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Published on October 29, 2007

Author: Jolene

Source: authorstream.com

EPA NAQC 2005 San Francisco, CA:  EPA NAQC 2005 San Francisco, CA From Nanograms to Milligrams: The Aethalometer™ AE-90 for direct Tailpipe Emissions Measurement of Carbonaceous Aerosol Particles Tony Hansen Magee Scientific Company Berkeley, CA Diesel Exhaust - Listed Air Toxic:  Diesel Exhaust - Listed Air Toxic Toxic Components : Specific Compounds require Specific Chemical Analyses Accompanying components may permit more rapid detection by optical means: Black Soot and UV-Absorbing Material Analytical Premise:  Analytical Premise Optically-absorbing material is a surrogate tracer for diesel exhaust. “Black” carbon (‘BC’, ‘EC’) “UV-absorbing material” (‘UVPM’) Optical analysis is fast, sensitive, can be performed in real time or on filter samples. Analytical Method - Optical Absorption:  Analytical Method - Optical Absorption Optical vs. chemical analyses:  Optical vs. chemical analyses “Harvard 6 Cities Study” Analytical Instrument : Aethalometer™:  Analytical Instrument : Aethalometer™ While continuously collecting sample, measures optical absorption in real time at 2 wavelengths (880 nm and 370 nm UV) Converts optical absorption to mass concentration of BC and UVPM Real-time data: 1 second / 1 minute / 1 hour Analytical Instrument : Aethalometer™:  Analytical Instrument : Aethalometer™ 19-inch rack mount model “Portable” Aethalometer™:  “Portable” Aethalometer™ Battery-powered: 1-, 2- or 7-wave optics Diesel indoors: truck in exhibition hall:  Diesel indoors: truck in exhibition hall A Diesel Repair Garage … in Antarctica:  A Diesel Repair Garage … in Antarctica Bus Yard Exhaust - community impact:  Bus Yard Exhaust - community impact On The Bus in Boston:  On The Bus in Boston On The Train in Boston:  On The Train in Boston Direct Tailpipe Emissions Analysis:  Direct Tailpipe Emissions Analysis The Need: On-the-spot analysis for tailpipe BC & UV The Problem: Concentrations are too high for analysis based on continuous collection New Instrument: Aethalometer “Tailpipe Tester”:  New Instrument: Aethalometer “Tailpipe Tester” Model ‘AE90’: Constructed in same chassis, identical optical analysis Methodology::  Methodology: Pull sample continuously through heated probe inserted into tailpipe. Bypass internally until ready for data. Switch sample stream through filter spot for a few seconds only. After collection, dry with warm filtered air. Perform optical analysis ‘on the spot’. Results : 3 to 15 mg/m3:  Results : 3 to 15 mg/m3 Results : 10 to 50 mg/m3:  Results : 10 to 50 mg/m3 AE90 prototype ‘tailpipe’ Aethalometer BC (ug/m3) Diesel 3 Diesel 2: Higher idle, Load applied Successive Individual Measurements Applications: Captive fleet testing:  Applications: Captive fleet testing Identify ‘High Emitters’ for remedial action Test effectiveness of engine tune-up: reduce source strength at exhaust manifold Test effectiveness of emissions reduction equipment (filters, catalytic converters etc.) reduce final emissions from tailpipe Applications: on-road vehicles:  Applications: on-road vehicles Spot checks - identify ‘High Emitters’ Response to complaints Test trucks at highway inspection stations Routine vehicle testing for annual certification Applications: Engine Manufacturers:  Applications: Engine Manufacturers Engine R&D testbed measurements Real-time response to changing engine operation conditions Test effectiveness of fuel additives or downstream emissions clean-up devices Summary:  Summary Black Carbon and UV-Absorbing Carbon are good surrogates for diesel exhaust. The ‘Tailpipe Tester’ AE-90 Aethalometer uses the established optical analysis method to measure BC and UVPM directly in the exhaust stream, ‘on the spot’. Acknowledgments:  Acknowledgments Harvard School of Public Health National Institute of Chemistry, Slovenia For further information: www . mageesci . com

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