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Published on November 2, 2007

Author: Garrick

Source: authorstream.com

The Second Feudal Age (950-1350 AD):  The Second Feudal Age (950-1350 AD) -Key Concepts- I. Similarities to First Feudal Age:  I. Similarities to First Feudal Age Continuation of feudalism -- “public authority in private hands” Continued economic importance of manorialism Continued importance of feudal relationships Centrality of the Church to medieval culture II. Differences from the First Feudal Age:  II. Differences from the First Feudal Age A. Reduction in Violence:  A. Reduction in Violence Magyars defeated in 955 and begin to settle in what will be Hungary Infighting among Muslims Vikings simply stop marauding and settle down A. Reduction in Violence (cont):  A. Reduction in Violence (cont) Walls built around towns Dominance of Siege Warfare Church attempts to “tame” warfare -- “peace of God” -- “truce of God” B. Agricultural Revolution:  B. Agricultural Revolution Improvement in climate Population decline of previous centuries led to search for new technologies -- “carruca” --new yoke and harness system for draft animals Seed yield shoots up=more food B. Agricultural Revolution (cont):  B. Agricultural Revolution (cont) Population increases promoting town growth Tremendous search for more land Serfs become free peasants paying rent Agricultural specialization develops in regions C. Population Increase:  C. Population Increase Birth rate up and death rate down European-wide population explosion --1100 AD = 42 million --1300 AD = 72 million Regional population bursts Between 1066 and the Black Death (1347-1351), the population of England, Scotland and Wales tripled to 5-6 million while the population of France grew to 20 million C. Population Increase:  C. Population Increase No major famines or plagues between 1000-1200 AD Malaria and leprosy were the real medical problems of the era More people for the lords to tax D. Aggressive, Optimistic Mentality:  D. Aggressive, Optimistic Mentality Aggressive approach to land reclamation Peasants given freedom in exchange for bringing land under cultivation The Crusades Urban II calls for the First crusade in 1095 -- “Reconquista” D. Aggressive, Optimistic Mentality (cont):  D. Aggressive, Optimistic Mentality (cont) Varying motivations for participation in the Crusades The Crusades justified by the Church as a “just war” 8 Crusades and 2 Children’s Crusades in 1212 The First and Second Crusades D. Aggressive, Optimistic Mentality (cont):  D. Aggressive, Optimistic Mentality (cont) The Third Crusade --King Richard I (“Lionhearted”) of England --King Phillip II Augustus of France --HRE Frederick Barbarossa of Germany The Fourth through the Sixth Crusades Aggressive, Optimistic Mentality (cont):  Aggressive, Optimistic Mentality (cont) The Children’s Crusades Results of the Crusades for Italian towns and European Kings First widespread attacks on European Jews --Peasants Crusade led by Peter the Hermit D. Aggressive, Optimistic Mentality (cont):  D. Aggressive, Optimistic Mentality (cont) Western Europe became vulnerable to attack from the east The power of women increased Improved knowledge of engineering and fortification Creation of military monastic orders --Hospitallers --Templars E. Revival of Town Life:  E. Revival of Town Life Origins of Town Development Expanding of city walls The original “suburbs” Towns were a magnet for the unemployed Key Italian cities surpassed a population of 100,000 by the mid-1200’s Paris and London were at 50,000 E. Revival of Town Life (cont):  E. Revival of Town Life (cont) Most cities numbered between 10,000-20,000 By 1300, 10% of the population of western Europe lived in cities Towns were service centers for reemerging long distance trade and sources of money Struggle for autonomy with lords E. Revival of Town Life (cont):  E. Revival of Town Life (cont) Origins of “Communes”: representative town government Inter-city warfare in Italy By the end of the 1200’s, most Italian cities were under despots The exception = Florence and Venice --Medici family E. Revival of Town Life (cont):  E. Revival of Town Life (cont) Town Life– “a world of perpetual shade” -- “burg” Problems of overcrowding Regulation of businesses Walls as psychological symbols -- “ghetto” The value of citizenship E. Revival of Town Life (cont):  E. Revival of Town Life (cont) Great differences in social classes Role of women in town life Begging, prostitution, and law enforcement Professional geographic diversity Air pollution and water pollution Life inside a towndweller’s home F. Revival of Long-Distance Trade:  F. Revival of Long-Distance Trade Medieval Guilds—obstacle to long-distance trade --three levels of skill in the crafts -- “just price theory” Medieval Craft Fairs Chief commodities traded Regulation of Craft Fairs F. Revival of Long Distance Trade (cont):  F. Revival of Long Distance Trade (cont) Craft Fairs as town entertainment Development of economic transactions Funding of long-distance trade Development of pre-modern banking system Balance of trade problems at first Towns ally with kings in the name of trade G. Cultural Awakening:  G. Cultural Awakening (1) Rise of the Medieval University:  (1) Rise of the Medieval University Origins of the Medieval University The University of Bologna (1158) The University of Paris Medical Schools Standard teaching method --summa The “disputation” as an intellectual joust (1) Rise of the Medieval University (cont):  (1) Rise of the Medieval University (cont) Criticism of the teaching method Religious foundations of university life Granting of Degrees The rigors of university academia “Town versus Gown” conflict Relationship to professors (1) Rise of the Medieval University (cont):  (1) Rise of the Medieval University (cont) The Medieval University Curriculum -- trivium -- quadrennium The violence of University Life --Origins of Cambridge (1209) (2) Medieval Scholasticism:  (2) Medieval Scholasticism Origins of Scholasticism Product of Twelfth-Century Renaissance Champions of Scholasticism --Anselm --Peter Abelard --Sic et Non (2) Medieval Scholasticism (cont):  (2) Medieval Scholasticism (cont) Greatest Scholastic of all was Thomas Aquinas --Summa Theologica --Synthesis of Aristotle and Christianity Critics of Scholasticism --Bernard of Clairvaux --William of Ockham and Duns Scotus (3) New Christian Art, Architecture and Drama:  (3) New Christian Art, Architecture and Drama New art emphasized Jesus’ humanity and the personal, emotional religious experience Veneration of Mary Woolen tapestries replace painted murals Romanesque Church structures (11th and 12th centuries) (3) New Christian Art, Architecture and Drama (cont):  (3) New Christian Art, Architecture and Drama (cont) Gothic Cathedrals (12th and 13th centuries) Exterior construction techniques Gothic style matched an energized Europe Cathedrals as a source of civic pride—built by generations of city craftsmen (3) New Christian Art, Architecture, and Drama (cont):  (3) New Christian Art, Architecture, and Drama (cont) City competition to build the highest Gothic Cathedral The symbolism of cathedral interiors The emergence of religious drama during the 13th century -- “mystery plays” H. Religious Reform:  H. Religious Reform The growth of religious abuses “Lay investiture” problems The Cluniac Order (910) --1350 houses by 1000 AD The Cistercian Order The appearance of urban monastic orders H. Religious Reform (cont):  H. Religious Reform (cont) The Franciscan Order The Dominican Order The Carthusian Order Dramatic increase in the number of women joining convents during the 12th century The Waldensians The reform of Papal elections in 1059 H. Religious Reform (cont):  H. Religious Reform (cont) Papal reformer Gregory VII --lay investiture conflict with HRE Henry IV --Concordat of Worms (1122) Innocent III and the zenith of papal power H. Religious Reform (cont):  H. Religious Reform (cont) Innocent III calls for a crusade against the Cathars in 1209 Inquisition introduced in 1226 to finish the work of this crusade Sanctions Franciscan and Dominican orders Innocent calls the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 III. Emerging European Monarchies:  III. Emerging European Monarchies A. The Holy Roman Empire (Germany):  A. The Holy Roman Empire (Germany) The view of kings as holy and untouchable -- “Divine right theory of kingship” Original power of the HRE Origins of political instability and fragmentation of monarchical power A. The Holy Roman Empire (cont):  A. The Holy Roman Empire (cont) HRE seeks a power base outside of Germany in northern Italy and Sicily Frederick I (Barbarossa) Frederick II (1212-1250) was the first feudal monarch to establish a centralized administration and an army of soldiers paid in cash B. France:  B. France Hugh Capet—the first French king after the end of the Carolingian dynasty (987) Increasing power of monarchs over lords through time Philip Augustus (1180-1223) The reign of Louis IX (1226-1270) B. France (cont):  B. France (cont) Louis IX moral and religious authority Age of scholasticism in Paris Extension of royal justice through “Parlement” Weakness of the Estates-General C. England:  C. England King Alfred the Great (871-899) More stable principle of succession William the Conqueror (1066-1087) --The Battle of Hastings (1066) Feudalism from the “top down” The practice of “parleying” C. England (cont):  C. England (cont) The use of Anglo-Saxon officials to assert royal power on the local level The “Domesday Book” (1086) The rule of Henry I (1100-1135) --The Royal Exchequer The rule of Henry II (1154-1189) C. England (cont):  C. England (cont) Judicial reform under Henry II -- “common law” Henry II marries Eleanor of Aquitaine Their subsequent divorce and political turmoil Henry II conquered part of Ireland and made the King of Scotland his vassal C. England (cont):  C. England (cont) Henry II and his confrontation with Thomas Becket (1164-1170) Richard I (“The Lionhearted”) Richard’s brother King John John’s conflict with Philip Augustus, King of France C. England (cont):  C. England (cont) John abuses his vassals to raise money for war with Philip King John’s battle with his vassals at Runnymede (1215) The Magna Carta (1215) The first Parliament met in 1295 The roots of constitutional monarchy IV. Christians and Jews:  IV. Christians and Jews Origins of anti-Jewish sentiment in the Christian Church Official church position on the Jews Actual persecution of European Jews Jewish expulsion from western Europe Jewish theologians tried to harmonize faith with reason --Maimonides

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