Published on March 11, 2014
H2O Fuel for Carz and Generators
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www.mzconsultants.com TO, THE CHAIRMAN AND MANAGING DIRECTOR, DEAR SIR, PLEASE FIND BELOW CONSULTING WORK OFFERED BY MZ CONSULTANTS: 1. MZ HOTELZ. 2. MZ HOUZING. 3. MZ TRAINZ. 4. MZ ENERGY. 5. MZ BANKZ. 6. MZ AIRLINEZ. 7. MZ CARZ. 8. MZ COMMUNICATIONZ - MZ CELLZ + MZ BROAD BAND. 9. MZ CRUIZE. 10. MZ MOVIEZ. 11. MZ FASHON. 12. MZ ENTERTAINMENT. 13. MZ GOLFING SCHOOL.
14. MZ ZIP ZAP ZOOM. 15. MZ ZUBE ZUBE ZUBE ZOOO. 16. MZ ZOOO. 17. MZ MBA. 18. MZ SCHOOL. 19. MZ AUTOMATIC WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. 20. MZ ALTERNATE FUEL SYSTEMZ FOR CARZ AND GAS GENERATORZ. 21. MZ COMPUTER HARDWARE AND PERIPHERALZ SALEZ, SERVICING AND REPAIRZ. 22. MZ RECYCLING AND WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMZ. 23. MZ AIR CONDITIONERZ AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMZ SALEZ AND SERVICING. 24. MZ REVERSE OSMOSIS WATER PURIFIERZ AND WATER SOFTNERZ. 25. MZ MEDICAL TOURIZM. 26. MZ PUMPS, MECHANICAL SEALS AND SEALING SYSTEMS
H2O FUEL FOR CARZ AND GENERATORS. A Concept. To, The Chairman and Managing Director, Many vehicles worldwide are already running on propane gas and natural gas. These cars and gas generators can be made to run on hydrogen and oxygen gases as well. • There is a safe and better way to produce these gases that can run any gasoline engine. Simply store the water in a holding tank and then use water pump to pump the water into the separation fuel cell box or Electrolyzer, then thru Electrolysis water can be broken into hydrogen and oxygen gases. • This gas when burnt in the combustion chamber gives power to the engine. This engine then drives the dynamo that charges the batteries which supply dc current to the electrolyzer.
• The electrochemical conversion of water to H2 and O2 gases requires less energy. Hydrogen gas has very high calorific value and the combustion of H2 and O2 Gases gives more energy that can run an engine and the car itself and in case of generators light up the whole house. Thru a water pump, water jet nozzle, water filter unit, solenoid valve unit and by Engine Revolution Sensors unit, water can be injected into the engine when the Engine Body temperature is around 400-500 deg C. At these engine conditions water will quickly convert into super heated steam that further will give power to the engine improves performance and increases efficiency of the engine. This process reduces the temperature of the engine to about 120 deg C or less hence heating problem of the engine is reduced. Steam and water vapor is the exhaust of the combustion process. Thru a switch control, exhaust can be thrown out into fresh air to have better temperature control in warmer climate. In cold climate the exhaust can be collected and directed back to the Air Conditioning System for reuse.
When the fuel used is hydrogen and oxygen gases, the material of construction of the engine is the same as original as supplied by the engine manufacturers for Steam Engines. Miniature Multipoint water electrolysis system or fuel generation system is needed. Timing needs to be set once the system is in place. This refers my discussion with my friend Mr. Jagan today 5th Feb 2011 where in he came out with a point that if water is injected into the system then wouldn’t it jam or damage the piston and cylinder arrangement. I have an answer to it. Go back into the days of steam engines even they worked well only efficiency was an issue then. There will be temperature sensors and water will be injected into the engine only when the temperature is high. When the temperature will exceed certain limits only then will the water be injected into the engine quickly converting water into super heated steam.
The absorption of heat by steam and the expansion process will generate additional power. With the availability of modern day’s metallurgy like titanium and CNC machines close tolerances can be maintained and efficiencies can be improved further. Reciprocating steam engines, like the ones that power small scale live steam locomotives, require the use of steam oil to internally lubricate their moving parts. These parts include steam admission valves, pistons and cylinders, and valve and piston rods. Steam oil is introduced into the steam supply in one of three ways: mechanical injection via a mechanically driven pump (Aster Big Boy), Roscoe (dead leg) displacement lubricator (most Aster locomotives), and the pass-through displacement lubricator (AccuCraft, Roundhouse, etc.)
Steam oil must possess unique characteristics to allow it to mix with saturated steam and hot water (condensate) within the admission valve and cylinder assemblies, and to provide a sufficient lubricating oil film between the engine’s internal moving parts at all times. STEAM CYLINDER OIL RECOMMENDATIONS : Standard product recommendations start at steam pressures of 150 to 200psig (366 to 388F). The grade of recommended steam cylinder oil for these conditions is ISO 460 which contains 4% tallow oil. This is the grade of oil that the “ride-on” locomotive community uses.
ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER.
By providing energy from a battery, water (H2O) can be dissociated into the diatomic molecules of hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2). This process is a good example of the the application of the four thermodynamic potentials. The electrolysis of one mole of water produces a mole of hydrogen gas and a half-mole of oxygen gas in their normal diatomic forms. A detailed analysis of the process makes use of the thermodyamic potentials and the first law of thermodynamics. This process is presumed to be at 298K and one atmosphere pressure, and the relevant values are taken from a table of thermodynamic properties. Quantity H2O H2 0.5 O2 Change Enthalpy -285.83 kJ 0 0 ΔH = 285.83 kJ Entropy 69.91 J/K 130.68 J/K 0.5 x 205.14 J/K TΔS = 48.7 kJ
The process must provide the energy for the dissociation plus the energy to expand the produced gases. Both of those are included in the change in enthalpy included in the table above. At temperature 298K and one atmosphere pressure, the system work is W = PΔV = (101.3 x 103 Pa)(1.5 moles)(22.4 x 10-3 m3/mol)(298K/273K) = 3715 J Since the enthalpy H= U+PV, the change in internal energy U is then ΔU = ΔH - PΔV = 285.83 kJ - 3.72 kJ = 282.1 kJ This change in internal energy must be accompanied by the expansion of the gases produced, so the change in enthalpy represents the necessary energy to accomplish the electrolysis. However, it is not necessary to put in this whole amount in the form of electrical energy. Since the entropy increases in the process of dissociation, the amount TΔS can be provided from the environment at temperature T. The amount which must be supplied by the battery is actually the change in the Gibbs free energy: ΔG = ΔH - TΔS = 285.83 kJ - 48.7 kJ = 237.1 kJ Since the electrolysis process results in an increase in entropy, the environment "helps" the process by contributing the amount TΔS. The utility of the Gibbs free energy is that it tells you what amount of energy in other forms must be supplied to get the process to proceed. Combining a mole of hydrogen gas and a half-mole of oxygen gas from their normal diatomic forms produces a mole of water. A detailed analysis of the process makes use of the thermodynamic potentials. This process is presumed to be at 298K and one atmosphere pressure, and the relevant values are taken from a table of thermodynamic properties. Quantity
H2 0.5 O2 H2O Change Enthalpy 0 0 -285.83 kJ ΔH = -285.83 kJ Entropy 130.68 J/K 0.5 x 205.14 J/K 69.91 J/K TΔS = -48.7 kJ
Energy is provided by the combining of the atoms and from the decrease of the volume of the gases. Both of those are included in the change in enthalpy included in the table above. At temperature 298K and one atmosphere pressure, the system work is W = PΔV = (101.3 x 103 Pa)(1.5 moles)(-22.4 x 10-3 m3/mol)(298K/273K) = -3715 J Since the enthalpy H= U+PV, the change in internal energy U is then ΔU = ΔH - PΔV = -285.83 kJ - 3.72 kJ = -282.1 kJ The entropy of the gases decreases by 48.7 kJ in the process of combination since the number of water molecules is less than the number of hydrogen and oxygen molecules combining. Since the total entropy will not decrease in the reaction, the excess entropy in the amount TΔS must be expelled to the environment as heat at temperature T. The amount of energy per mole of hydrogen which can be provided as electrical energy is the change in the Gibbs free energy: ΔG = ΔH - TΔS = -285.83 kJ + 48.7 kJ = -237.1 kJ For this ideal case, the fuel energy is converted to electrical energy at an efficiency of 237.1/285.8 x100% = 83%! This is far greater than the ideal efficiency of a generating facility which burned the hydrogen and used the heat to power a generator! Although real fuel cells do not approach that ideal efficiency, they are still much more efficient than any electric power plant which burns a fuel.
CALORIFIC VALUE OF HYDROGEN -A COMPARISON- The calorific value of a fuel is the quantity of heat produced by its combustion - at constant pressure and under "normal" conditions (i.e. to 0oC and under a pressure of 1,013 mbar). The combustion process generates water vapor and certain techniques may be used to recover the quantity of heat contained in this water vapor by condensing it. The Higher Calorific Value (or Gross Calorific Value - GCV) suppose that the water of combustion is entirely condensed and that the heat contained in the water vapor is recovered. The Lower Calorific Value (or Net Calorific Value - NCV) suppose that the products of combustion contains the water vapor and that the heat in the water vapor is not recovered.
Fuel Higher Calorific Value (Gross Calorific Value - GCV) kJ/kg Btu/lb Diesel 44,800 19,300 Gasoline 47,300 20,400 Hydrogen 141,790 61,000 Petrol 48,000 Petroleum 43,000 kJ/m3 Btu/ft3 Hydrogen 13,000 1 kJ/kg = 0.4299 Btu/ lbm = 0.23884 kcal/kg, 1 Btu/lbm = 2.326 kJ/kg = 1.8 kcal/kg
PROPERTIES OF HYDROGEN GAS. Hydrogen Gas It is a chemical element that exists as a gas at room temperature. Hydrogen gas is odorless, tasteless, colorless, and highly flammable. When hydrogen gas burns in air, it forms water. When mixed with oxygen across a wide range of proportions, hydrogen explodes upon ignition. Hydrogen burns violently in air. It ignites automatically at a temperature of 560 °C. Molecular Weight Molecular weight : 2.016 g/mol Solid phase Melting point : -259 °C Latent heat of fusion (1,013 bar, at triple point) : 58.158 kJ/kg Liquid phase Liquid density (1.013 bar at boiling point) : 70.973 kg/m3 Liquid/gas equivalent (1.013 bar and 15 °C (59 °F)) : 844 vol/vol Boiling point (1.013 bar) : -252.8 °C Latent heat of vaporization (1.013 bar at boiling point) : 454.3 kJ/kg
Gaseous phase 1. Gas density (1.013 bar at boiling point) : 1.312 kg/m3 2. Gas density (1.013 bar and 15 °C (59 °F)) : 0.085 kg/m3 3. Compressibility Factor (Z) (1.013 bar and 15 °C (59 °F)) : 1.001 4. Specific gravity (air = 1) (1.013 bar and 21 °C (70 °F)) : 0.0696 5. Specific volume (1.013 bar and 21 °C (70 °F)) : 11.986 m3/kg 6. Heat capacity at constant pressure (Cp) (1 bar and 25 °C (77 °F)) : 0.029 kJ/(mol.K) 7. Heat capacity at constant volume (Cv) (1 bar and 25 °C (77 °F)) : 0.021 kJ/(mol.K) 8. Ratio of specific heats (Gamma:Cp/Cv) (1 bar and 25 °C (77 °F)) : 1.384259 9. Viscosity (1.013 bar and 15 °C (59 °F)) : 0.0000865 Poise 10. Thermal conductivity (1.013 bar and 0 °C (32 °F)) : 168.35 mW/(m.K)
Miscellaneous Solubility in water (1.013 bar and 0 °C (32 °F)) : 0.0214 vol/vol Concentration in air : 0.00005 vol % Auto ignition temperature : 560 °C Major Hazards Major hazard : Fire and High Pressure Toxicity (Am. Conf. Of Gov. Ind. Hygienists ACGIH 2000 Edition) : Simple Asphyxiant Flammability limits in air (STP conditions) : 4.0-75 vol% Odour : None UN Number : UN1049 (gas); UN1966 (liquid refrigerated) EINECS Number : 215-605-7 DOT Label (USA) : FG DOT Hazard class (USA) : Flammable Gas
Strokes Of Internal Combustion Engine
Intake During the intake stroke, the piston moves downward, drawing a fresh charge of vaporized fuel/air mixture. The illustrated engine features a poppet intake valve which is drawn open by the vacuum produced by the intake stroke. Some early engines worked this way; however, most modern engines incorporate an extra cam/lifter arrangement as seen on the exhaust valve. The exhaust valve is held shut by a spring (not illustrated here). Compression As the piston rises, the poppet valve is forced shut by the increased cylinder pressure. Flywheel momentum drives the piston upward, compressing the fuel/air mixture.
Power At the top of the compression stroke, the spark plug fires, igniting the compressed fuel. As the fuel burns it expands, driving the piston downward. Exhaust At the bottom of the power stroke, the exhaust valve is opened by the cam/lifter mechanism. The upward stroke of the piston drives the exhausted fuel out of the cylinder. Ignition System This animation also illustrates a simple ignition system using breaker points, coil, condenser, and battery.
A number of visitors have written to point out a problem with the breaker points in this illustration. In this style ignition circuit, the spark plug will fire just as the breaker point opens. The illustration appears to have this backwards. In fact, the illustration is correct; it just moves so fast it's difficult to see! Here's a close-up of the frames just at the point the plug fires: The points need to remain closed for only a fraction of a second, called the dwell. Larger four stroke engines usually include more than one cylinder, have various arrangements for the camshaft (dual, overhead, etc.), sometimes feature fuel injection, turbochargers, multiple valves, etc. None of these enhancements changes the basic operation of the engine.
Specification Of Maruti 800 AC LPG Maruti 800 AC LPG Engine Engine Type In-Line Engine Engine Description 0.8L 35bhp 3 cyl. In-line, FC engine Engine Displacement(cc) 796 No. of Cylinders 3 Maximum Power 35.5 @ 5,000 (PS@rpm) Maximum Torque 5.7 @ 2,500 (kgm@rpm) Valves Per Cylinder 2 Fuel Supply System MPFI Bore x Stroke 68.5 x 72.0 mm Compression Ratio 8.8:1
Turbo Charger No Super Charger No Maruti 800 AC LPG Transmission Transmission Type Automatic Gear box 4 Speed Drive Type FWD Synchronizers Reverse only Maruti 800 AC LPG Suspension System Front Suspension Mcpherson strut & coil spring
Rear Suspension Coil spring ShockAbsorbers Type Gas Filled Maruti 800 AC LPG Steering Steering Type Manual Steering Column Collapsible Steering Gear Type Rack & Pinion Turning Radius (wheel base) 4.4 m Maruti 800 AC LPG Brake System Front Brake Type Disc
Rear Brake Type Drum Maruti 800 AC LPG Fuel Mileage-City (kmpl) 12.4 Mileage-Highway (kmpl) 16.6 Fuel Type LPG Fuel Tank Capacity (litres) 19 Emission Norm Compliance Bharat Stage III Maruti 800 AC LPG Tyres Tyre Size 145/70 R 12
Tyre Type Radial Wheel Size 12 x 4 J Maruti 800 AC LPG Other Specifications Seating Capacity 5 No of Doors 4 General Maruti 800 AC LPG Car Details Country of Assembly India Country of Manufacture India Introduction Date 06-June-2008 Warranty Time - 2 years
MPFI M.P.F.I. means Multi Point Fuel Injection system. In this system each cylinder has number of injectors to supply/spray fuel in the cylinders as compared to one injector located centrally to supply/spray fuel in case of single point injection system. Advantage of M. P. F. I. (1) More uniform A/F mixture will be supplied to each cylinder, hence the difference in power developed in each cylinder is minimum. Vibration from the engine equipped with this system is less, due to this the life of engine components is improved. (2) No need to crank the engine twice or thrice in case of cold starting as happens in the carburetor system. (3) Immediate response, in case of sudden acceleration / deceleration. (4) Since the engine is controlled by ECM* (Engine Control Module), more accurate amount of A/F mixture will be supplied and as a result complete combustion will take place. This leads to effective utilization of fuel supplied and hence low emission level. (5) The mileage of the vehicle will be improved. ECM ( Engine Control Module) and its function
The function of ECM is to receive signal from various sensors, manipulate the signals and send control signals to the actuators. Sensors; Sensing different parameters (Temperature, Pressure, Engine Speed etc.) of the engine and send signal to ECM. Actuators; Receives control signal from ECM and does function accordingly (ISCA, PCSV, Injectors, Power Transistor etc.) Case I: If ECM fails to send control signal to all actuators then the engine won't get started. Case II: If ECM fails to service from all sensors then also the engine won't get started.
Set up required for MZ Consultants. 1. R&D - INR Ten Thousand Crores. 2. Manufacturing Unit - INR Five Hundred Thousand Crores. a. Land and Building. b. Human Resource. c. Product Designing. d. Purchases - Raw Material. e. Production.- Plant and Machinery. f. Inventory Control And Management . g. Packaging and Forwarding. h. Sales and Marketing. i. Transportation. j. Servicing and Retro - fitment and maintenance- Vehicles Inwards and Vehicles Outwards.
Consultancy Fee for the above write up is INR Five Hundred Crores Only. Thanks and regards, Mannu Kumar Gossain. Proprietor. MZ Consultants. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, mzconsultants @ymail.com. Website: www.mzconsultants.com, Dated: 25/7/2006., Reg.No.:ALO19/HYD/49/2010.
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