Haematology

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Information about Haematology

Published on July 30, 2009

Author: dr_bali

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Haematology for Medical Transcriptionist Students

Hematology Blood:red body fluid flowing thru the b.v is called the blood 8%of total body weight, male: 5 L, female 4 L Function : Gaseous transportation Nutrients to cell & elimination of waste Hormones & enzymes transportation Regulation of PH & body temperature Clotting mechanism, preventing loss of fluids Components Proteins Albumin, immunoglobulins Fibrin(serum) Erythrocytes(RBC) Leukocytes(WBC) 1.granular Neutrophils Eosinohils Basophils 2. Agranular Lymphocytes Monocytes 3.Thrombocytes (platelets) Plasma (55%) Cells(45%)

Blood:red body fluid flowing thru the b.v is called the blood

8%of total body weight, male: 5 L, female 4 L

Function :

Gaseous transportation

Nutrients to cell & elimination of waste

Hormones & enzymes transportation

Regulation of PH & body temperature

Clotting mechanism, preventing loss of fluids

Components

Anaemia :decrease in Hb below 13% in male & 11 % female. Etiology: ↓bone marrow production Lack of iron,amino acid Loss of blood Signs & symptoms Fatigue, palpitations,breathlessness Pallor of skin, mucosa,edema POLYCYTHEMIA:↑ rbc Lack of concentration, headache,fatigue, CVA SICKLE CELL ANAEMIA: Inherited Hb conditions THALESSIMIA : APLASTIC ANEMIA:failure of rbc to form PERNICIOUS ANEMIA:lack of vit b12 HAEMORRHAGIC ANEMIA:removal or destruction of RBC HEMOCHROMATOSIS:excessive deposit of iron in body Bone marrow in sternm, ribs, vertebra & pelvis 120 day .Carry o2& co2 .Antigens A,B,AB & 0 .Rh type RBC,s Biconcave disc contains haemoglobin made of iron +protein diseases Production Life span Function Structure

Made of water & solute Blood clotting Plasma IDIPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA: ↓ platelets Bone marrow 5 to 9 days Blood clotting Platelets: disc shaped without nucleus LEUKEMIA:cancer of blood Types: ALL:acute lymphoblastic leukemia AML:---------myeloid------------- CLL:chronic lympoblastic---- CML:----------myeloid------ Etiology:radiation exposure, cytotoxic drugs, HIV Symptoms:tiredness, fatigue,bleding tendency, lymphadenopathy, spleen enlargement Treatment::danorubicin,etoperiside, bone marrow transplantation, imatinib mesylate GRANULOCYTOSIS EOSINOPHILA BASOPHILA Bone marrow, lymphoid tissue Few days .To kill microbes .Release enzyme lysozyme .Antibodies production WBC: Have nuclei

LAB TEST RETICULOCYTE COUNT/HEMATOCRIT To know about the rbc count Differential count for WBC:leucocytosis, leukopenia CBC(complete blood count) Hb, TLC,DLC, P.S for opinion ESR(erythrocyte sedimentation rate) Immunohistochemistry MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Blood plasma substitute Direct transfusion Exchange transfusion Fractionated blood/whole blood Heparinized whole blood Septecemia Thrombocytopenia Venesection/venus puncture

RETICULOCYTE COUNT/HEMATOCRIT

To know about the rbc count

Differential count for WBC:leucocytosis, leukopenia

CBC(complete blood count)

Hb, TLC,DLC, P.S for opinion

ESR(erythrocyte sedimentation rate)

Immunohistochemistry

MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY

Blood plasma substitute

Direct transfusion

Exchange transfusion

Fractionated blood/whole blood

Heparinized whole blood

Septecemia

Thrombocytopenia

Venesection/venus puncture

ABO:blood groups Baso;basophils BMT:bone marrow transplantation CBC:complete blood count ESR:erythrocyte sedimentation rate MCH:mean corpuscular haemoglobin MCHC:-----------//------------------//---------concentration MCV:mean corpuscular volume PMN:polymorho nuclear leukocytes PT:prothrobin time PTT:partial thromboplastin time DLC; differentiated leukocyte count Eos:eosinophil Mono:monocytes Hct:hematocrit Hb:haemoglobin Abbreviations

ABO:blood groups

Baso;basophils

BMT:bone marrow transplantation

CBC:complete blood count

ESR:erythrocyte sedimentation rate

MCH:mean corpuscular haemoglobin

MCHC:-----------//------------------//---------concentration

MCV:mean corpuscular volume

PMN:polymorho nuclear leukocytes

PT:prothrobin time

PTT:partial thromboplastin time

DLC; differentiated leukocyte count

Eos:eosinophil

Mono:monocytes

Hct:hematocrit

Hb:haemoglobin

Name Ref - HAEMOGRAM TEST OBSERVATION NORMAL RANGE ERYTROCYTES- Erytrocytes- 3.90 to 5.60 mill/ cu.mm Haemoglobin 11.5 – 16.5 gm/dl PCV 35 – 47 % MCV 75 -95 fl MCH 27- 32 pg MCHC 30-35 % RDW 12.8-16.8 % RBC Morphology Hypochromia Microcytosis Anisocytosis Poikylocytosis Macrocytosis Target cells Others Nucleated RBCs LEUCOCYTES- Total leucocytes(WBC) count- 4000 – 11000 /cu.mm Neutrophils 40-75 % Eosinophils 1-6 % Basophils 0-1 % Lymphocytes 20-45 % Monocytes 2-10 % Premature leucocytes - Atypical lymphocytes 0-2 % Large immature cells 0-2 % PLATELETS- Platelet count 150-450 x1000 /cu.mm MPV 7.4-10.4 fl PCT 0.164-0.260 % PDW 12.8- 16.8 %

Name

Ref -

HAEMOGRAM

TEST OBSERVATION NORMAL RANGE

ERYTROCYTES-

Erytrocytes- 3.90 to 5.60 mill/ cu.mm

Haemoglobin 11.5 – 16.5 gm/dl

PCV 35 – 47 %

MCV 75 -95 fl

MCH 27- 32 pg

MCHC 30-35 %

RDW 12.8-16.8 %

RBC Morphology

Hypochromia

Microcytosis

Anisocytosis

Poikylocytosis

Macrocytosis

Target cells

Others

Nucleated RBCs

LEUCOCYTES-

Total leucocytes(WBC) count- 4000 – 11000 /cu.mm

Neutrophils 40-75 %

Eosinophils 1-6 %

Basophils 0-1 %

Lymphocytes 20-45 %

Monocytes 2-10 %

Premature leucocytes -

Atypical lymphocytes 0-2 %

Large immature cells 0-2 %

PLATELETS-

Platelet count 150-450 x1000 /cu.mm

MPV 7.4-10.4 fl

PCT 0.164-0.260 %

PDW 12.8- 16.8 %

Name - Ref - URINE ROUTINE EXAMINATION TEST OBSERVATION NORMAL GENERAL EXAMINATION Volume ml Colour Pale yellow Appearance Clear Deposits absent Reaction(pH) 4.5-8.0 Specific gravity 1.01- 1.03 CHEMICAL EXAMINATION Urine Protein Absent Urine Sugar Absent Urine Ketones Absent Occult blood Negative Bile pigment Absent Bile salts Absent Urobilinogen Normal Nitrite Negative MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION Red blood cells Absent Pus cells Absent Epithelial cells Absent Crystals Absent Cast Absent Amorphous deposits Absent Bacteria Absent Trichomonas Vaginalis Absent Yeast cells Absent Pregnancy test

Name -

Ref -

URINE ROUTINE EXAMINATION

TEST OBSERVATION NORMAL

GENERAL EXAMINATION

Volume ml

Colour Pale yellow

Appearance Clear

Deposits absent

Reaction(pH) 4.5-8.0

Specific gravity 1.01- 1.03

CHEMICAL EXAMINATION

Urine Protein Absent

Urine Sugar Absent

Urine Ketones Absent

Occult blood Negative

Bile pigment Absent

Bile salts Absent

Urobilinogen Normal

Nitrite Negative

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION

Red blood cells Absent

Pus cells Absent

Epithelial cells Absent

Crystals Absent

Cast Absent

Amorphous deposits Absent

Bacteria Absent

Trichomonas Vaginalis Absent

Yeast cells Absent

Pregnancy test

Test Result Normal Blood Sugar ( F ) 70 - 100 Blood Sugar ( PP ) 100 - 160 Blood Urea 10 - 40 Serum Creatinine 0.5 - 1.5 S Sodium 137 - 145 S Potassium 3.7 - 4.5 S GOT 10 - 35 S GPT 10 - 40 S. Bilirubin ( T ) 0.2 - 1.2 S Calcium(T) 9 - 11 S Calcium Ionic 1.12 - 1.32 S Uric Acid ( M ) 2.6 - 7.2 S Uric Acid ( F ) 2.4 - 6.3 S Alkaline Phosphotase(Adult ) 100 - 305 S Alkaline Phosphotase ( Child ) Upto 515 Serum Phophorus 2.5 - 5.0 mg/dl Serum Cholesterol 125 - 225 Serum Triglyceride Up to 160

Test Result Normal

Blood Sugar ( F ) 70 - 100

Blood Sugar ( PP ) 100 - 160

Blood Urea 10 - 40

Serum Creatinine 0.5 - 1.5

S Sodium 137 - 145

S Potassium 3.7 - 4.5

S GOT 10 - 35

S GPT 10 - 40

S. Bilirubin ( T ) 0.2 - 1.2

S Calcium(T) 9 - 11

S Calcium Ionic 1.12 - 1.32

S Uric Acid ( M ) 2.6 - 7.2

S Uric Acid ( F ) 2.4 - 6.3

S Alkaline Phosphotase(Adult ) 100 - 305

S Alkaline Phosphotase ( Child ) Upto 515

Serum Phophorus 2.5 - 5.0 mg/dl

Serum Cholesterol 125 - 225

Serum Triglyceride Up to 160

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