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Published on January 1, 2008

Author: Denise

Source: authorstream.com

A Statewide Perspective on Water- Related Energy Use (WREU) :  A Statewide Perspective on Water- Related Energy Use (WREU) An Introduction to the Issue Gary Wolff, P.E., Ph.D. www.pacinst.org Methodology for “Energy In Water” :  Methodology for “Energy In Water” Sources and Conveyance Water Treatment Distribution Customer Use Wastewater Collection and Treatment A More Detailed Diagram :  A More Detailed Diagram Industrial Self Supply Domestic Self Supply Desalination Local Surface Water Large Water Projects Urban Ground Pump Irrigation Ground Pump Ag Ground Pump Additional Reclaimed Water Treatment Treated Self Supply Treated Central Supply Urban Reclaimed Water Dist. Urban Potable Distribution Irrigation District Distribution Agricultural Reclaimed Water Dist. Urban Landscape Irrigation Urban Indoor Water Consumption Urban Groundwater Recharge Agricultural Groundwater Banking Agricultural Water Consumption Collection Pumping Treatment plants Outfall Studies Developing and Using This Methodology:  Studies Developing and Using This Methodology Wilkinson (2000) Energy Down the Drain (2004) PI Water-to-Air Models (2004) Statewide Assessment of Energy Used to Manage Water (Underway) Utility Case Studies Including Application of the W-to-A Models Other Studies Are Underway:  Other Studies Are Underway DOE National Labs Road-Map PIER Collaboration With Other Research Organizations Peak Use Reduction (Lon House Using Data From Energy IOUs & ACWA) Questions I’ll Touch On (But Not Fully Answer):  Questions I’ll Touch On (But Not Fully Answer) Energy To “Convey, Treat, Distribute?” Associated Energy Costs? Water Utility Costs For Energy? Some Important Knowledge Gaps? Impact of State Policies? Possible Future Policies? Energy to Convey, Treat, and Distribute Water (Year 2000):  Energy to Convey, Treat, and Distribute Water (Year 2000) At Least 21,000 Actual GWh Or About 8% of Electricity Use Plus About 100 million gallons of diesel fuel (= 1,500 Equivalent GWh) Most of This (About 80%) Is in Sources and Conveyance; About 3% Is Water Treatment; And About 17% Is Used In Distribution C+T+D Energy Costs?:  C+T+D Energy Costs? That Is a Very Difficult Question Consider: CRA Electricity Costs $0.01/ kwh TOU and Demand Charges Apply Nonetheless, Perhaps $2.3 Billion (At $0.10/ kwh & $2 per Gallon) And Perhaps $0.5 Billion More For Carbon Dioxide Emissions (At $50/Ton) Water Utility Costs For Energy?:  Water Utility Costs For Energy? Method 1: The Previous C+T+D Number “Share” For Urban Water Utilities (12%) Implies About $275 Million Per Year Method 2: Some Recent US-Wide Numbers Imply About $420 Million Per Year Some Important Data Gaps?:  Some Important Data Gaps? Statistically Significant, Energy Intensity Numbers for Utilities in CA In Particular: Local Surface Water Lift Vs. Gravity Wastewater Collection System Lift The Difference Between Water-Related & Water-Use-Dependent Energy Use On the Customer Side of the Meter What Does High Estimated Energy Intensity in Customer Use Imply? :  What Does High Estimated Energy Intensity in Customer Use Imply? Impact of State Policies On Energy Use At Water Utilities?:  Impact of State Policies On Energy Use At Water Utilities? Others Will Address This in Detail, But: Think About Incomplete Information: For Example, Hot Water Savings Think About Split or Perverse Incentives: For Example, Reduced Profit for IOUs And “External Costs” For All Utilities Possible Future Policies?:  Possible Future Policies? Again, Others Will Speak in Detail, But: Create Positive Financial Drivers For Water Utilities From Conservation Let Energy Utilities Conserve or Produce Energy Whenever Socially Desirable, Whether On- or Off- Customer Premises, etc. Encourage New BMPs or Programs Like Dual-Flush Toilet Requirements In High-Rise Buildings Conclusions:  Conclusions “Energy In Water” Is Significant and Worth Understanding But No One Is Saying “Less Energy Use is Always Better” Gary Wolff, P.E., Ph.D. gwolff@pacinst.org

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