Published on April 8, 2008
GridWise™ Appliance Load Management Initiative: GridWise™ Appliance Load Management Initiative Donald Hammerstrom, PNNL Gale Horst, Whirlpool Corporation Colorado Utility Efficiency Exchange Aspen, CO October 24 – 26, 2007 PNNL-SA-XXXX 2:00 - 2:30 pm, Thursday 25-October-2007 Outline: Outline Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Testbed Demonstration Olympic Peninsula Project Grid Friendly™ Appliance Project Demand responses at the appliance level Persistent vs. process appliances Pleasing the customer while performing grid responses What will customers want and accept? Universal DR Appliance Interface Business case Characteristics Moving forward Grid-responsive appliance opportunities Regulation / damping Voltage stability Augmented CVR Pacific Northwest GridWise Testbed: Pacific Northwest GridWise Testbed Olympic Peninsula Project Grid Friendly Appliance Project 50 dryers (~10 kW) Office Buildings and DG (~170 kW) Real-time Market Municipal Pumps (~200 kW) Residential Water Heaters and Thermostats (~75 kW) BPA, Clallam PUD, IBM, Invensys Controls, Port Angeles, PGE, PNNL, Whirlpool BPA, Clallam PUD, Invensys Controls, PacifiCorp, Port Angeles, PGE, PNNL, Whirlpool Underfrequency Event Fast Appliance Load Shed GFA Controller 150 dryers (~30 kW) 50 Water Heaters (~40 kW) Transactive Thermostat Control: Transactive Thermostat Control price temperature set T min max current zone temperature bid price market price desired temperature maximum temperature limit min. temp. limit bid curve current set,a T T average price T T adjusted set point Paverage+ kT_H σ Paverage- kT_L σ Pbid Paverage Pclear (cooling mode example) A 5-minute Energy Market: A 5-minute Energy Market RTP Market Responses: RTP Market Responses load (kW) Residential thermostats under real-time contracts shifted their space conditioning load to early morning, cheaper hours. System load was effectively deferred only when the distribution feeder line was truly constrained. 0 2 4 hour of day average space conditioning demand (kW) actual (56.8 kWh/day, 3.6 peak kW) baseline (48.8 kWh/day, 3.2 peak kW) (500-kW feeder constraint period) 1 3 Grid Friendly Controller : 7 Grid Friendly Controller GFA chip used in project: Responds in 400 ms to 90% of a step frequency change Frequency set at 59.95 Hz to achieve daily or weekly under-frequency “events.” Senses from 24-VAC sensing transformer Assignable output pins. The “relay” output signals the desired curtailment Cost ~$44 each in quantity of 300 Next generation GFA chip: Much smaller Both voltage and frequency responses Communications enabled Grid Friendly Appliance Collaboration Invensys Controls, Whirlpool, PNNL : 8 Grid Friendly Appliance Collaboration Invensys Controls, Whirlpool, PNNL Load Control Module Pacific NW GridwiseTM Demonstration: A load control module handles both communications and load reduction measurements for project verification. Pacific NW GridwiseTM Demonstration Field Dryer Response: 10 Field Dryer Response Time (total duration shown = ~20 minutes) * Underfrequency event detected in a demonstration home on April 14, 2006 Dryer load (Watts) GFA event Slide11: Unit trips, frequency decreases, sensor reduces load System operators take action Water Heater and Dryer resume several minutes later No consumer impact ~ 5 Minutes It WORKS! Whirlpool Corporation: Whirlpool Corporation World’s leading manufacturer and marketer of major home appliances Annual sales of more than $18 billion 73,000 employees 70 manufacturing and technology centers worldwide Conducting business in more than 170 countries Brands: North America (Incl Canada & Mexico): KitchenAid, Whirlpool, Maytag, Amana, Jenn-Air, Roper, Estate, Gladiator, Acros, Supermatic, Crolls (Whirlpool Corporation is also a significant supplier to Sears Holdings Corp., which owns and controls the Kenmore brand name.) Europe: Whirlpool, Bauknecht, KitchenAid, Maytag, Amana, Ignis, Polar, Laden (in France), KIC (in South Africa) Latin America: Whirlpool, KitchenAid, Maytag,Brastemp, Consul, Embraco, Eslabon de Lujo Asia: Whirlpool, Maytag, KitchenAid Slide13: Residential Devices Primary Product Categories: Two Appliance Categories : Two Appliance Categories Persistent vs. Process-Oriented Start-to-finish process involving multiple steps, sensors, temperatures and consumables often performing the task upon other consumer products such as food, clothing, and dishes. Single persistent task such as: Maintaining room temperature Keeping water warm also Refrigerators also Stoves & Ovens Slide15: Automated Low Customer Impact: turn off the heating element continue drum rotation reduce the heat/temperature residual heat and tumbling continue to dry clothes drying time automatically extended as required When PNNL grid sensor triggers an event, the 150 dryers reduced their power from 5,700 watts to ~280 watts . . . a 95% reduction in 40 milliseconds! Phase I Process-Oriented Appliance Response Field Dryer Response: 16 Field Dryer Response Time (total duration shown = ~20 minutes) * Under frequency event detected in one demonstration home on April 14, 2006 Dryer load (Watts) GFA event Slide17: from Post Pilot Survey: “How acceptable was it to have your clothes dryer cycle run a few minutes longer, occasionally, in response to power grid needs?” [Check one] Consumer Interaction 97% Consumer Acceptance of GridWise appliance response Slide18: Consumers receive peak price notification on their appliance console and thermostat. Consumers react to changing price signals sent to their homes. If power consumption is reduced, customers earned a cash rebate. (CPR) Transmitted Price Signals Phase II Slide19: The right information when and where the consumer needs it. Simple Indicators Work Best! Example 2 (GridWise): Consumer Interaction Two methods and automated responses tested: Example 1 (Woodridge): Consumer notified that a peak price period is in effect Slide20: Energy management signals will be received in real-time via utility-owned infrastructure Signal . . . NOTE: UL and corporate safety standards may necessitate appliance intervention in some cases. Successful shift of the Dryer Load Shape: Successful shift of the Dryer Load Shape Standard load shape. . . compared with Woodridge pilot Red/Green LED with auto delay button (TOU tariff) Slide22: [from Post Pilot Survey] Consumer Interaction “Which of the following would most strongly influence your decision to purchase a Grid Friendly clothes dryer instead of a standard model? [Check all that apply] How did pilot participants suggest consumers obtain this technology?: How did pilot participants suggest consumers obtain this technology? 58% thought GFA should be enabled as a standard on all appliances 32% would prefer GFA as a purchase option How Do Customers Want DR: How Do Customers Want DR 1% Would select 10% flat rate increase to be able to use electricity at the same price any time 15% Prefer to manage their own TOU/CPP electricity use based on a transmitted price signal 17% Prefer utility dispatched direct load control 67% Prefer set and forget appliances that react to utility price signals (with consumer override possible) Demand Response Learning: Demand Response Learning Customers understand DR Enabled Appliances Appliance OEM better at Customer Interface A lot of control can be achieved with 3 Boolean Communication Signals System Instability High Price Load Control A more advanced communications interface could be considered as optional Any Communication Method: Utility or Energy Provider may choose any communication path Dryer Appliance Control Dryer Dryer Appliance Control Appliance Control Universal Demand Response Interface translates any communication signal to standardized appliance commands Enables open or proprietary communication protocol A “Socket” on the appliance, connected to its controls OR Any Communication Method Slide27: Simplify Appliance Control Expectations Key Concepts: Each appliance type may have a different response depending on hardware, electronics, real-time status, design issues and the nature of the request. Reduced cost for both appliance production & utility program installation Commercialization Strategy: Commercialization Strategy Appliance Socket with Open Protocol Adds only several dollars per appliance Mass production of grid ready appliances Supports: Post production / post sale enablement Adaptation for any communication protocol GFA Sensor with Comm. Device Could enables customer install of a $20 communication device w/electronic verification DR resource at a fraction of previous cost Appliance Regulation and Damping Services: Appliance Regulation and Damping Services All appliances “see” the grid’s frequency. “Persistent” appliances have lots of time to help maintain grid frequency. With communication, these appliances can perform traditional regulation. This approach needed for micro-grids. One-dimensional Control Two-dimensional Control Promote Voltage Stability at Loads: Promote Voltage Stability at Loads System faults cause momentary voltage sags. Induction machines may stall and slow voltage recovery. The Grid Friendly controller was shown to recognize voltage sags consistently within 2 cycles. Cold load pickup is had for free. This control should be standard for appliances with induction motors. Augmented Conservation Voltage Reduction – As it Could be Practiced: Augmented Conservation Voltage Reduction – As it Could be Practiced Feeder voltage is reduced by the utility during peaks Loads recognize the voltage signal and actively shed load A 2% voltage reduction could result in up to 100% load shed by targeted loads Perhaps … a “poor man’s BPL”! Fractional Load vs Fractional Voltage 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 Fraction Nominal Voltage Fractional Nominal Load For More Information:: For More Information: Donald Hammerstrom Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Donald.Hammerstrom@pnl.gov 509-372-4087 Gale Horst Whirlpool Corporation Gale_Horst@whirlpool.com 269-923-2770
GridWise™Appliance Load Management Initiative Donald Hammerstrom, PNNL 2:00 - 2:30 pm, Thursday 25-October-2007 Gale Horst, Whirlpool Corporation
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