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Published on October 23, 2007

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HALT®:  HALT® Larvicide-Pupicide for Mosquito control Mosquito Life cycle:  Mosquito Life cycle Eggs - Part 1 of the Life Cycle After laying, eggs require 2-5 days of incubation before hatching. A female will lay between 100-150 eggs. Eggs laid in permanent water will hatch after incubation. Eggs laid in tree holes, containers, or floodwater areas will hatch after incubation when subsequently inundated with water. Most eggs especially floodwater and container species are very resistant to environmental conditions such as freezing. Some eggs may stay viable up to seven years. Mosquito Life cycle:  Larvae - Part 2 of the Life Cycle Four instars. 3 to 7 days to complete development depending on food and temperature. Filter feeders (most). Breath air but can absorb oxygen through the body wall. Mosquito Life cycle Mosquito Life cycle:  Pupae - Part 3 of the Life Cycle They do not feed (bite)! But they do breath. 1 to 2 days before adult emerges. Mosquito Life cycle Mosquito Life cycle:  Adults - Part 4 of the Life Cycle Both male and female feed on plant juices e.g. Nectar. Only females feed on blood! Mate soon after emerging. Approximately 3 days following a blood meal eggs are ready to be laid. Female will lay approximately 100-150 eggs per one ovaposition cycle. Female can have up to 10 ovaposition cycles in a life span. Most live about 2 weeks and may live 2 months or more. Mosquito Life cycle Mosquito Life cycle:  Mosquito Habitats for Breeding Fresh and Saltwater. Permanent water eggs (e.g. Culex, Anopheles) laid directly on water like ponds, pools and streams. Hatch after incubation. Floodwater eggs (e.g. Psorophora, Aedes, Ochlerotatus) laid on moist soil like around ditches, floodplains, depressions and upper marsh. Hatch after incubation and inundation. Mosquito Life cycle Mosquito Life cycle:  Mosquito Container Habitats for Breeding Natural containers like rock holes, water holding plants and tree holes. Eggs laid above water-line. Artificial containers like buckets, birdbaths, flower pots, rain gutters, tires, cans and boats. Eggs laid above water-line. Mosquito Life cycle Mosquito Life cycle:  Mosquito Life cycle Mosquito Life cycle:  There are over 3,000 species of mosquitoes worldwide, with 150 known to exist in North America. In their immature stages, the mosquitoes require water to survive. Ideal breeding areas for mosquitoes include old tires, clogged rain gutters, bird baths, wading pools and stagnant water. Mosquitoes go through 4 stages in their life cycle: egg, larva, pupa and adult. The eggs are laid in or near water and hatch into larvae within a few days. The larvae feed on microscopic plant life, molt several times as they grow and become pupae that turn into adult mosquitoes. The entire process can take place in as little as seven days in mid-summer. The life span of adult mosquitoes varies from two weeks to several months, and depending on the species, will feed in the early morning, early evening or even during daytime hours. Mosquito Life cycle Mosquito Life cycle:  Mosquitoes require a blood meal to develop fertile eggs. Males, because they do not lay eggs, do not bite. Throughout a season, females can lay several batches of eggs, requiring a blood meal for each batch. Each batch can contain as many as 200 eggs. Other than for reproduction, mosquitoes normally feed on nectar from plants or flowers. Mosquito Life cycle Mosquito-borne Diseases:  Mosquito-borne Diseases Mosquitoes cause more human suffering than any other organism with over one million people dying from mosquito-borne diseases every year. Mosquito vectored diseases include malaria, yellow fever, dengue, filariasus, and encephalitis to humans and animals. Yellow fever, dengue and malaria were once prevalent in the United States, but now are rare. More recently, West Nile Virus was the cause of 7 deaths among 62 infections in New York City in 1999. In 2000, many birds have tested positive for the virus throughout the Northeast indicating the disease overwintered and spread geographically. It appears West Nile Virus will remain a threat to the United States in the future. Ways to reduce mosquito annoyance:  Ways to reduce mosquito annoyance Stay indoors at dawn, dusk and in the early evening if possible. Mosquitoes use the CO2 we exhale as a primary cue to our locations. Unfortunately, holding your breath is not a good long term solution to mosquito annoyance. Mosquitoes are also attracted to dark colors because they capture heat. Light colors refract heat and are generally less attractive. Wear long sleeved shirts and pants when you are outdoors. Apply insect repellant sparingly to exposed skin. Products containing 20-30% DEET are known to be most effective against mosquitoes. Follow manufacturer's directions carefully. Do not apply to children under 3 years of age and do not apply to the hands and face of children. Products containing Permethrin are for clothing only. Keep weeds cut back and mow the lawn regularly to reduce mosquito friendly habitats. Adult mosquitoes prefer to rest on weeds and other vegetation. Avoid use of insect electrocuters (bug zappers), as they have been shown to be ineffective in reducing outdoor mosquito populations. They kill few mosquitoes and harm beneficial insect populations. Citronella oil is the active ingredient in many of the candles, torches or burning coils that claim to repel mosquitoes. These products are useful outdoors only under windless conditions allowing the odor to remain in the immediate vicinity. Ways to eliminate mosquito breeding sites:  Ways to eliminate mosquito breeding sites Dispose of old tires, tin cans, plastic buckets, ceramic pots, or other artificial water containers. Keep rain gutters unclogged and flat roofs dry. Eliminate water collecting in pool or boat covers. Drill holes in the bottom of recycling containers left outdoors to prevent them from collecting rainwater. Turn over plastic wading pools and wheelbarrows when not in use. Do not allow water to stagnate in birdbaths. Drain and fill stagnant pools, puddles, ditches, or swampy places around the home and property. Remove all tree stumps that may hold water. Mosquito Larval Control:  Mosquito Larval Control Larvicides control mosquitoes in stagnant water as they develop. Larvicides include: Microbial insecticides such as Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bactimos Briquets), Chemical larvicides such as methoprene (Altosid Briquets) and Monomolecular films (Halt® MMF). Larvicide treatments of breeding habitats help reduce the adult populations in nearby areas. Following are recommended larvicides due to their ease of use and safety to the environment. Mosquito Larval Control:  Mosquito Larval Control Following are recommended larvicide use due to their ease of use and safety to the environment: Halt® MMF : is a transparent surface film that is applied to breeding habitat using a spray bottle every to 10-14 days. Apply Halt to one or two areas in the breeding site and it will spread across the water surface. A one liter spray bottle treats one-half acre (21,780 square feet) of habitat and costs less than $20.00. Halt is the only larvicide labeled for potable (drinking) water. Adult Mosquito Control:  Adult Mosquito Control Some mosquito species can fly long distances in search of a blood meal. Therefore it is often necessary to supplement larval control on your premises with control measures directed at adult mosquitoes. There are two types of adult control: barrier control which targets adult mosquitoes where they rest and cold fogging which targets flying mosquitoes during peak activity. Following are recommended insecticides and application equipment for residential use. Barrier Control Insecticides :  Barrier Control Insecticides Suspend SC : This deltamethrin-based concentrate is the world's most active pyrethroid for public health use. Dilute Suspend in water and apply to foliage of infested areas. Suspend is cost effective, yields 4-6 weeks of residual control and requires no specialized spray equipment. Use a household 2.5 gallon pump up sprayer for application or a backpack sprayer such as the Maruyama MD155DX Power Mister/Duster for large projects. Suspend is available in pints. One pint can make up to 20 gallons of spray solution. Permanone 10% EC : Permanone is a 10% permethrin formulation that can be diluted in mineral oil or water. Permanone 10% E.C. comes in a 2 x 2.5 gallon case and costs less than $90.00 per gallon. Apply Permanone (at 17.5 ounces per acre) using a low volume backpack such as the Maruyama M400 backpack manual sprayer. Yields 7-10 days of residual control when applied to foliage of problem areas. Barrier Control Application Equipment Pump up sprayers can be purchased inexpensively at your local hardware store. Maruyama MD155DX Mister/Duster can be used for spraying insecticides, fertilizers, herbicides or as a blower. It weighs 24.3 pounds and is excellent for large areas, campgrounds etc. Cold Fog Insecticides:  Cold Fog Insecticides Aqua Reslin : This unique patented FFAST formulation allows permethrin to be diluted with water and perform like an oil based spray. 20% permethrin, 20% piperonyl butoxide concentrate costs less than 21 cents an acre to use for adult mosquito control Permanone 4-8 : This ready to use formulation contains 4% permethrin, 8% piperonyl butoxide with mineral oil carrier and requires no mixing. Cold Fog Application Equipment Colt : London Fog has combined technology, portability and ULV into a lightweight, powerful and compact hand-held fogger. This full featured Colt weighs only 19 pounds making it ideal portable aerosol generator for insecticides. Eliminator : This portable thermo fog generator produces a dense, lingering dry fog providing maximum dispersion of insecticides. Simplified design uses standard 2 cycle engine for ease of service and weighs only 24 pounds. Suitable for use with Pyrenone 100 when diluted correctly. What is HALT® MMF :  What is HALT® MMF HALT® is a transparent surface film that is applied to breeding habitat using a spray bottle every to 10-14 days. Apply Halt to one or two areas in the breeding site and it will spread across the water surface. A one liter spray bottle treats one-half acre (21,780 square feet) of habitat and costs less than $20.00. Halt is the only larvicide labeled for potable (drinking) water. How HALT® MMF Works:  How HALT® MMF Works The invisible monomolecular film quickly spreads over standing water habitats. The film reduces the surface tension of the water making it difficult for the mosquito larvae and pupae to attach and causes them to drown. Emerging mosquitoes and midges are unable to fully emerge and will drown. Field tests have shown HALT® MMF to persist for up to 21 days, thus providing long lasting control of mosquitoes and midges. HALT® MMF Spectrum and Rate of Activity :  HALT® MMF Spectrum and Rate of Activity HALT® MMF Mosquito Larvicide and Pupicide is effective on all species of mosquitoes and chronomid midges that breed in standing water and require the air/water interface in their lifecycle. For most mosquito species, larval and pupal stages will be controlled within 48 to 96 hours. The rate of kill will be slower if water temperatures are cold (5-10 °C, 40 – 50 °F) or for species that don’t require as much oxygen (e.g. aedes aegypti). The film persistence of HALT® MMF, coupled with its ability to control emerging adults, will ensure sucessful control even with these difficult species and/or under these difficult conditoins. HALT® MMF also successfully controls chronomid midges, and mosquitoes that have minimal surface contact such as coquillettidia spp. or mansonia spp. These treatments will target the emerging adult lifestage. For midge control, reapplication of HALT® MMF is recommended ever two weeks during the midge season to ensure continuous control. HALT® MMF Advantages:  HALT® MMF Advantages Can be used in potable water, recreational areas, fish bearing waters, all croplands, and pastures. Control is by a physical mode of action rather than chemical toxicity. Can be used around humans, birds, fish, pets and all other animals and wildlife. Provides lower application costs due to low dosage, excellent spreadability, and long residual period. Total life cycle control - pupae, larvae, and emerging adults. Excellent tool for resistance management. Can be applied by all conventional spray methods. Long shelf life of well over 2 years. How long does HALT® MMF control last ?:  How long does HALT® MMF control last ? Film persistence depends on the weather conditions (outside temperature, rain and wind) and the amount of bacteria in the water. Optimally, the film will last 10 to 14 days. HALT® MMF Indicator Oil should be used to monitor the film persistence. HALT® MMF Product Application:  HALT® MMF Product Application HALT® MMF can be applied by one of the following four conventional methods: Manual Sprayer Large areas of application can be made by individual backpack applicators with hand-activated pump sprayers or compressed-air sprayers. HALT® MMF Product Application:  HALT® MMF Product Application HALT® MMF can be applied by one of the following four conventional methods: Automatic Feed Application can be made with gravity-fed drip devices in controlled areas, such as sewage treatment ponds. Vehicle-mounted Sprayer These sprayers are best used in large wet land applications when hand spraying is not efficient, such as roadside ditches. Aerial Sprayer Application is most effective for open areas where the water surface is easily accessible

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