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Hannes de Bruin

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Information about Hannes de Bruin
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Published on January 29, 2008

Author: Panfilo

Source: authorstream.com

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Psychological Risk in Adventure-related Experiential Learning:  Psychological Risk in Adventure-related Experiential Learning Hannes de Bruin Slide2:  Establish Common Ground Define Adventure & Experiential Learning Show the link between AEL and cognitive behaviour Define the physiology Psychological trauma Define the potential risks involved in AEL Suggest some solutions Workshop Outline Workshop Outline:  Workshop Outline Establish Common Ground Define Adventure & Experiential Learning Show the link between AEL and cognitive behaviour Define the physiology Psychological trauma Define the potential risks involved in AEL Suggest some solutions Slide4:  “The cover of Time magazine for August 29, 1983 displayed a picture of “Daredevil Ben Colli” with the caption “Wheeeeeee! Chasing Thrills and Adventure”. The subject of the photograph was infamous for his high speed rappelling descends from atop skyscrapers. The cover story, entitled “Risking It All” contained stories of bungee jumpers, mountain climbers, swimmers, runners, paddlers, parachutists, pilots, and sailors. The author of the piece wrote: There have always been adventurers, footloose and sometimes screwloose, and their ‘Why not’ has always stirred alarming and delicious fears in settled souls whose timid questions is ‘Why’ (Skow, 1983 p.52) Source: Priest, S. Gass, A.G. Effective Leadership in Adventure Programming, (1997), Human kinetics, Champaign, IL (p.42) Slide5:  ADVENTURE RELATED EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING USING REALITY ORIENTATED PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE SYSTEMS (R.O.P.E.S.) COURSES TO ENHANCE THE TRANSFER OF LEARNING AND TO CHANGE PERCEPTIONS AND ATTITUDES Slide6:  The teacher if he is indeed wise, does not bid you to enter the house of his wisdom but leads you to the threshold of your own mind. (Kahlil Gibran) Slide7:  Albert Einstein said: “I do not teach my students, I only provide the environment for them to learn” What is Adventure?:  What is Adventure? The essence of Adventure It can be described as a quest, a human desire to experience that which is hidden and unknown. Adventure is a desire for something, a condition which is absent. It begins with the acceptance of a situation: What is Adventure?:  What is Adventure? “When a man yields himself implicitly to the suggestion which transcends him, when he accepts gently and honorably his own creative fate, he is beautiful and beyond aspersion.” Miles & Priest (1990:147) Adventure does not represent a specific activity, it is a state of mind. What is Adventure?:  What is Adventure? An Adventure experience need not always be outwardly evident. Adventure is purely a state of mind. (Gass et al: 1991:41: Miles & Priest 1990:158) Two chess players engaged in an important match, outwardly they appear calm but inwardly they are functioning intensely. What is Adventure?:  What is Adventure? “The exercise of human imagination is fundamentally an exercise of adventure when it reaches out to an uncertain future.” Miles & Priest (1990:127) Thus when you find yourself in a situation which, you voluntary placed yourself in, and of which you cannot determine the outcome, and you feel, physically and psychologically, inadequate but you try…then you are in a state of Adventure!! The moral equivalent of war. (William James):  The moral equivalent of war. (William James) James points out that aggression is deeply rooted in human nature, imprinted in our genes and lodged in the very marrow of our bones, and that man will always respond to the call of the bugle, and take up the banner of war, because he is drawn to the excitement, to the adrenaline rush. He craves the exhilaration . The pacifist ‘s solution will never be successful, the peace will never be secure until man finds a substitute, a moral equivalent for war that stirs his loyalty and galvanises his energy, that draws on his need for daring and excitement. Slide13:  The wilderness adventure experience does not stand alone in a philosophy of adventure education. Adventure is a mere means to a much loftier end - HUMAN VIRTUE. Holt’s idea that adventure is a means and not an end is reflected in Plato, Aristotle and James. In Plato the young people are taken out to the battle fields in order to learn virtues needed for leadership in the City State. In Aristotle habits are developed in order that human virtue be learned, and in James the use of nature as a teacher to avoid war. The common thread that runs through all of these sources is the importance of adventure as a means and not as an end in itself. What is Experiential Learning:  What is Experiential Learning It is doing something and then reflecting back on it to gain some kind of truth from it Slide15:  Most people think that they are thinking, but they are merely rearranging their prejudices. Thinking without learning is useless; Learning without thinking is dangerous. What is Experiential Learning? What is Experiential Learning?:  What is Experiential Learning? All learning implies some kind of experience, but not all experiences produces learning. The principles of learning: An individual learns only what he/she is interested in. It is important that the individual shares in the development of the curriculum. What is Experiential Learning?:  What is Experiential Learning? Learning is not an additive experience but a remaking of experiences. An individual learns best when he/she is free to create his/her own responses in a situation. Learning depends on not knowing the answers. Every individual learns his/her own way. Learning is largely an emotional experience. Slide18:  If you always do What you always did You will always get What you always got What is Experiential Learning?:  What is Experiential Learning? To learn is to change !! Slide20:  Cycle of change Source: The Change Company Int. What Is the Psyche:  What Is the Psyche The soul, spirit, and the mind as distinguished from the body. In the psychoanalytic theory, it is the totality of the id, ego, and superego, including both conscious and unconscious components (Davidson and Neal, 2001) Slide22:  Behavior is rooted in cognitive processes. It is not so much the stimuli than the perception of the stimuli that determines behavior. What Is Risk:  What Is Risk Potential of losing something valuable. The loss may lead to harm that is physical, mental, social, financial (Priest & Gass, 1997). Risk is created by the presence of danger. The probability of occurrence is uncertain - Adventure Danger:  Danger Perils Sources or causes of potential losses. Hazards Conditions that influence the probability of the danger occurring. Slide25:  We use to tell them in Outward Bound, when a parent would come and ask us, “Can you guarantee the safety of my son Johnny?”. And we finally decided to meet it head on. We would say, “No. We certainly can’t, Ma’am. We guarantee you the genuine chance of his death. And if we could guarantee his safety, the program would not be worth running. We do make one guarantee, as one parent to another. If you succeed in protecting your boy, as you are doing now, and is your motherly duty to do, you know, we applaud your watchdog tenacity. You should be protecting him. But if you succeed we guarantee you the death of his soul. Why Do People Engage in Adventure Related Experiential Learning:  Why Do People Engage in Adventure Related Experiential Learning Participant’s view: Joy Happiness Self development Self efficiency “Runners high” Socialisation Facilitator’s view: Change of attitude Personal empowerment Metaphoric interconnectiveness Source: (Priest, S and Gass,M. Adeventure Education.) adapted:  Metaphoric interconnectiveness Source: (Priest, S and Gass,M. Adeventure Education.) adapted Desired behavior Therapeutic AEL Dysfunctional behavior Adventure Paradigm:  Adventure Paradigm RISK COMPETENCE Disaster Misadventure Peak Adventure Adventure Experimentation What Could Be the Psychological Disaster:  What Could Be the Psychological Disaster Distress Slide30:  Feedback Loop Definition of shock:  Definition of shock The subdued demeanor of some one under going severe emotional stress. Signs of shock:  Signs of shock Diluted pupils Cold, pale skin Staring Shivering Cannot focus Loss of physical controll Very emotional After effects of Shock:  After effects of Shock Intrusion (where the event is constantly replayed in the mind); Avoidance (a numbness, retreat from normal emotions and activities, self medication with alcohol and drugs); and/or Increased arousal (anger, irritable behaviour). Brain function impairment Solutions:  Solutions Proper facilitation: Intervention methods Do not remove the client from the situation. Ewert (1989): Desensitization Flooding Modeling Rehearsal Csikszentmihalyi’s: State of flow

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