Habilitation presentation 2011

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Published on March 13, 2014

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1 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP 16/07/10Page 1 Copyright © NEXCIS – Tous droits réservés NEXCIS Business Development Draft V2, 13th September 2010 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011

2 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP 1. Summary 1. Why we are here? 2. State of the Art of Thin Film Solar cells 3. Research Project 1. Why choosing CIGS 2. Closing the gap 3. In(situ characterization 4. Previous Activity 1. Lithium Niobate 2. Periodic Poled Lithium Niobate 3. CdTe for PV 4. Modelling and Characterizing CIGS devices 5. Some indicators Agenda

3 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP 16/07/10Page 3 Copyright © NEXCIS – Tous droits réservés Thin Film Solar Cells for future

4 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Why thin films in the future: 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 2005 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 MarketShare Novel devices Other thin films Thin films Silicon thin films Crystalline Si Thin Films > 15% in 2010 45% in 2020 Source: IEA 2010 Forecast from IEA (BLUE Map) in 2030 : towards a mix of technologies

5 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Advantages of thin film PV • Efficient and high performing materials • Direct bandgap semiconductors • Better energy output – kWh/KW • CIGS record at 20%+ conversion efficiency • Significantly reduced costs • Less material usage • Potential for improving costs throughout value chain • Better aesthetics • Roadmap of glass3to3glass and flexible substrate

6 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Solar Today Google HQ - Solar Project Solar farm in Amstein, Germany Utility Scale Commercial Systems

7 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Solar Tomorrow: Building Integrated Photovoltaics Power Buildings will become multi-$T market • BIPV is the fastest growing sector of PV • Building Integration leverages available surface area, installation costs, and proximity to loads Revolutionary products through efficient, durable thin-film solar cells embedded into traditional building materials • Current products unsuitable and not cost effective

8 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP BIPV Applications • Roofing • Most common BIPV application today • Sunshades • Energy conservation and reduced building operating costs • Cooling load mitigation and glare control • Easiest retrofit for PV • Overhead glazing (canopies, skylights, atriums) • Curtain wall / Facades

9 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP 16/07/10Page 9 Copyright © NEXCIS – Tous droits réservés Between thin films Why CIGS?

10 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP State of the art in efficiency. Big gap between R&D and production Who? Device Aperture Area Efficiency Würth Solar CIGS (glass) 6500 13.0 AVANCIS CIGSS (glass) 4938 (26 x 26) 13.0 (15.5) Solar Frontier CIGSS (glass) 3600 (30 x 30) 13.0 (17.2) Solibro CIGS (glass) 6840 14.2 Global Solar CIGS (flexible) 8390 (3822) 10.5 (13.0) Miasole CIGS (flexible)* > 1 m2 15.7 Solopower CIGS (flexible) 0.3m x 2.9m 12.0 First Solar cdTe (glass) 6623, high volume 11.3 (12.6) * Sandwiched between two pieces of glass Device/ Module Type Efficiency (%) Who? Cells (0,5 – 1 cm2) > 18 to 20.3* NREL, ZSW, AIST, HZB, AGU, ASC Submodules (20 – 100 cm2) 15- 17* ZSW, ASC, HZB, Showa Shell Prototype modules (0,35 – 0’7 m2) 13 – 16* Solar Frontier, Miasolé, Global Solar, Avancis Commercial Modules (0,7 m2) 12-13 Würth Solar, Solibro, Global Solar, Solar Frontier, Avancis

11 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Closing the gap between record efficiencies and commercial modules Target 15% 6% 12% 20.3% 23% Lab device Challenging target Closing the gap Expanding Tech. Base Closing the gap Improvement of fundamental material knowledge Derive measurable material properties that are predictive of device and module performance Model the relationship between film growth and material delivery Industrial processes, beneficial impacts: ( higher throughput and yield ( higher degree of reliability and reproductibility ( higher module performance In(Situ Procces Diagnostics and Control Better science(based knowledge of materials properties Materials and photonic interalation. Real time diagnosis tools.

12 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP CIGS based devices. Facing the challenge SCR - Charge carriers are generated in absorber layer. -Limited, by the absorber bulk quality, and electronic quality of the absorber related interfaces. -After charge separation at p-n junction, recombination currents will dominate the transport, relaxing the impact of other interfaces. - More than 80% of performance losses is related to absorber quality.

13 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Crystal structure of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 –chalcopyrite3type3 Elemental Binary Ternary,… Diamond Si, Ge Zincblende Wurzite CdTe, GaAs Chalcopyrite Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2

14 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Cu3(In, Ga)3Se Ternary Alloys Molecularity (M) and Stoichiometry (S) M = [Cu]/([In] + [Ga]) S = 2[Se]/ ([Cu] + 3([In]+[Ga])) ∆∆∆∆M = M (1; ∆∆∆∆S = S – 1 ALL high efficiency CIGS devices have ∆∆∆∆M < 0 and ∆∆∆∆S > 0 Formation reaction yCu2Se + (13y) (In,Ga)2 Se3+∆∆∆∆Se Cuy ((In,Ga)13y)2 Se332y+∆∆∆∆Se Se Cu In, Ga Intermetallic Plethora (In,Ga)2 Se3 (In,Ga) Se (In,Ga)4 Se3 Cu2 Se Cu Se Cu2 Se3 112 247 135 112 = CuInSe2 247 = Cu2In4Se7 135 = CuIn3Se5

15 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP CIGS Complex Non3Stoichiometric Thermochemical Phase Structure S. Yamazoe, H. Kou and T. Wada, J. Mater. Res., in press.

16 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Compositional Fluctuations and Carrier Transport in CIGS absorbers Experimental results HAADF(TEM and Nanoscale EDS (5(10 nm chracteristic domain size (Chemical composition fluctuations across the domains p1: Cu:In:Ga:Se = 31:14:7:48 p2: Cu:In:Ga:Se = 27:15:9:49 p3: Cu:In:Ga:Se = 30:15:6:49 (Dark domains are relatively Cu rich, bright domains are relatively Cu poor. JB Stanberry et al. APL 87, 2005, 121904 HAADF(TEM: High(Angle Annular Dark(Field Transmission Electron Microscopy EDS: Energy(Dispersive X(Ray Spectroscopy

17 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP CIGS Non3Stoichiometry and Atypical Device Behavior • Peculiar semiconductor behavior: CIGS PV devices insensitive to % atomic composition variations & extended defects >19% efficiencies recently reported† over range: • 0.69 ≤ [Cu]/([In]+[Ga]) ≤ 0.98 (Group I/III ratio) • 0.21 ≤ [Ga]/([Ga]+[In]) ≤ 0.38 (Group III alloy ratio: Eg • Empirical Observations • CIGS PV devices are always copper deficient compared to α(CuInSe2 • Compositions lie in the equilibrium α+β2(phase domain †Jackson et al., Prog. PV, Wiley & Sons, 2007.

18 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Characteristics of an Ideal CIGS Manufacturing process and state of the art of CIGS synthesis • CIGS Manufacturing method should provide a high device(quality material • Ability to create intrinsic defect structures limiting recombinations; role of order(disorder transitions? • Ability to control Group III(VI composition gradients • Control of extrinsic doping • Low high processing Rates • Low thermal budget • High materials utilization Process Steps, precursor Characteristics Multistage coevaporation Binary chalcogenide compounds Reduction of Se utilisation and In incorporation Reactive annealing pure metal films (PVD, plating…) Sputtered metal or alloy films followed by high T annealing in Se/S Complex intermetallic alloying. Uncontrolled segregation Reactive annealing Se/S containing precursors Incorporate Se followed from RTP Multi-step reaction kinetics Help Se in-diffusion Reactive annealing particle precursors Printed particles followed by high T annealing in Se/S Difficult recrystallization kinetics

19 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Intrinsic defects stronlgy affect optoelectronic properties. Growth conditions

20 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Influence of Se overpressure and crystal orientation on the Luminescence and thus in electronic chraacteristics P3 P2 P1 Manuel Romero Courtesy

21 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP The complexity of mechanisms and unexpected relations. Source materials and kinetics. Selenium case Nominally same growth conditions, except Se source: ( E( Se conventional evaporation Se target ( R(Se rf(plasma cracked Se(radical beam ( Differences in Voc, FF and Jsc. ( Differences in Na and Ga step profile ( Differences in surface roughness, grain size and density of absorber. Shogo Ishizuka, Akimasa Yamada, Hajime Shibata, Paul Fons, Shigeru Niki. Thin Solid Films, in press

22 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP The complexity of mechanisms and un expected relations. Source materials and kinetics. Selenium case Shogo Ishizuka, Akimasa Yamada, Hajime Shibata, Paul Fons, Shigeru Niki. Thin Solid Films, in press CdS is present at only near surface region of R(Se, while for E(Se depth profiles of Cd and S exhibit a broad distribution, due to presence of surface crevices. Ga and Se diffuses at Mo/Mo interfaces for R(Se. EBIC shows a more buried pn(junction in E(Se as pn( junction is formed in a deeper region near the Ga gradient valley according to SIMS. R( Se E( Se R( Se E( Se

23 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Difficulties in identifying in(situ/in(line measurable material properties Closing the gap Improvement of fundamental material knowledge Derive measurable material properties that are predictive of device and module performance Model the relationship between film growth and material delivery Industrial processes, beneficial impacts: ( higher throughput and yield ( higher degree of reliability and reproductibility ( higher module performance In(Situ Procces Diagnostics and Control Better science(based knowledge of materials properties Materials and photonic interalation. Real time diagnosis tools.

24 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP 16/07/10Page 24 Copyright © NEXCIS – Tous droits réservés Previous activity

25 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Education Degree: Licence in Physics (5 years), obtained in 1996 at Autonoma University of Madrid (UAM) Speciality in Optics and Materials Structure, Master degree: Optics and Materials Structure, obtained in 1996 at Autonoma University of Madrid Subject: “Study and characterization of domain structure of LiNbO3”. PhD Thesis Materials Science, obtained in 1998 at Autonoma University of Madrid Subject: “ Obtention and Characterization of Periodic Structures in LiNbO3 single crystals doped with Er e Yb”. Realized in the Crystal Growth Laboratory (CGL) of the Materials Physics Department of the UAM Thesis Director: Prof. Ernesto Dieguez Highest qualification and Extraordinary Prize of the University for Thesis in Science.

26 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Experience 1995(1998 PhD Thesis in the Crystal Growth Laboratory of Materials Physics Department at UAM (Spain) 1999(2000 Laboratory of Advanced Technologies (DEIN/SPE/GCO) at CEA(LETI in Saclay (France). European Postdoctoral fellow within Marie Curie Program in the 5th EU Program. 2000(2001 Materials Physics Department, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain) Post(doctoral fellow 2001(2006 Materials Physics Department, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain) Researcher in the Tenure Track “Ramon y Cajal” Program. Transformed to Assistant Professor in 2005. 2005(2009 Institute for the Research and Development of Photovoltaic Energy (IRDEP) EDF R&D, CNRS, ENSCP mix Institute, Chatou (France) Researcher, Project Manager and Optoelectronic Characterization Laboratory Head 2005(2007 as “Poste Rouge” in CNRS 2007(2009 as Engineer(Researcher in EDF R&D 2009(present NEXCIS Photovoltaic Innovation, Rousset (France) Senior Scientist

27 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Very Promising Basic Material Properties Possibility of micro-controlling Properties by tailoring Composition and Doping + +Tailoring of Different Sample Structures A WIDE RANGE OF INTERESTING PHOTONIC APPLICATIONS

28 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Peculiar trajectory Ferroelectric domains in Lithium Niobate Doping to control domains and laser properties Semiconductors for energy Thin films for photovoltaic CdTe and CIGS Closing the gap: ( Deep understanding ( In line characterization Molecular motors Based in understanding relationship between: 3 Material physico3chemical properties and growth (preparation) process and history . (Materials physico3chemical properties and optoelectronic defect. 3 Defects and growth process and history Missed in past: Development of characterization methods for process monitoring as the way to control defects formation. Photonics

29 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP 16/07/10Page 29 Copyright © NEXCIS – Tous droits réservés Luthium Niobate and the way to fashion their ferroelectric domain structure for optoelectronic applications

30 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Lithium Niobate a decathlon winner LN structure has been described as a very distorted perovskite with a tilt rotation of the oxygen triangles around the c axis. Intrinsic defects at the origin of their properties The chemical formula Li0.925(8)Nb1.07(1)O2.64(2) obtained during our work suggest the coexistence of lithium and oxygen vacancies; and their presence is strongly determined by the thermal history of the crystal. 48.4 mol% Li2O Congruent composition

31 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Ferroelectric domains in lithium niobate HF:HNO3 (1:2 by vol) at 110°C during 10 min. 19F mapping distribution by SIMS (skils adquired during my PhD stages in Padova University) Ferroelectric Paraelectric C(axis

32 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Off centered Czochralski growth of PPLN and APPLN Λ = 2 vpull/vrot

33 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Stoichiometric LiNbO3 impacting properties 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 316.30 316.32 316.34 316.36 316.38 316.40 316.42 316.44 316.46 316.48 316.50 316.52 316.54 316.56 V(Å 3 ) Temperature (K) Mínimos locales de Volumen de celda 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 0.9173 0.9174 0.9175 0.9176 0.9177 0.9178 0.9179 100 K SpontaneousStrain Temperature (K) 58 K Structural Anomaly in LN at 55K observed with Neutron diffraction, strongly related with stoichiometry Λ ΛΛΛΛtheory ΛΛΛΛexperimental Deviation 0wt% 6.63 6.63 0% 2wt% 6.63 3.2 48% 4wt% 6.63 2.55 39% 5.2wt% 6.63 2.05 30.9% 7wt% 6.63 ------

34 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Controlling the colour and the intensity Generation of 8 different wavelength from only one pump source System based on a APPLN:Nd crystal VR Mirrors Pump R B VGVB 2 lC G ( ) [ ]Ennxnn )()2/(%)21()()2/(2 '3'3 33 ''' λλσλλλ −−Λ+−Λ= Λ= Domain period σ33 = Electro-optic coefficient λ= Fundamental wavelength (SHG) x % = duty cycle

35 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Thin Films Solar cells based in II3VI compounds” Cd(g) + Te2(g) Cd(g) + Te2(g) Cd(g) + Te2(g) Cd(g) + Te2(g) Cd(g) + Te2(g) Cd(g) Te2(g) Bi2Te3-x (s) CdTe(s) Subst. Cd(g) Te2(g) Bi2Te3-x (s) CdTe(s) Subst. Cd(g) Te2(g) Bi2Te3-x (s) CdTe( s) Subst. Thermal process for the wiskers formation under VLS process. Using this properties of Bi2Te3(CdTe co(evaporation in a controlled way it should be possible to obtain ordered arrays of hexagonal rod CdTe and thus to enhance performance of final electronic systems C. M. Ruiz, E. Saucedo, O. Sanz and V. Bermúdez Journal of Physical Chemistry., in press

36 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP 16/07/10Page 36 Copyright © NEXCIS – Tous droits réservés Materials for Energy Conversion. Thin film solar cells CdTe Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2

37 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP CdTe: Bi. New intraband material? Extremely high Jsc (26.31 mA/cm2) for 600 mV of Voc in the case of a CdTe:Bi device with concentration at 1017 at/cm3. 10 16 10 17 10 18 10 19 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 9 10 10 10 11 undoped CdTe Resistivity(ΩΩΩΩ.cm) Bi conc (at./cm 3 ) First Principles study of Bi doped CdTe thin film solar cells: electronic and optical properties Y. Seminovski et al. ETSI UPM, Madrid

38 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP 38 Equivalent circuit ⇒⇒⇒⇒ separate each layer to identify different problems in process Optoelectronic diagnostic of a serial resistance based problem. (Back diode) CIS CdS ZnO Mo RC1 R//ZnO Rjonction R//Mo MoS2 R?ZnO RC2 RMoS2 Iph ID1 ID2 Rsh RC4 RC3 Rsh2 IRCIS CdS ZnO Mo RC1 R//ZnO Rjunction R//Mo Mo(Se,S)2 RZnO RC2 RMoS2 Iph ID1 ID2 Rsh RC4 Rc3 RDR IR 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 420 480 540 600 660 720 Voc Rs eff(%) Voc(mV) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Rs(Ohm/cm 2 ) -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Experimental data sample D Fitted curve with reverse diode Curve without reverse diode J(mA/cm 2 ) V(mV) s R ph R J ph J IR I II n I II n kT q V +              − −      − = 00 lnln -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 0.0 2.0n 4.0n 6.0n 8.0n 10.0n Capacitance(F) V bias (V ) 1611C -2-3d 1439-19-2-4a 1456-2-3d 1429-19-1-1a 13.31.936.3376 12.53.448.6594 5.355.361.8603 4.39.069.8671 RSEffFFVoc

39 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP S at the origin of CuxSe and thus origin of the back diode through CuIn5S8 Cu(S,Se) Before chemical etching 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 (3) (2) Norm.Int.(a.u.) Raman shift (cm -1 ) (1) Cu(S,Se) CuIn5S8 Cu(S,Se) grain CIS grain 1,15 1,20 1,25 1,30 1,35 1,40 1,45 1,50 1,55 1,60 1,65 1,70 1 10 100 Rs(max) 2Se/(Cu+3In) Rs increases significantly for m >1.3 Agrees with compositional range leading to formation of CuSe secondary phase CuSe at back layer region likely leading to formation of secondary phases (CuS + CuIn5S8) degrading Rs Experimental data for very high Rs values suggest relationship with presence of CuIn5S8

40 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP In situ monitoring techniques. Precursor composition monitoring m 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Cu-Se Ramanintensity(a.u.) Ramanshift(cm -1 ) Cu-Se Se OVC CISe Problem: strong signal from H2O (aqueous electrolyte solution) in 100 – 250 cm(1 spectral range Possibility to define optimal values of I(CISe) & I (Se +CuSe) corresponding to m ≥ 1.3 (in spite of high noise level) in(situ detection of deviations of m below 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 180000 200000 220000 240000 260000 IntensitatRayleigh(a.u.) 2Se/(Cu+3In) Decrease of IR at higher values of m: Possibility to detect deviations of m also above optimal range of values 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6 1,7 Intensity(Se+CuSemodes) 2Se/(Cu+3In)

41 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Excitation with laser probe from BWtek system (785 nm): quasi resonant excitation conditions in S-rich CuIn(S,Se)2 alloy: Reduction of tint in more than one order of magnitude (down to seconds) Efficient excitation of several modes (in addition to A1 peak) 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 E(L)/B2 (L) E(L) A1 Intensity(a.u.) Raman shift (cm -1 ) E(L)/B2 (L) 2nd order Alternative: Raman in quasiresonant conditions (matched to a given composition): Case example: Analysis of composition of S rich CuIn(Sx,Se13x)2

42 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Fitting of Intensity of E(L)/B2(L) mode at about 340 cm(1: exponential dependence of intensity of bands on alloy composition High sensitivity for detection of deviations of values of x in S rich alloys 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 y = A1*exp(x/t1) + y0 Chi^2/DoF = 1584241.43866 R^2 = 0.99927 y0 4622.04913 ±941.66472 A1 0.12088 ±0.05329 t1 7.29108 ±0.23256 E(L)/B2(L)intensity(a.u.) [S] % Case example: Analysis of composition of S rich CuIn(Sx,Se13x)2 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 [S] = 70% [S] = 77% [S] = 86% [S] = 89% [S] = 91% Intensity(a.u.) Raman shift (cm -1 ) [S] = 100% 1/2 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 intensity(a.u.) Ramanshift(cm -1 ) [S]=100% [S]=78% [S]=89% [S]=77% [S]=70% Moreover: 0,35 0,40 0,45 0,50 0,55 0,60 0,65 1,450 1,455 1,460 1,465 1,470 1,475 1,480 1,485 1,490 1,495 Exitonposition(eV) Voc (V) Voc tends to increase with EPL.

43 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Coloured regions: possibility to obtain resonant excitation with different lasers Extension to alternative quaternary CIGS based alloys Matching excitation wavelength to Eg: possibility to assess composition of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 alloys with different Ga/(In+Ga) and/or S/(S+Se) contents: 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2,0 2,2 2,4 2,6 Gap(eV) Ga/(In+Ga) Laser CuInSe2 1064nm 976nm 785nm 512nm 671nm 488nm 633nm CuGaSe2 CuGaS2 CuInS2

44 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP NaCN etching Removal Cu(S,Se) secondary phases RTP recrystallisation under selenising and/or sulphurising conditions Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Electrodeposition Metallic or CuInSe2 precursors CBD of CdS buffer layer RF-sputtering of ZnO window layer Electrodeposition based process In3line/ in3situ: Raman scattering monitoring of ED3CIGS films and processes Identification of phases and alloys (chemical composition) Monitoring of crystalline quality & Ga, S and Se incorporation Assessment of NaCN etching (disappearance of Cu(S,Se) modes) & CdS deposition

45 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Photoluminescence set3up 13 Spectroscopy: study of radiative defects and quality of material Metzger and Repins, et al. Thin Solid Films 517 (2009) p.2360, and E MRS, May 2008

46 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Photoluminescence set3up 23 Mappping: process control CdS ZnO CISSe

47 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP 16/07/10Page 47 Copyright © NEXCIS – Tous droits réservés Some indicators

48 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Some numbers 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 NumberofPublications,ISI Year of Publication Total ISI papers: 99 Sum of Times Cited: 741 Average Citations per Item: 7.5 (6.1) h(index: 13 Conference Proceedings: 30 Oral Presentations: 14 Invited presentations: 7 Keynotes: 1 3 Patents (submitted)

49 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Awards 1) PhD Thesis Prize Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 1998/1999 2) Finalist in “The EU Descartes Prize 2003” within the frame of the European Project “Molecules in Motion: hydrogen bond(assembled molecular machines (MOLS(IN(MOTION). 3) Young Prize 2004 in Science and Technology by Universidad Complutense de Madrid Foundation 4) 2007 Schieber Prize from International Organization on Crystal Growth. With invited Plenary Conference. http://www.iocg.org/ “Engineered Periodic Poled Lithium Niobate Structures doped with Rare Earth for multi self(frequency conversion “

50 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP Others 2 thesis co(supervised (1 France, 1 Spain) 7 Stages supervised in France and Spain. 14 Seminars in France, Italy, Belgium, Spain, Germany Associate Editor of Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy Expert for AERES and EU in FP7 Pormoting Women in Science and Engineering

51 Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches. Veronica BERMUDEZ BENITO 16 June 2011. université Aix Marseille. IM2NP We are just speaking of produced watts?

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11 % weniger Habilitationen im Jahr 2011 - uni-jena.de

2011 ihre Habilitation an wissenschaftlichen Hochschulen in Deutschland erfolgreich abgeschlossen. ... der Habilitationen im Vergleich zum Vorjahr um 11 %.
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Pressemitteilungen - 11 % weniger Habilitationen im Jahr ...

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Habilitation Dr. Günther Schatter 2011 - tu-ilmenau.de

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Universität Leipzig: Promotionen 2011

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HABILITATION ELECTRIQUE B2V ... The PowerPoint PPT presentation: "HABILITATION ELECTRIQUE" is the property of its rightful owner.
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Rehabilitation – Wikipedia

Rehabilitation (mittellat.: rehabilitatio, „Wiederherstellung“). kurz: Reha bezeichnet eine Sozialleistung zur Wiedereingliederung einer kranken ...
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