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Education

Published on April 17, 2008

Author: Rebecca

Source: authorstream.com

Ancient Greece:  Ancient Greece -Key Concepts- I. Prehistoric Beginnings:  I. Prehistoric Beginnings The Myceneans and the Minoans Heinrich Schliemann’s Discoveries --Ancient Troy (1870) --Mycenae (1876) Arthur Evans Uncovers Knossos (1899) A. Minoan Civilization:  A. Minoan Civilization Society at its peak between 2000-1500 BCE Harmonious and peaceful society --first known flush toilet Minoan civilization closely interrelated to Mycenean civilization Minoan government A. Minoan Civilization (cont):  A. Minoan Civilization (cont) Minoan Social Classes Treatment of Women Minoan Entertainment A Gift for Inventions and Engineering Minoan Religion Minoan Art B. Mycenaean Civilization:  B. Mycenaean Civilization Emergence of Mycenean Civilization Mycenean Conquest of the Minoans The Fall of Mycenean Civilization --Dorians Mycenean Culture and Government -- “wanax” A culture geared toward war Mycenean Art C. Influence and Significance of Early Greek Civilization:  C. Influence and Significance of Early Greek Civilization Minor impact on later Greek life and culture Cultural slate “wiped clean” by Dark Ages (1200-750 BCE) Great wave of immigration during this era all over the Aegean and along western coast of Asia Minor Still, significant contributions: --earliest European civilizations --progressive Minoan art --Minoans: worldly and innovative II. The “Dark Ages” (1200-750 BCE):  II. The “Dark Ages” (1200-750 BCE) “Dark Ages” in the Near East were shorter, ending around 900 BCE Homer provides some glimpses Simple political patterns Emergence of an aristocracy exerting influence over society II. The “Dark Ages” (cont):  II. The “Dark Ages” (cont) Social Life during the “Dark Ages” Purpose of Early Greek Religion Anthropomorphic Greek gods Greek indifference to an afterlife The role of arete or “excellence” in early Greek thought III. Early Greek Literature and the Greek Alphabet:  III. Early Greek Literature and the Greek Alphabet Development of the Greek alphabet Benefits of the Greek alphabet Homer’s Iliad --Achilles and the Trojan Wars Homer’s Odyssey --Odysseus and Penelope III. Early Greek Literature (cont):  III. Early Greek Literature (cont) Lessons of Homer’s Epics Women as well as men pursued excellence Homer’s depiction of the gods Arete and the Birth of the Olympic Games (776 BCE) Centrality of religion for communal activity III. Early Greek Literature (cont):  III. Early Greek Literature (cont) Hesiod and the theme of justice -- Works and Days Solon and the theme of moderation 6th Century BCE Lyric Poetry --Sappho from the island of Lesbos --Archilocus the sailor IV. Greek Geography:  IV. Greek Geography Mountains and islands created isolation Blessed with lots of good harbors Isolation led to political disunity Intimate size of Greek city-states Most plentiful natural resources V. Early Political History and Colonization:  V. Early Political History and Colonization The Emergence of the City-State (“Polis”) --Athens, Sparta and Thebes Importance of access to the sea in trading internationally Role of the gods in sea travel The prosperity of Corinth Origins of Greek colonization movement V. Early Political History (cont):  V. Early Political History (cont) Reasons for Greek colonization between 735-600 BCE The Pattern of Greek colonization -- “metropolis” -- oikist Interaction with local inhabitants --1500 city-states stretching from modern Spain to Asia Minor (550) V. Early Political History (cont):  V. Early Political History (cont) Influence of other cultures through trade on Greek culture Evolution of Greek city-state government --phalanxes Difference between ancient Greek political system and current American system V. Early Political History (cont):  V. Early Political History (cont) The concept of Greek citizenship --ethnos (“league”) --metics Extension of some political rights to the poor Humanistic approach to politics VI. The Centrality of the Greek Polis:  VI. The Centrality of the Greek Polis The basic political unit was the polis The center of the polis was the acropolis The Greek agora or marketplace --Athen’s Painted Stoa Most Greeks were farmers Some small-scale craftsmen VI. The Centrality of the Greek Polis (cont):  VI. The Centrality of the Greek Polis (cont) Intimacy was a key feature of polis life Polis laws and government varied The simplicity of the Greek lifestyle Layout of Greek homes --men’s dining room --women’s room for working wool --courtyard Furniture and clothing VI. The Centrality of the Greek Polis (cont):  VI. The Centrality of the Greek Polis (cont) Greek Dietary Habits The nature of Greek slavery Duties of Greek slaves Sources of slaves Treatment of slaves Leisure and sociability of Greek life Greeks were very religious people Individual defined by place within the polis VII. The Armed Camp of Sparta :  VII. The Armed Camp of Sparta Spartan militarism forged out of treatment of their neighbors --Messenian Revolt (650 BCE) Spartan governmental system --ephors (overseers) The equality of Spartan citizens— “Equals” VII. Ancient Sparta (cont):  VII. Ancient Sparta (cont) Treatment of Helots The training of Spartan boys The role of women in Sparta The “common mess” of Spartan men Spartan attitudes toward materialism Spartan military posture was isolationist and defensive VIII. The Athenian Political Partnership:  VIII. The Athenian Political Partnership The legend of Theseus Athens evolved in a different direction than Sparta Hereditary aristocracy ruled from 750-600 BCE --Draco’s Laws (610 BCE) Emergency powers given to Solon (594 BCE) Solon introduces democratic principles VIII. Athenian Political Partnership (cont):  VIII. Athenian Political Partnership (cont) The tyranny of Pisistratus (546 BCE) The overthrow of the tyranny of Hippias (510 BCE) Lasting stability introduced by Cleisthenes (507 BCE) All Attica divided into 10 regions— “demes” VIII. Athenian Political Partnership (cont):  VIII. Athenian Political Partnership (cont) Basic components of Athenian political system: --Assembly --Athenian Council --magistrates --generals The institution of “ostracism” VIII. Athenian Political Partnership (cont):  VIII. Athenian Political Partnership (cont) Athenian democracy was never truly democratic, but close Problems with the system: --undue influence of persuasive speech --continuity of experience of officeholders Reason-focused, humanistic foundation for Athenian political system IX. Greek Military History:  IX. Greek Military History The golden age of Greece is set between two wars like giant bookends. A. The Persian Wars:  A. The Persian Wars Initial Athenian contact with Persia Athenian assistance to Ionian Greeks Two Persian campaigns: 490 and 480-479 BCE The Battle of Marathon (490 BCE) Xerxes’ invasion of Northern Greece (480) A. The Persian Wars (cont):  A. The Persian Wars (cont) The burning of Athens and Spartan resistance at the Pass of Thermopylae The naval battle of Salamis (479 BCE) Significance of victory over the Persians Victory released a tremendous surge of confidence and optimism in human potential B. Growth of the Athenian Empire (478-431 BCE):  B. Growth of the Athenian Empire (478-431 BCE) Glorious war followed by inglorious era Establishment of the Delian League --triremes Growing Athenian abuse of the Delian League Spartan creation of the Peloponnesian League B. Growth of Athenian Empire (cont):  B. Growth of Athenian Empire (cont) Rich Athenians exploited the Delian League Evolution of the Athenian Jury System The political leadership of Pericles Aggressive foreign policy against Sparta C. The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE):  C. The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE) Origins of the War Athenian military strategy Problems with this strategy Faltering Athenian religious confidence Deteriorating political leadership in Athens --Cleon’s capture of 120 Spartan “Equals” (425) C. Peloponnesian War (cont):  C. Peloponnesian War (cont) Changing Spartan Military Strategy --Athenian siege of Melos (416 BCE) --Betrayal of General Alcibiades Athenian surrender and aftermath --Rule of the Thirty Tyrants Continuing strife between Greek city-states X. Women and Slaves in the Daily Life of Ancient Athens:  X. Women and Slaves in the Daily Life of Ancient Athens Discrimination against women: seclusion Special privileges for priestesses and courtesans --Aspasia Ancient Greek marriage Life expectancy and daily duties of women Property rights of Athenian women X. Women and Slaves in Athens (cont):  X. Women and Slaves in Athens (cont) Sexual bias against women Legendary bias against women --Pandora’s box The importance of bearing male children The role of Athenian slavery—small-scale but crucial to the development of Athenian culture XI. Early Greek Philosophy:  XI. Early Greek Philosophy Phileo = “To love” Sophia = “Wisdom” A. Ionian Cosmologists (or Pre-Socratics):  A. Ionian Cosmologists (or Pre-Socratics) Studied the workings of the physical universe apart from a religious context --Thales Nature is not governed by chance or manipulated by the gods—nature is orderly Importance of human reason A. Ionian Cosmologists (cont):  A. Ionian Cosmologists (cont) All things could be reduced to a primary substance --concept of “metaphysics” --Thales: water --Democritus: primal matter (atoms) A. Ionian Cosmologists (cont):  A. Ionian Cosmologists (cont) Used general concepts crucial to abstract thought --Anaximander: notion of “boundless” and evolution --Pythagoras: numbers explain natural world --Parmenides: reality known solely through the mind, not the senses B. The Sophists:  B. The Sophists Professional teachers offering worldly wisdom and lessons in persuasion The importance of oral culture in Athens The training of Athenian youth --Symposium B. The Sophists (cont):  B. The Sophists (cont) Humanistic and relativistic teaching of Protagoras -- “Man is the measure of all things” --no absolute truths Impact of such teaching Conservative criticism of the Sophists Fear that Sophist teaching would offend the gods C. Socrates:  C. Socrates His life and background Human beings and society were the essential subjects of philosophical inquiry Did believe in universal values and absolute good His method of teaching was continuous questioning C. Socrates (cont):  C. Socrates (cont) New Direction in Greek philosophy: Ethics An emphasis on critical self-examination Charges brought against Socrates by a democratic faction The trial of Socrates The execution of Socrates XII. Greek Religion in the Classical Period:  XII. Greek Religion in the Classical Period Concept of reciprocity Divine punishment of humans --miasma The nature of the gods No uniform Greek faith or creed Priests, priestesses and religious observances XII. Greek Religion in the Classical Period (cont):  XII. Greek Religion in the Classical Period (cont) The nature of a religious sacrifice The role of hero cults --Hercules The Cult of Demeter and the “Mysteries” of Eleusis XIII. Greek History:  XIII. Greek History “historia” = humanistic inquiry Herodotus—the Father of History --Father of anthropology as well --chronicled the Persian Wars XIII. Greek History (cont):  XIII. Greek History (cont) Thucydides and the Peloponnesian War --scrutinized the reliability of sources --sought underlying principles of history; moralistic writing --Athenian hubris led to Peloponnesian War --humanistic explanation for historical events XIV. Greek Medicine:  XIV. Greek Medicine Hippocrates = Father of Scientific Medicine Four “humors” (fluids) in the human body: blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile Physician should base his knowledge on careful observation of patients and their response to remedies XV. Greek Art and Architecture During the Golden Age:  XV. Greek Art and Architecture During the Golden Age “Black Figure” Vases and jugs Athenian sculptors took human greatness as their main theme Well-proportioned, naturalistic human nudes appear early in the 5th century BCE Sculptors and tragedians both depicting “universal man” XV. Greek Art and Architecture During the Golden Age (cont):  XV. Greek Art and Architecture During the Golden Age (cont) Aristocrats commission public statuary Popularity of bronze as a medium for sculptors --Myron’s Discus Thrower Motion and energy in Greek statuary reflected the possibility of change and instability in classical Greek times XV. Greek Art and Architecture During the Golden Age (cont):  XV. Greek Art and Architecture During the Golden Age (cont) The Athenian Parthenon (447-438 BCE) Difference from Egyptian and Near Eastern temples A new depiction of Athena Not a gathering place for worshippers Size and appearance of the building An Ionic Frieze is used on a Doric-style Temple XVI. Classical Greek Drama:  XVI. Classical Greek Drama Emergence of the Tragic Drama (500 BCE) Athenian dramatic competitions --protagonists The role of the chorus and special effects Tragedies were very humanistic The universal law of fate and the role of rational reflection XVI. Classical Greek Drama (cont):  XVI. Classical Greek Drama (cont) The theatrical production --Thespis = first single actor Ideal plot inspired pity or fear leading to a “catharsis” or cleansing for the audience --Sophocles’ Antigone Plays frequently featured women as central, active figures XVI. Classical Greek Drama (cont):  XVI. Classical Greek Drama (cont) Aeschylus and patriotic dramas --The Persians Sophocles and the problems of the human condition—moderation also a key --Oedipus Rex XVI. Classical Greek Drama (cont):  XVI. Classical Greek Drama (cont) The innovations of Euripides --Medea and Electra --most psychological of classical Greek tragedians Aristophanes and classical Greek comedies --The Clouds --Lysistrata --Birds (414 BCE) State sponsorship of Greek comedies with no censorship XVII. The Significance of Greek Athletics:  XVII. The Significance of Greek Athletics Origins of the Olympic Games Importance of sportsmanship at the games Individual, not national competition and the nature of training Classical Greek Olympic Events XVII. Greek Athletics (cont):  XVII. Greek Athletics (cont) Determining a winner Prizes for victors and the keeping of Olympic records --The significance of the pentathlon No women allowed; athletes performed in the nude Later history of the Olympics before the modern era XVIII. The Legacy of Ancient Greece:  XVIII. The Legacy of Ancient Greece See the Greeks realistically The primacy of freedom --eleutheria Glorification of the mind and body Dignity of the individual Key words traced back to Greek civilization Notion of democracy Rich philosophical foundation Fullest development of the human potential --paidea = everyone must sculpt their own statue

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