H Rlegal

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Information about H Rlegal

Published on October 14, 2007

Author: knksmart

Source: slideshare.net

Diversity, Equal Employment, and Affirmative Action Diversity  – The variety of dimensions differentiating people Equal Employment Opportunity  – Individuals should have equal treatment in all employment-related actions. Protected Class  – Individuals within a group identified for protection under equal employment laws and regulation. • Race, ethnic origin, color • Gender • Age • Disability • Military experience • Religion • Marital status • Sexual orientation © 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 4–1

Affirmative Action Affirmative Action  – A process in which employers identify problem areas, set goals, and take positive steps to enhance opportunities for protected-class members and to remove the effect of past discrimination. Reverse Discrimination  – Occurs when a person is denied an opportunity because of preferences give to protected-class individuals who may be less qualified. – Cases • Hopwood v. State of Texas • Bakke v. University of California © 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 4–2

Major Equal Employment Laws and Concepts Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII  – Coverage • All private employers with 15 or more employees • All educational institutions • State and local governments • Public and private employment agencies • Labor unions with 15 or more employees • Joint labor/management apprenticeship committee – Established the Equal Opportunity Commission to enforce the act’s provisions. © 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 4–3

Civil Rights Act of 1991 Significant provisions:  – Employment practices must be job-related and consistent with business necessity. – Plaintiffs must identify particular employment practice and show that protected-class status was a factor in the employment practice. – Provided limited compensatory damages for intentional discrimination. – Allows plaintiffs to seek jury trials. – Prohibited norming and use of alternative scoring based on protected class membership. – Extended EEO coverage to U.S. citizens overseas. © 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 4–4

Affirmative Action Regulations Executive Orders 11246,11375, and 11478  – Requires holders of federal contracts not to discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, or sex and to develop affirmative action plans. – Office of Federal Contract Compliance (OFCCP) in the Department of Labor enforces these presidential orders. Affirmative Action Plan (AAP)  – Formal document that an employer compiles annually for submission to enforcement agencies. © 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 4–5

Laws on Sex/Gender Discrimination Acts Pregnancy Requires an employer to treat maternity leave the Discrimination Act same as other personal or medical leaves. (PDA) of 1978 Employers must treat pregnant employees the same as other employees. Family Medical Requires that individuals be allowed up to 12 Leave Act (FMLA) weeks of unpaid leave for family/medical purposes. of 1990 Equal Pay Act of Requires employers to pay similar wage rates for 1963 similar work without regard to gender. Exceptions are permitted for differences in seniority, performance, output, and other work-related factors. © 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 4–6

Sex/Gender Discrimination Pay Equity (Comparable Worth)  – The concept that pay for jobs requiring comparable levels of knowledge, skill, and ability should be paid similarity, even if actual duties differ significantly. – Arises from the continuing gap between the earnings of women and men. – Courts have consistently ruled against the concept. Sexual Harassment  – Actions that are sexually directed, are unwanted, and subject the worker to adverse employment conditions or create a hostile work environment. © 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 4–7

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) ADA Concepts Disabled Person Someone who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits life activities, who has a record of such impairment, or who is regarded as having such and impairment. Essential Job Fundamental job duties of the employment position Functions that an individual with a disability holds or desires. Reasonable A modification or adjustment to a job or work Accommodation environment that enables a qualified individual with a disability to have an equal employment opportunity. Undue Hardship Significant difficulty or expense imposed on an employer in making an accommodation for individuals with disabilities. © 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 4–8

Other Employment Discrimination Acts Act Age Discrimination Prohibits employment discrimination against all in Employment individuals age 40 or older working for employers (ADEA) having 20 or more workers. Does not apply if age is a job-related qualification (BFOQ). Immigration Reform Prohibits employment discrimination against and Control Act persons legally permitted to work in the United (IRCA) States. Requires employers to document eligibility for employment. Provides penalties for knowingly employing illegal workers. © 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 4–9

Other Types of Discrimination Type of Discrimination Religious Discrimination Discrimination is illegal unless religion is a bona fide occupational qualification. Reasonable accommodation is required. Genetic Bias Developing area with no clear guidelines Discrimination as yet on use of genetic information in employment. Appearance and Weight Application of workplace dress codes is Discrimination permitted. Height and weight-related job requirements must be job-related. Sexual Orientation At present, federal protection against workplace discrimination has not been granted. © 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 4–10

Other Types of Discrimination Type of Discrimination Veterans’ The Vietnam-Era Veterans Readjustment Act and Employment Rights the Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Act encourage the employment of veterans and require employers to provide leaves of absence and reemployment rights for employees called to active duty. Seniority and Courts have held that the application of a valid Discrimination seniority system does not violate the rights of protected-class individuals. Conviction and Employers may not use arrest records in Arrest Records employment decisions. Conviction records may be used in determining employability if the offense is job-related. © 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 4–11

Equal Employment Charges by Type Figure 4–5 © 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 4–12

Guidelines to Lawful and Unlawful Preemployment Inquires Source: Developed by Robert L. Mathis, Mathis & Associates, L.L.C, 1429 North 131st Avenue Circle, Omaha, NE 66154. All rights reserved. No part of this may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without written permission from Mathis & Cole. Figure 4–10a © 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 4–13

Guidelines to Lawful and Unlawful Preemployment Inquires (cont’d) Source: Developed by Robert L. Mathis, Mathis & Associates, L.L.C, 1429 North 131st Avenue Circle, Omaha, NE 66154. All rights reserved. No part of this may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without written permission from Mathis & Cole. Figure 4–10b © 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 4–14

Guidelines to Lawful and Unlawful Preemployment Inquires (cont’d) Figure 4–10c © 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 4–15

Guidelines to Lawful and Unlawful Preemployment Inquires (cont’d) Figure 4–10d © 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 4–16

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