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Published on December 7, 2007

Author: Brainy007

Source: authorstream.com

The Fourteenth Century: Twilight of the Middle Ages:  The Fourteenth Century: Twilight of the Middle Ages -Key Concepts- “Signs of Change”:  “Signs of Change” Catholic Church losing its authority New military weapons, tactics and strategies Growing nationalism Loosening of social hierarchy I. The Black Death (1347-1351):  I. The Black Death (1347-1351) Preconditions leading to the Plague Dietary and hygienic problems Government and Church preconditions Origins of the Bubonic Plague Contemporary explanations I. The Black Death (cont):  I. The Black Death (cont) The physiological progression of the disease Mortality rates varied Contemporary, popular remedies Flagellants Various forms of escape and relief pursued I. The Black Death (cont):  I. The Black Death (cont) Deep pessimism and doubt spread all over Europe New urban ordinances Steep population decline along with increased wages for laborers Economic and political power of local artisans rose I. The Black Death (cont):  I. The Black Death (cont) Value of noble estates declined Aristocratic incomes dropped Increase in royal power Towns prospered Depiction of death in art -- “The Dance of Death” I. The Black Death (cont):  I. The Black Death (cont) Cheapening of human life Persecution of Jews Marriage no longer delayed Limited employment opportunities for women Departure from the Middle Ages? II. The Hundred Years War (1337-1453):  II. The Hundred Years War (1337-1453) Combatants, length and location of the War Causes of the War Course of the War Differences between the English and French forces Battle of Crecy (1346) II. The Hundred Years War (cont):  II. The Hundred Years War (cont) The Battle of Poitiers (1356) Henry V gains the field at Agincourt (1415) Background of Joan of Arc Joan’s meeting with the French dauphin II. The Hundred Years War (cont):  II. The Hundred Years War (cont) Joan is victorious at Orleans (1429) Joan provided inspiration and national unity Capture, trial and execution of Joan of Arc The masculinity of Joan’s dress and bearing II. The Hundred Years War (cont):  II. The Hundred Years War (cont) Gunpowder warfare is introduced into Europe Development of the English Parliament Peasants and non-nobles constituted a new infantry Departure from the Middle Ages? II. The Hundred Years War (cont):  II. The Hundred Years War (cont) Superiority of mounted knight undermined by new weapons Increased nationalism Centralization of French monarchy Destruction of peasant farmland English clothing industry emerges III. Appearance of Vernacular Literature:  III. Appearance of Vernacular Literature Dante’s Divine Comedy (1321) Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales (1387-1400) Vernacular Translations of the Bible --John Wycliffe (mid-14th century) III. Vernacular Literature (cont):  III. Vernacular Literature (cont) --Later John Hus and William Tyndale Christine de Pizan (1364-1430) --Book of the City of Ladies (1404) Departure from the Middle Ages? IV. Fur Collar Crime and Peasant Revolts:  IV. Fur Collar Crime and Peasant Revolts “Fur Collar” Crime Factions of nobles develop and the instability of European thrones -- “War of the Roses” in England (early 1400’s) Peasant Revolts flared up in this environment IV. Peasant Revolts (cont):  IV. Peasant Revolts (cont) The Jacquerie (1358--France) Wat Tyler’s Rebellion (1381--England) The preaching of John Ball Urban Rebellion --Ciompi Revolt (1378—Florence) Departure from Middle Ages? V. The Decline of Papal Prestige (cont):  V. The Decline of Papal Prestige (cont) Increasing resistance against the power of Rome Humiliation of Pope Boniface VIII (early 14th Century) Papal Bull Unam Sanctam (1302) The “Babylonian Captivity” in Avignon (1309-1377) V. The Decline of Papal Prestige (cont):  V. The Decline of Papal Prestige (cont) Indulgences and Purgatory Wealth and politics of the Avignon Popes “The Great Schism” (1378-1417) The Conciliar Movement --Council of Pisa (1409) V. The Decline of Papal Prestige (cont):  V. The Decline of Papal Prestige (cont) Council of Constance (1414) Pope Pius II condemns appeals to Councils in 1460 Results of the Conciliar Movement Critique of Papal Power V. The Decline of Papal Prestige (cont):  V. The Decline of Papal Prestige (cont) John of Paris, On Kingly and Papal Power (1302) Marsiglio’s The Defender of the Peace (1324) Growing separation of faith and politics Departure from the Middle Ages? VI. New Inventions and Artistic Patterns:  VI. New Inventions and Artistic Patterns The mechanical clock (14th Century) Time was no longer the province of God or the church. It was now controlled by man for his profit. New kind of realism in art --Giotto (1266-1337) VII. 14th Century Heresies:  VII. 14th Century Heresies Earlier Heresies --Waldensians --Albigensians (Cathars) Criticisms of the Church John Wycliffe (d. 1384—England) VII. 14th Century Heresies (cont):  VII. 14th Century Heresies (cont) Lollards John Hus (d. 1415—Bohemia) Wycliffe influenced Hus Condemned by the Council of Constance Departure from the Middle Ages? VIII. Rejection of Scholasticism:  VIII. Rejection of Scholasticism Reason and faith are not complementary Rejection of scholasticism liberates both reason and faith William of Ockham (1285-c. 1349—England) --Empiricist VIII. Rejection of Scholasticism (cont):  VIII. Rejection of Scholasticism (cont) “Ockham’s Razor” Proclaims unknowability of the divine Supports “Spiritual Franciscans” Argues for the autonomy of the secular state Departure from the Middle Ages?

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