touch is the most proficient and the only one capable of simultaneous input and output.
Generation of haptic • First generation – use of electromagnetic technologies which produce a limited range of sensations • Second generation - touch-coordinate specific responses allowing the haptic effects to be localized to the position on a screen or touch panel, rather than the whole device • Third generation - delivers both touch-coordinate specific responses and customizable haptic effects • Fourth generation - pressure sensitivity, i.e. how hard you press on a flat surface can affect the response
Building blocks of a haptic system
Haptic Information Basically the haptic information provided by the system is the Combination of : Tactile Information It refers the information acquired by the sensors which are actually connected to the skin of the human body. Kinesthetic Information It refers to the information acquired through the sensors in the joints.
Virtual reality • Haptic technology allows creating computer-generated Haptic Virtual Objects (HVOs), which can be touched and manipulated with one's hands or body. • HVOs provide a rich combination of cutaneous and kinesthetic stimulation through a bidirectional haptic (touch) information flow between HVOs and human users. • HVOs can have many of the real-object mechanical properties such as weight and shape of objects, object elasticity, object's surface texture (e.g., smooth or rough), etc.
HVO creation • HVOs are created through force fields (or "force-feedback"), generated by computer-controlled mechanical systems called Haptic Interfaces (HIs). • An HI delivers the force-feedback to a person's hands or body. This reproduces major aspects of what actually happens when touching real, everyday objects.
How it works (example) • A person uses the manipulandum to "poke" an HVO (dashed surface). • HI's sensors measure the current position of the manipulandum's tip. • A Control Computer (CC) monitors this position and detects the “collision" of the manipulandum's tip with the HVO. • CC calculates a simulated contact force from a model (e.g., equations) of the real interaction's physics. • The CC activates the HI's actuators (e.g., electric motors) which, in combination with HI mechanics, produce an actual physical force that is applied into the manipulandum's tip. • This force physically realizes the simulated contact force. • Different manipulandums can be used to interact with HVOs, e.g., tools resembling thimbles (for fingertip insertion), scissors (e.g., for surgical simulation), hand exoskeletons, etc.
Haptic Rendering • The software-controlled Haptic Virtual Objects(HVO)creation process is called Haptic Rendering (HR). • The Control Computer (CC)executes HR events (collision detection, force calculation and generation when necessary) at a high rate(one kHz or more).
Cont.. Haptic rendering consists of three main blocks. • Collision-detection algorithms • Force-response algorithms • Control algorithms
Types of Haptic devices Virtual reality/ Telerobotics based devices • Exoskeletons and stationary devices • Gloves and wearable devices • Point sources and specific task devices • Locomotion interfaces Feedback devices • Force feedback devices • Tactile display devices
Phantom omni® haptic device • Provides a 3D touch to the virtual objects. • Six degree-of-freedom positional sensing. • When the user move his finger, then he could really feel the shape and size of the virtual 3D object that has been already programmed. • Virtual 3D space in which the phantom operates is called haptic scene.
CyberGrasp With the CyberGrasp force feedback system, users are able to feel the size and shape of computer-generated 3D objects in a simulated virtual world. • Force: 12 N per finger (max, continuous) • Interface: Ethernet • Allows 4 dof for each finger • Adapted to different size of the fingers
Maglev Haptics • Consists of two bowl shape objects, powered by electromagnets. • A joystick floats around with a tracking sensor that relays its position back to a Linux Fedora-powered computer. • Users could interact with 3D shapes using the joysticks. • Moving the shapes back and forth between each hand, getting feedback of the collision, and a feel for the volume and weight of the objects.
Maglev Haptics Video
Commercial applications • Tactile electronic displays • Teleoperators and simulators - Medical simulators and flight simulators for pilot training. • Video games - commonly used in arcade games, especially racing video games • Personal computers - Tactile Touchpad • Mobile devices - vibration response to touch • Virtual reality - 3D modeling and design
Research Medicine • Useful for training in minimally invasive procedures & for performing remote surgery. • Detection of medical problems via touch • To provide essential feedback from a prosthetic limb to its wearer. • Investigating fundamental issues and determining effectiveness for rehabilitation
Cont.. Robotics • Convincing artificial humanoid (The Shadow Project) • NASA's humanoid robots, or robonauts • Virtual reality through touch Arts and design • Virtual arts, such as sound synthesis or graphic design and animation. • Real-time sound or images • Physical modelling synthesis
Future applications Holographic interaction The feedback allows the user to interact with a hologram and receive tactile responses as if the holographic object were real. Future medical applications • Telepresence surgery. • Noise-based devices, such as randomly vibrating insoles, could also ameliorate age-related impairments in balance control. • "spider-sense" bodysuit, equipped with ultrasonic sensors and haptic feedback systems, which alerts the wearer of incoming threats; allowing them to respond to attackers even when blindfolded.
Advantages • Working time is reduced. • Communication is centered through touch and the digital world can behave like the real world. • Increase confidence in medical field. • With haptic hardware and software designer can feel the result as if he/she were handling physical objects.
Disadvantages • Higher cost. • Large weight & size. • From point of algorithm, output is not saturate. • The precision of touch require a lots of advance design.
Conclusion • Touch plays a huge role in the way we perceive our surroundings and also how we interact with them. • Haptics technologies have come a long way in bringing this technology into reality. • Currently it is limited to consumers. • Future generations of mobile devices and game console accessories will implement more haptic feedback. • Increasing applications of haptics the cost of the haptic devices will drop in future. • This technology brings us one step closer to virtual world.
References • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haptic_technology • http://www.yuvaengineers.com/haptic-technology-daksha-yemaladevulapalli-visishtha/ • http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/everyday-tech/haptictechnology.htm • http://www.immersion.com/haptics-technology/what-is-haptics/ • http://inition.co.uk/3D-Technologies/cyberglove-systems-cybergrasp • http://www.est-kl.com/products/data-gloves/cyberglovesystems/cybergrasp.html • http://gizmodo.com/364370/maglev-haptic-control-technology-could-beused-for-microsurgery-robot-control • http://butterflyhaptics.com/products/system/
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