Guides Saga

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Information about Guides Saga

Published on April 18, 2008

Author: Regina1


Slide1:  Part Two The Greek Sagas Greek Local Legends Slide2:  Chapter 17: The Theban Saga The Founding of Thebes Boeotia in central Greece CadmusCadmeia Agenor, king of Tyre Herodotus: myth and history and the abduction of women Europa Daughter of Agenor, brother of Cadmus Zeus as bull Voyage to Crete Cadmus, Founder of Thebes Consultation with the Delphic oracle Oracle of the cow Founding of Cadmeia Spring of Ares and the guardian serpent Athena’s aid Spartoi (“sown men”) Servitude of Cadmus Harmonia, daughter of Ares and Aphrodite Necklace of Harmonia Cadmus and HarmoniaIno, Semele, Autonoë, and Agave Tradition of the introduction of writing Transformation into serpents Slide3:  The Theban Saga The Families of Labdacus and Lycus Deaths of Pentheus and Labdacus Laius, infant son of Labdacus Lycus, regent of Thebes, son of Chthonius (one of the Spartoi) Nycteus, brother of Lycus, father of Antiope Zeus visits Antiope in the form of a satyr. Twins Amphion (musician) and Zethus (herdsman) Deaths of Lycus and of Dirce, his wife Building of the walls of Thebes (Amphion’s lyre) Amphion marries Niobe; Zethus marries Thebe Laius Return of Laius Curse of Pelops for the abduction of his son Chrysippus Oedipus, son of Laius and Jocasta Exposure on Mt. Cithaeron and wounding of ankles Oedipus raised by Polybus and Merope, king and queen of Corinth Oedipus (“swellfoot”) Meeting at the crossroads Oedipus and the Sphinx Sphinx (“strangler”) terrorizes Thebes Sent by Hera The riddle of the Sphinx Oedipus’ success and marriage to Jocasta Slide4:  The Theban Saga The Recognition of Oedipus Differing versions Two Homeric passages Sophocles’ Oedipus Tyrannus Oedipus and JocastaAntigone, Ismene, Polynices, and Eteocles Plague afflicts Thebes for failing to find the murderer of Laius Messenger from Corinth comes to Thebes and Oedipus learns that he is not the son of Polybus and Merope Servant comes forward who was given Laius’ infant son to expose and turns out to be the sole survivor of the attack at the crossroads Truth of Oedipus’ birth laid bare Jocasta’s suicide Oedipus blinds himself and is banished The End of the Oedipus Tyrannus Regaining heroic stature Human and divine relationships Acceptance of the will of the gods Inevitability of fate Personal responsibility for actions committed Sophocles’ Oedipus at Colonus Produced at Athens posthumously in 401 B. C. End of Oedipus’ life Precinct of the Eumenides Theseus Oedipus’ guilt or innocence Transformation to heroic status Opposition of Creon Polynices and his expedition to take Thebes Oedipus curses Polynices Slide5:  The Theban Saga The End of the Life of Oedipus The miraculous and mysterious passing of Oedipus Accorded worship after his death Other Versions of the Myth of Oedipus Homer: Oedipus dies in battle; Epicaste (Jocasta) is not the mother of children Euripides’ Oedipus: servants of Laius blind Oedipus Euripides’ Phoenissae : Oedipus not in exile when the expedition of the Seven against Thebes comes; Jocasta still alive; after the failure of the expedition, Jocasta kills herself over the bodies of her sons; Oedipus exiled The Myth of Oedipus and Psychoanalytic Theory “Oedipus complex” of Sigmund Freud, 1910 Importance of dreams Sublimation and repression of the truth Gradual perceptions Strength finally to face the truth The Seven against Thebes The preliminaries to the expedition Curse inflicted upon Polynices and Eteocles by Oedipus Agreement to rule in alternate years Eteocles assumes the kingship first Polynices goes to Argos Decision to attack Thebes Ancient treatments Aeschylus’ Seven against Thebes Euripides’ Phoenician Women Euripides’ Suppliant Women Sophocles’ Antigone Statius’ Thebaid Slide6:  The Theban Saga The Seven against Thebes: Polynices, Adrastos, Tydeus, Capaneus, Hippomedon, Parthenopaeus, and Amphiaraüs Bribery of Eriphyle, Amphiaraüs’ wife, with necklace of Harmonia Incidents on the Journey from Argos to Thebes Death of infant Opheltes; establishment of Nemean Games Opheltes (“snake child”) becomes Archemorus (“beginner of death”) Tydeus slaughters Theban ambush party. The Failure of the Attack on Thebes Fulfillment of curse Atoning suicide of Menoeceus, son of Creon Eteocles and Polynices kill each other. Death of other heroes; barbarity of Tydeus Amphiaraüs Adrastus saved by swift steed, Arion Amphiaraüs swallowed by the earth along the river Ismenus Amphiaraüs, cult hero Slide7:  The Theban Saga Antigone Sophocles’ Antigone Denial of burial to Polynices by Creon Antigone’s refusal to submit Antigone buried alive Defiance and suicide of Antigone Haemon, Creon’s son and fiancé of Antigone, kills himself Eurydice, Creon’s wife, kills herself Sophocles’ Portrayal of Antigone Antigone’s scorn of her sister, Ismene, and indifference towards Haemon Focus on Haemon’s love for Antigone Antigone as heroine: defiant, relentless, and fierce Antigone’s lament of her family’s destiny Euripides and the Theban saga Fragmentary remains of Euripides’ Oedipus and Antigone Oedipus blinded at the crossroads by servants of Laius Antigone and Argia, Polynices’ widow, place Polynices’ body on Eteocles’ pyre Antigone is caught and given to Haemon for execution Antigone is hidden and gives birth to Haemon’s son Haemon’s disobedience later realized and lovers commit suicide Euripides’ Phoenissae (extant) Oedipus and Jocasta are still alive in Thebes when the Seven attack Antigone vows to bury Polynices and is sent into exile with Oedipus Slide8:  The Theban Saga The Burial of the Seven against Thebes The Epigoni, Sons of the Seven against Thebes Alcmaeon, son of Amphiaraüs Epigoni (“later generation”) Thebes destroyed a generation before Trojan War Alcmaeon, Eriphyle, and the Necklace of Harmonia Alcmaeon kills Eriphyle for her treachery Flight to Arcadia Flight to region where the sun had not shone when Alcmaeon killed his mother Death of Alcmaeon Dedication of necklace in Delphi Tiresias Descended from the Spartoi Oracular vision/blindness Lived for seven generations Traditions about his loss of sight Ovid’s Metamorphoses Callimachus Death of Tiresias Tiresias in the Underworld Slide9:  Chapter 18: The Mycenaean Saga Pelops and Tantalus Pelops, son of Tantalus, from Asia Minor Suitor for Hippodamia, daughter of Oenomaüs, king of Pisa Hero cult of Pelops at Olympia Tantalus’ offense against the gods Dismemberment of Pelops Offers his son as a feast for the gods Punishment in Underworld Cannibalism and sacrificial rituals Demeter alone partakes of feast. Pelops’ ivory shoulder Pindar’s version: Poseidon’s love for Pelops The Pelopion Sacrifices to Zeus and Pelops Eponymous hero of the Peloponnese (“island of Pelops”) Temple of Zeus at Olympia West pediment: chariot race between Pelops and Oenomaüs The race between Pelops and Oenomaüs and the origin of the curse Variant: bribery of Myrtilus, son of Hermes Demand of Myrtilus and his death Curse of Myrtilus Atreus and Thyestes Pelops becomes king of Pisa Quarrel between Thyestes and Atreus over Mycenae The possession of the golden-fleeced ram Thyestes’ seduction of Aërope, Atreus’ wife Atreus’ return and exile of Thyestes Banquet of Thyestes’ children and Thyestes’ curse Slide10:  The Mycenaean Saga Agamemnon, Clytemnestra, and Aegisthus Aegisthus, son of Thyestes and his daughter Pelopia Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, husband of Clytemnestra Agamemnon and ClytemnestraIphigenia, Electra, Orestes, and Chrysothemis Agamemnon, leader of the Greek expedition against Troy Sacrifice of Iphigenia at Aulis Role of Artemis Aeschylus’ Agamemnon Euripides’ Iphigenia in Aulis Adultery of Clytemnestra with Aegisthus Agamemnon murdered, along with Cassandra, by Clytemnestra and Aegisthus Homer’s version: murder committed by Clytemnestra and Aegisthus Aeschylus’ version: Clytemnestra acts alone Orestes and Electra Clytemnestra and Aegisthus usurp throne Orestes grows to adulthood in exile at the court of Strophius, king of Phocis Orestes’ duty to avenge his father’s murder Apollo’s command and Electra’s encouragement Homer’s Odyssey : Orestes praised for avenging his father Sophocles’ Electra : matricide is a just ordinance of Apollo Aeschylus’ Libation Bearers: and Euripides’ Electra: matricide elicits feeling of revulsion Orestes pursued by the Furies (Erinyes) Exile and redemption at Athens Aeschylus’ Eumenides: Orestes’ final acquittal and the transformation of the Erinyes into the Eumenides (“kindly ones”) Slide11:  The Mycenaean Saga Treatments of Electra and Orestes Aeschylus’ Oresteia: Agamemnon, Libation Bearers, and Eumenides Movement from blood guilt and vengeance to justice of law courts, from darkness to light, from chthonian to olympian Agamemnon : curse reinvigorated against Agamemnon Libation Bearers : curse moves against Clytemnestra and Aegisthus, and through their deaths, against Orestes Eumenides : trial of Orestes and acquittal Orestes at Delphi Command of Apollo sends him to Athens and Athena Court of the Areopagus created by Athena; citizen jury Apollo’s defense Claim of the Erinyes Athena’s deciding vote Erinyes appeased and become the Eumenides (“kindly ones”) Establishment of Zeus’ will Sophocles’ Electra Electra as focal point Matricide accepted as divinely ordained Euripides’ Electra Debasement of heroic figures Electra’s sexual jealousy Electra and Orestes act together in the murder of Clytemnestra. Euripides’ Iphigenia in Tauris Orestes commanded to go to the land of the Tauri Sacrifice of foreigners Iphigenia discovered as priestess of Artemis Cleansing of matricide Iphigenia and Orestes return to Greece Slide12:  The Mycenaean Saga Euripides’ Andromache Andromache has borne Neoptolemus a son Menelaüs and a childless Hermione plan to kill Andromache Orestes’ arrival and revelation of betrothal Neoptolemus murdered by Orestes Appearance of Thetis (deus ex machina) Eurpides’ Orestes Set in Argos after murder of Clytemnestra Tormented Orestes is nursed by Electra Condemnation of Orestes and Electra Plot to murder Helen and Hermione to avenge themselves on Menelaüs, who refused to aid their cause Appearance of Apollo (deus ex machina) Helen immortalized; Orestes to go to Athens and be acquitted; Orestes will marry Hermione and Pylades will marry Electra Euripides’ debasement of heroic figures Slide13:  The Mycenaean Saga Additional Reading Orestes and the three Electras Aeschylus’ Libation Bearers (Choephori) Orestes with Pylades at the grave of Agamemnon Electra and a chorus of women bring offerings Recognition scene between Orestes and Electra Threnody: elaboration of their just revenge Orestes and Pylades received by Clytemnestra Aegisthus’ murder Scene between Orestes and Clytemnestra Orestes stands over victims, paralleling Clytemnestra’s earlier murder of Agamemnon and Cassandra. Orestes driven out by the Furies Sophocles’ Electra Electra as focal point Matricide accepted as divinely ordained Orestes returns to Mycenae with Pylades In Sophocles both Clytemnestra and Aegisthus take part in the murder of Agamemnon. Electra in mourning Chrysothemis, foil for Electra Bitter scene between Electra and Clytemnestra Electra receives word that Orestes is dead Recognition scene Orestes kills Clytemnestra, then Aegisthus Slide14:  The Mycenaean Saga Euripides’ Electra Debasement of heroic figures Electra’s sexual jealousy Orestes returns with Pylades Electra has been forced to marry a kind, but old, man More realistic recognition scene Aegisthus welcomes the strangers to a sacrificial banquet Orestes kills Aegisthus. Electra gloats over Aegisthus’ corpse Clytemnestra arrives Confrontation between Electra and Clytemnestra Issues of sexual rivalry, jealousy, and psychological perversity Orestes must be goaded by his sister to commit the murder Electra and Orestes act together in the murder of Clytemnestra Desire for retribution and the trauma of matricide. Appearance of the Dioscuri Electra to marry Pylades Orestes to go to Athens for acquittal Slide15:  Chapter 19: The Trojan Saga and the Iliad The Children of Leda Leda and Zeus (as a swan) Castor and Clytemnestra (mortal egg); Helen and Polydeuces (immortal egg) The Dioscuri (“sons of Zeus”) Castor, tamer of horses and mortal Polydeuces (Roman Pollux), skilled in boxing and immortal Quarrel with Idas and Lynceus Rape of the Leucippides (“daughters of Leucippus”) Death of Castor Shared immortality of Castor and Polydeuces Patrons of sailors (St. Elmo’s fire) Helen Menelaüs, king of Sparta and HelenHermione Paris (Alexander), son of Priam and Hecuba, the king and queen of Troy The seduction of Helen and the start of the Trojan War Variant: Stesichorus’ Palinode: the real Helen and the phantom Helen The Judgment of Paris Wedding of Peleus and Thetis Eris, goddess of discord, and the golden apple (“for the most beautiful”) Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite vie for honor Paris chosen by Zeus to settle dispute Hecuba’s dream: Paris as firebrand Exposure as an infant Hermes leads goddesses to Paris for his judgment. Aphrodite wins with offer of Helen Lucian (Dialogue of the Gods 20) Slide16:  The Trojan Saga Troy and its Leaders Laomedon King of Troy Apollo and Poseidon commissioned to build walls of Troy Plague and sea monster sent as punishment Exposure of Hesione Heracles and the first Greek expedition to Troy Priam (Podarces) becomes king of Troy Priam and Hecuba 50 sons and 12 (or 50) daughters Hecuba as tragic figure Paris (Alexander) Paris and Oenone, a nymph with power to heal Paris grows to maturity and is received back into Priam’s house Favorite of Aphrodite Vanity and sensuality Paris will ultimately kill Achilles Hector, Andromache, and Astyanax Hector, brother of Paris Greatest of Troy’s defenders Andromache, Hector’s wife Astyanax, infant son of Hector and Andromache Helenus, Deïphobus, and Troïlus Helenus, prophet who knew the course of the war’s end Caught by Odysseus; survives war Marries Andromache Deïphobus, husband of Helen after death of Paris Troïlus, killed by Achilles; story of Troïlus and Cressida a later development Slide17:  The Trojan Saga Cassandra and Polyxena Cassandra, daughter of Priam Prophetess, though never believed Killed by Clytemnestra Polyxena, final virgin sacrifice before the tomb of Achilles Aeneas Son of Anchises and Aphrodite Prophecy about Aeneas and his descendants: future rulers of Troy Significant in Roman legends Antenor Brother of Hecuba Counsels return of Helen Spared by Greeks With wife, Theano, he founds Patavium (Padua) in Italy Glaucus and Sarpedon Leaders of Lycian contingent Glaucus, hereditary guest-friend of Diomedes Killed by Ajax (son of Telamon) Sarpedon, son of Zeus and Laodamia Zeus’ Struggle with Sarpedon’s Fate (moira ) Sarpedon, second to Hector in nobility on Trojan side Expounds the demands of heroic arete (“excellence”) Rhesus Leader of Thracians Night raid of Odysseus and Diomedes Slide18:  The Trojan Saga The Achaean Leaders Independent commanders of their contingents Agamemnon King of Mycenae “Lord of Men” Leader of expedition against Troy Greatest in prestige Menelaüs King of Sparta Brother of Agamemnon Husband of Helen Diomedes King of Argos and a great warrior Favored of Athena Wounds Ares and Aphrodite Associated with Odysseus The Palladium (statue of Pallas), talisman for Troy Nestor King of Pylos Oldest and wisest “His speech flowed more sweetly than honey.” Survives war Ajax the Greater of Salamis Son of Telamon Bulwark of the Achaeans Foil and rival of Odysseus Straightforward, brusque Slide19:  The Trojan Saga Ajax the Less (or Lesser) Prince of Locrians, son of Oïleus Violation of Cassandra and his punishment Idomeneus Leader of Cretans, son of Deucalion Voluntary ally Odysseus Attempt to avoid war by feigning madness Crafty, cunning, of persuasive speech Achilles and His Son Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus) Prince of the Myrmidons in Phthia Greatest of Greek warriors Swift-footed, handsome Son of Peleus and Thetis Peleus Prince of Phthia, father of Achilles, son of Aeacus (king of Aegina), and brother of Telamon Death of Phocus, exile of Peleus to Phthia, and his purification by Eurytion Participation in the Calydonian boar hunt Accidental death of Eurytion Purification by Acastus, son of Pelias and king of Iolcus Acastus’ wife, Astydamia, falls in love with Peleus Acastus attempts to kill Peleus but fails Son of Peleus and Thetis destined to be greater than the fatherAchilles Slide20:  The Trojan Saga Thetis Unwilling wife of Peleus A Nereid (“child of Nereus”) Attempts to escape from Peleus Wedding of Peleus and Thetis She leaves Peleus not long after the birth of Achilles Thetis attempts to make Achilles immortal Achilles’ heel Educated by the centaur Chiron Achilles’ fate: early death with glory, or long life without glory Disguised as girl and sent to Scyros Achilles’ disguise unmasked by Odysseus Achilles and Deïdamia, daughter of Lycomedes, King of ScyrosNeoptolemus (Pyrhhus) Phoenix and Patroclus Phoenix Banished by his father Welcomed by Peleus Companion and tutor to Achilles Patroclus Also received by Peleus Closest companion of Achilles Later tradition would see them as lovers Slide21:  The Trojan Saga The gathering of the expedition at Aulis Aulis, on the coast of Boeotia, opposite Euboea Roughly 1,200 ships The sacrifice of Iphigenia The anger of Artemis and the prophet Calchas Calchas’ prophecy about the length of the war The Arrival at Troy Philoctetes Son of Poeas Island of Chryse and Philoctetes’ wound Abandonment of Philoctetes on Lemnos Bow of Heracles and the fate of Troy Philoctetes kills Paris Achilles heals Telephus Mysian Hero, son of Heracles “He that wounded shall heal.” Protesilaüs and Laodamia Protesilaüs killed by Hector as the Greeks come ashore Laodamia’s grief Brief return of Protesilaüs and Laodamia’s suicide Cycnus, son of Poseidon, turned into a swan Slide22:  The Trojan Saga The Iliad From the quarrel between Achilles and Agamemnon to the burial of Hector Chryseïs, daughter of Chryses, priest of Apollo Plague sent by Apollo Briseïs taken from Achilles as recompense Wrath of Achilles and his refusal to fight Heroic arete (“excellence”) wounded Epiphany of Athena to Achilles Thetis and Zeus Truce and duel between Menalaüs and Paris The farewell of Hector and Andromache Embassy to Achilles Odysseus’ attempt to soften Agamemnon’s words Achilles’ response Roles of Phoenix and Ajax Trojan victory and fire at the Greek ships Patroclus enters struggle Death of Sarpedon Patroclus killed by Hector Achilles’ unquenchable grief and rage Shield of Achilles fashioned by Hephaestus Achilles’ return Death of Hector Mutilation of Hector’s corpse Priam’s journey to ransom the body of Hector Achilles relents Burial of Hector The Olympian Gods in Battle Intimate involvement in conflict Theomachies (“conflicts between gods”) The Universality of the Iliad War as universal human experience Slide23:  The Trojan Saga The Fall of Troy Sources: summaries of lost epics, tragedy, representations in art, and Vergil’s Aeneid Achilles and Penthesilea, leader of the Amazons Achilles and Memnon, son of Eos (Aurora), leader of the Ethiopians Death of Achilles Wounded in the heel by Paris with the aid of Apollo Corpse recovered by Ajax Ghost of Achilles and the sacrifice of Polyxena Odysseus and Ajax Compete for the Armor of Achilles Disgrace of Ajax, his madness, and suicide Sophocles’ Ajax The Deaths of Paris and Priam Summons of Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus) and Philoctetes Philoctetes kills Paris. Neoptolemus butchers Priam Vergil’s Aeneid The Wooden Horse Epeus Homer’s Odyssey and the song of Demodocus Vergil’s Aeneid, Book 2: a detailed account of the sack of Troy Odysseus’ role Sinon Laocoön’s fear of the horse and his death, along with his two sons Slide24:  The Trojan Saga The Sack of Troy The wooden horse is brought inside Troy Greeks return from Tenedos Slaughter of Trojans Violation of Cassandra and her eventual murder Hecuba’s transformation; Cynossema (“dog’s tomb”) The Trojan Women of Euripides Death of Astyanax The Sack of Troy in the Aeneid Witness of Troy’s death throes, Aeneas, survives sack Anchises and Ascanius (Iulus) Creusa, Aeneas’ wife; her appearance as a ghost Slide25:  The Trojan Saga Appendix Meleager and the Calydonian boar hunt The embassy to Achilles and Phoenix' cautionary tale of Meleager After the Calydonian boar hunt Meleager, in a quarrel, killed his uncle, brother of his mother Althaea In grief Althaea prays for the death of her son In anger Meleager withdraws from battle Cleopatra, Meleager’s wife, successfully appeals to him, but he returns to battle too late to receive the earlier offer of reward In the Book 9 of the Iliad Phoenix uses the argument of lost rewards to try and persuade Achilles to return to battle Calydonian boar hunt The François Vase Ovid’s version in the Metamorphoses Oeneus, descendant of Aeolus, king of Calydon, father of Deïanira Meleager, son of Oeneus Althaea, mother of Meleager, and the prophecy of the log Oeneus’ offense against Artemis Artemis sends a huge boar to ravage Calydon Gathering of heroes by Meleager Atalanta, daughter of Schoenus, a Boeotian king Atalanta is first to wound the boar; Meleager delivers the killing blow Meleager favors Atalanta Death of Althaea’s brothers The burning of the log and the death of Meleager Mourning women turned into guinea fowl (meleagrides) Slide26:  The Trojan Saga Homer’s version Boar sent by Artemis during war between Calydonians and Curetes Meleager kills boar Curse of Althaea; Meleager withdraws from the war Meleager relents, and returns and saves Calydon Bacchylides’ fifth Epinician Ode Ghost of Meleager and Heracles The tradition of Atalanta Euripides’ Phoenissae: Atalanta as the mother of Parthenopaeus, one of the Seven against Thebes Slide27:  Chapter 20: The Returns and the Odyssey Epic Nostoi (“returns”) Agamemnon, Menelaüs, and Nestor Athena’s anger at Ajax, son of Oïleus Agamemnon’s return and murder Menelaüs, Nestor, and Diomedes set sail together. Menelaüs in Egypt; Eidothea and Proteus Return of Helen and Menelaüs to Sparta Menelaüs in Elysian Fields Nestor’s return to Pylos Diomedes Return to Argos; adultery of his wife, Aegialia Sails to Italy and received by Daunus, king of Apulia Hero cult Idomeneus Return to Crete; adultery of his wife, Meda, and her murder Usurpation of throne by Leucus Story of Idomeneus’ sacrifice of his son Idomeneus driven to Calabria in southern Italy Hero cult Philoctetes Return to Thessaly Driven to southern Italy Hero cult Slide28:  The Returns Neoptolemus Return over land accompanied by Helenus and Andromache Leaves Phthia with them and his wife, Hermione, and comes to Molossi in Epirus Killed at Delphi Hero cult Odysseus Return of Odysseus: elements of folktale and romantic legends grafted onto the saga Adventures of Odysseus followed by a captivity of seven years on the island of Ogygia with Calypso, his location at the beginning of Homer’s Odyssey Ten years wandering Story of Odysseus As the Odyssey opens: Odysseus with Calypso on Ogygia; Penelope, his wife, beset by suitors; and Telemachus, his son, struggling to grow to adulthood in his father’s absence Odysseus himself will sing the song of his adventures to the Phaeacians Poseidon’s wrath Athena’s protection The Cicones and the Lotus Eaters Cicones Thracian city of Ismarus sacked by Odysseus Gift of wine for sparing Maron, priest of Apollo Lotus Eaters Fruit of the lotus, which blots out the desire to return home The Cyclopes (One-Eyed Giants) Polyphemus, son of Poseidon Polyphemus’ cave Odysseus as Nobody (Outis) Blinding of the Cyclops Escape on the underside of a ram Disclosure of Odysseus’ name Polyphemus’ curse Slide29:  The Returns Aeolus and the Laestrygonians Aeolus, keeper of the winds Gift to Odysseus: bag of winds Stupidity of Odysseus’ men Aeolus’ refusal of additional aid Laestrygonians: sinking of all of Odysseus’ ships but his own Circe Island of Aeaea Sorceress, daughter of the Sun Men transformed into swine Hermes’ aid: moly Odysseus spends one year with Circe; birth of Telegonus Circe counsels journey to Underworld The Nekuia (Book of the Dead) Odyssey, Book 11 Tiresias Meeting with old comrades Agamemnon Achilles Ajax The Sirens, the Planctae, Charybdis, and Scylla In Homer the Sirens are human in form. In the later tradition they become birdlike, with women’s heads The song of the Sirens Odysseus lashed to the mast; crew’s ears stopped up with wax “The Wandering Rocks” (Planctae) Scylla, monster with girdle of six dogs’ heads Charybdis, a whirlpool Slide30:  The Returns The Cattle of the Sun (Helius) Island of Thrinacia Theft of the cattle Loss of all of Odysseus’ men Calypso Daughter of Atlas Ogygia Seven years’ captivity of Odysseus The Phaeacians Approach to Scheria, island of the Phaeacians Rescue of Leucothea Nausicaä Palace of Alcinoüs and Arete Odysseus’ tale Return of Odysseus to Ithaca Punishment of the Phaeacians Ithaca Suitors courting Penelope Penelope’s ruse of the loom Telemachus, growing to manhood, but still too young to succeed his father Odysseus, recognized by Eumaeus and Telemachus Odysseus’ entrance into the palace in the guise of a beggar Ill treatment by Melanthius, a hanger-on Argus, Odysseus’ old dog, recognizes his master and dies Odysseus receives insults from the suitors and another beggar, Irus Euryclea, Odysseus’ old nurse The contest of the bow Slide31:  The Returns The Bow and the Killing of the Suitors The suitors fail Telemachus nearly succeeds Odysseus strings bow and begins to kill the suitors, beginning with Antinoüs Medon, the herald, and Phemius, the bard, are spared Twelve maid-servants who colluded with the suitors are hanged Melanthius is mutilated and killed Telemachus Hero as a young man Athena’s aid as Mentes Worthy son of his father Mini-odyssey to Pylos and Sparta to learn word of his father Penelope Perfect match for her husband, who is polytropos (“man of many twists and turns”) Penelope’s dream about her geese Penelope’s cunning and guile Her steadfastness and resourcefulness Periphron (“circumspect”) The secret of the bed: a living olive tree Naming Odysseus Odysseus from Greek odyssamenos (“causing hatred or having hatred directed at oneself”) George Dimock’s “man of pain” Anonymity/naming of Odysseus Odysseus controls the revelation of his name (cf. Outis [“nobody”]) Man of many disguises and deceptions as to his identity Slide32:  The Returns The End of the Odyssey Hermes escorts souls of suitors to Underworld Penelope praised by Agamemnon Contrast with Clytemnestra Revelation to Laërtes, father of Odysseus A final stuggle with Laertes, Odysseus, and Telemachus fighting alongside one another Athena and Zeus enforce a settlement Odysseus and Athena Odysseus’ strengths of wisdom, guile, and cunning are fitting complements to the attributes of Athena The End of Odysseus’ Life Tiresias’ prophecy Telegonus, son of Circe and Odysseus, kills Odysseus The Universality of the Odyssey Archetype of the legendary quest Odysseus (Roman Ulysses), symbol of patience, and perseverance; importance for the Stoics Plato’s Myth of Er and Odysseus’ choice for his next life Odysseus and Penelope: exemplars of human and heroic arete (“excellence”) Slide33:  Chapter 21: Perseus and the Legends of Argos Hera and Phoroneus Argos’ connection with Corinth and Thebes, and the eastern Mediterranean Mycenaean Argolid Center for the worship of Hera Argive Heraeum Phoroneus establishes the kingdom of Argos Contest between Poseidon and Hera for patronage of Argos Poseidon’s wrath/rivers dry up Inachus, river in region and father of Phoroneus Perseus Danaë and Acrisius AbasProetus and Acrisius Acrisius, king of Argos, father of Danaë Proetus, king of Tiryns Oracle about Danaë’s son Imprisonment of Danaë in brazen chamber Zeus as shower of gold Birth of Perseus Danaë and Perseus put in chest and set adrift Island of Seriphos and the fisherman Dictys (net) Polydectes Polydectes, brother of Dictys and king of Seriphos Desire for Danaë Banquet and Perseus’ ill-considered offer of the Gorgon’s head Aid promised by Hermes and Athena Slide34:  Perseus The Graeae Three daughters of Phorcys, the Graeae (or Graiai, “aged ones”) Graeae have knowledge of the location of the Three Nymphs, who had magic objects A cap of invisibility, a pair of winged sandals, and bag, or kibisis Hermes’ gift of the scimitar Graeae share one eye and one tooth between them The Gorgons At the edge of the world; usually North Africa Pindar’s Pythian Ode 10: Perseus’ journey to the north and the Hyperboreans One mortal Gorgon: Medusa The power to turn men to stone Birth of Chrysaor (“he of the golden sword”) and Pegasus from body of Medusa, pregnant by Poseidon Hippocrene (“horse’s fountain”) on Mt. Helicon, home of the Muses Association with music and poetry Pindar’s Pythian Ode 12: description of Athena’s invention of the double-flute in imitation of the Gorgon’s lament for Medusa Andromeda Early addition to Perseus’ legend Andromeda, daughter of King Cepheus and Queen Cassiepea Ethiopia or the Levant Cassiepea’s hubris Poseidon’s sends a sea monster to ravage country Andromeda to be sacrificed to placate monster Perseus promises rescue, if he is allowed to marry Andromeda. Cepheus’ brother, Phineus, Andromeda’s former fiancé, and a band of armed men turned to stone Perses, son of Perseus and Andromeda Perseus and Andromeda return to Seriphos Slide35:  Perseus The Origin of the Libyan Snakes, the Atlas Range, and Coral Gorgon’s blood drips upon land of Libya, producing poisonous snakes Atlas refuses hospitality to Perseus and is turned to stone; the origin of the Atlas Range Head of Medusa laid upon leaves and branches; transformation to coral Polydectes and Perseus’ Return to Argos Polydectes and his followers turned to stone Dictys becomes king of Seriphos Return of magic objects Gorgon’s head, given to Athena, is placed on her aegis The Death of Acrisius Acrisius’ flight to Larissa in Thessaly Perseus kills Acrisius with ill-aimed discus Perseus returns to Tiryns; exchange of kingdoms with Megapenthes Perseus founds Mycenae Hero cult Children of Perseus and Andromeda: kings of Mycenae Heracles and Eurystheus Saga and Folktale Numerous folktale motifs Magical conception of hero by princess Discovery of hero as a child by noise of his playing Evil king and good brother Rash promise of the hero Supernatural assistance Three old women with advice Monsters of terrible visage Vindication of hero and punishment of villain Slide36:  Perseus Other Legends of Argos The family of Inachus Io, daughter of Inachus Aeschylus’ Prometheus Bound and Supplices Beloved by Zeus Her transformation to a cow The jealousy of Hera Put under the ever-watchful eyes of Argus Hermes Argeïphontes (“slayer of Argus”) A gadfly compels Io to wander, eventually all the way to Egypt Io’s restoration to human form Birth of Epaphus, ancestor of Heracles Identification of Epaphus with Apis by Egyptians Io worshiped as Isis Io originally a goddess She may have been a form of Hera Isis represented as woman with cow’s horns (as the moon-goddess Astarte) The Descendants of Io Io as founder of royal families of Egypt, Argos, Phoenicia, Thebes, and Crete Libya, daughter of Epaphus Agenor and Belus, twin sons of Epaphus Agenor, king of Tyre, father of Cadmus and Europa Belus, father of twins, Aegyptus and Danaüs Slide37:  Perseus The Daughters of Danaüs Danaüs forced to leave Egypt Danaïds (his fifty daughters) Arrival in Argos Danaüs becomes king. Aegyptus’ fifty sons claim their fifty cousins as brides. The crime of the Danaïds and their punishment in the Underworld Hypermnestra spares Lynceus;AbasProetus and Acrisius Amymone Danaïd Amymone and Poseidon The creation of the spring Amymone Other Argive Heroes The seer Melampus The Seven against Thebes, including Tydeus, father of Diomedes, hero of the Trojan War Slide38:  Perseus Appendix Bellerophon Grandson of Sisyphus Bellerophon’s blood guilt Exiled to Tiryns, at the court of King Proetus Proetus’ wife Stheneboea (or Antea) Accusations against Bellerophon Bellerophon sent to Iobates, king of Lycia, father of Stheneboea, to be killed Exploits of Bellerophon imposed by Iobates Chimaera The Solymi The Amazons An ambush Bellerophon, father of Hippolochus (Glaucus’ father), Isandrus and Laodamia, the mother of Sarpedon Laodamia killed by Artemis End of Bellerophon Euripides’ Bellerophon Pindar’s Olympian Ode 13 Introduction of Pegasus into the myth of Perseus Euripides’ Stheneboea (in which Bellerophon kills Stheneboea) Slide39:  Chapter 22: Heracles Heracles—Man, Hero, and God Amphitryon and Alcmena Electryon, king of Mycenae Conflict with Pterelaüs, king of the Teleboans Amphitryon, son of Electryon’s brother, Alcaeus, betrothed to Alcmena Death of Electryon Treachery of Comaetho, daughter of Pterelaüs, and his golden hair Zeus disguised as Amphitryon Alcmena and ZeusHeracles Alcmena and AmphitryonIphicles Plautus’ Amphitruo The Birth of Heracles and His Early Exploits Hostility of Hera Birth of Eurystheus hastened Heracles’ birth delayed The infant Heracles and the snakes Heracles’ tutors: Amphitryon (chariot driving), Autolycus (wrestling), Eurytus (archery), and Linus (music) Death of Linus The daughters of Thespius Marriage to Megara, daughter of Creon The Madness of Heracles Heracles kills Megara and their children. Purified by Thespius The Delphic oracle and the twelve Labors Now called Heracles, formerly Alcides Variations of chronological sequence: Eurpides’ Heracles Sophocles’ Trachiniae Apollodorus Slide40:  Heracles The Twelve Labors Athloi (“Labors”); immortality the ultimate prize Assistance given by Athena and Heracles’ nephew Iolaüs Six Labors take place in the Peloponnesus. Six Labors occur outside of Greece. The Peloponnesian Labors (along with Parerga (“side exploits”) 1. The Nemean Lion Club and lion skin 2. The Lernaean Hyrdra Arrows dipped in Hydra’s poison 3. The Cerynean Hind Pindar’s Olympian Ode 3 4. The Erymanthian Boar Parergon: Encounter with centaur Pholus Chiron’s immortality 5. The Augean Stables Augeas, son of Helius (the Sun) and king of Elis Heracles’ expedition against Augeas Institution of the Olympic Games 6. The Stymphalian Birds Slide41:  Heracles The Non-Peloponnesian Labors 7. The Cretan Bull 8. The Mares of Diomedes Diomedes, son of Ares and Thracian king Parergon: Admetus, king of Pherae Struggle with Thanatos (“death”) Restoration of Alcestis, wife of Admetus 9. The Girdle of Hippolyta Hippolyta, queen of the Amazons Parergon: Heracles in Troy and his rescue of Hesione Priam (Podarces) given throne 10. The Cattle of Geryon Conquest of death Geryon, three-bodied monster, son of Oceanid Callirhoë and Chrysaor Orthus (or Orthrus), two-headed hound Cup of Helius (“the sun”) Pillars of Heracles Parerga Attack of the Ligurians Struggle with Eryx, king of Mt. Eryx, at the western end of Sicily Killing of Alcyoneus Variant of Geryon story: Herodotus Echidna (“snake woman”) Slide42:  Heracles Melampus and the Cattle of Phylacus Bias and Melampus, children of Amythaon Melampus, a seer with the power to talk to animals Bias, a suitor of Pero, daughter of Neleus Bride-price of cattle of Phylacus, king of Phylace Aid of Melampus and his imprisonment Story of the woodworms The impotence of Iphiclus is cured and he becomes the father of Podarces and Protesilaüs Melampus given cattle as reward Parallels with the theft of the cattle of Geryon as a conquest of death Melampus, like Heracles, a conqueror of death Slide43:  Heracles 11. The Apples of the Hesperides Conquest of death Hesperides, daughters of Night The guardian serpent Ladon Golden apples given by Ge to Hera Nereus, a sea-god, informs Heracles Variant: aid given by Atlas Tree as symbol of immortality (Tree of Life) Parerga Killing of Busiris, king of Egypt Killing of Antaeus, son of Ge and Poseidon Rescue of Prometheus 12. Cerberus Conquest of death Cerberus, three-headed hound of Hades Aid of Hermes and Athena Additional incidents Encounter with Theseus and Perithoüs Ghost of Meleager Deïanira, daughter of Meleager, offered to Heracles as wife Euripides’ Heracles Slide44:  Heracles Other Deeds of Heracles Cycnus, a brigand and a son of Ares Syleus, a robber Cercopes, pair of dwarfs Folktale elements “To beware the black-bottomed man” Hylas Heracles, as Argonaut Loss of Hylas, Heracles’ companion Cult of Hylas at Cios Military expeditions Gigantomachy Attack upon Laomedon, king of Troy Attack upon Augeas, king of Elis Attack upon Neleus, king of Pylos; Nestor spared and became king Periclymenus and his transformation into a bee Attack upon the god Hades Attack upon Hippocoön, king of Sparta Death of Iphicles Heracles and AugeTelephus, eventual king of Mysians Ally of Aegimius, king of the Dorians Conflicting traditions: brutality of Heracles, a glutton and a drunkard, contrasted with Heracles as a paragon of virtue Slide45:  Heracles Heracles, Deïanira, and Iole Marriage to Deïanira Daughter of Oeneus, king of Calydon Struggle with Acheloüs The horn of Amalthea The centaur Nessus The deception of Nessus and the love potion Heracles and DeïaniraHyllus, a son, and Marcaria, a daughter Iole Daughter of Eurytus, king of Oechalia Refusal of Iole by Eurytus Murder of Iphicles, brother of Iole Heracles at Delphi Attempt upon the sacred tripod Struggle with Apollo and Zeus’ intervention Slave to Omphale from one year Omphale Queen of the Lydians Heracles as woman The death of Heracles The reception of Ceyx, king of Trachis Sophocles’Trachiniae Jealousy of Deïanira Blood of Nessus and the poisoned robe Heracles’ torment Pyre on Mt. Oeta Hyllus promises to marry Iole Poeas, father of Philoctetes, given Heracles’ bow for lighting pyre Mortality of Heracles burned away Immortality on Olympus; marriage to Hebe Slide46:  Heracles Heracles: Man, Hero, and God Homer’s Odyssey Heracles’ name (“glory of Hera”) Associations with Argos, Mycenae, Tiryns, Boeotia, and Trachis Origins of Heracles Similarities to Eastern figures: One of the twelve Egyptian gods Phoenician Melkart Israelite Samson Mesopotamian Gilgamesh Cilician Sandas Indian Indra Master of animals Diverse treatment of character Sophocles’ Trachiniae Euripides’ Heracles and Alcestis Aristophanes’ Frogs Figure of fortitude, attaining immortality by virtue Story of Prodicus of Ceos Heracles at the crossroads The Heraclidae Alcmena, Eurystheus, and the children of Heracles Persecution of Eurystheus Death of Eurystheus Euripides’ Heraclidae Alcmena and children received by King Demophon, son of Theseus and king of Athens Marcaria’s self-sacrifice Pindar’s Pythian Ode 9 Iolaüs kills Eurystheus Cults of Eurystheus, Iolaüs, and Alcmena Alcmena in Elysium, becomes wife of Rhadamanthys, brother of Minos Slide47:  Heracles The Return of the Heraclidae (“Sons of Heracles”) Dorian tribes in the Peloponnesus at the end of the Mycenaean period Truce of one hundred years The return of the Heraclidae Division of region Lacedaemon (Sparta) to Procles and Eurysthenes Argos to Temenus Messene to Cresphontes Subjugation of Messene by the Spartans Slide48:  Chapter 23: Theseus and the Legends of Attica The Early Kings and Their Legends Cecrops, Erichthonius, and Erechtheus Authochonous (“sprung from the earth”) Cecrops, earliest king Sprung from the earth Serpent-shaped in lower half of his body Founder of Attica (Cecropia) Erichthonius, another early figure in Attic mythology Serpent-shaped (-chthon- element in his name means “earth”) Hephaestus’ sexual advances upon Athena The daughters of Cecrops: Pandrosos (“bright”), Aglauros (“dew”), and Herse (“all-dew”) Originally fertility goddesses Driven to madness and suicide Erichthonius is credited with establishing the Panathenaea and the wooden statue of Athena on the Acropolis Confusion with grandson and successor, Erectheus Slide49:  Theseus Erechtheus Both Erechtheus and Erichthonius are forms of Poseidon Prophecy of cult worship Poseidon-Erechtheus and a sacrifice of bulls Erectheum, temple on the Acropolis dedicated to Athena Polias (guardian of the city) and Erectheus Sacred objects Wooden cult statue of Athena The tomb of Erectheus The salt spring caused by Poseidon’s trident blow Athena’s olive tree Erechtheum and other shrines associated with earliest myths of Athens Bronze Age Mycenaean fortress of Athens built on Acropolis Erechtheus, defender of Athens Wards off attack of Eleusinians by the Thracian Eumolpus Eumolpus, ancestor of hereditary priests of Eleusis Sacrifice of the daughters of Erechtheus and Praxithea Death of Eumolpus Euripides’ Erechtheus Variant: Euripides’ Ion Creusa alone not sacrificed Euripides’ Medea Ovid’s Metamorphoses Hermes and HerseCephalus Aglauros filled with envy and transformed into a rock Slide50:  Theseus Cephalus and Procris Cephalus and Eos (“dawn”) Cephalus and Procris, daughter of Erechtheus Ovid’s Metamorphoses Cephalus tempted by Aurora to make trial of Procris Procris’ shame and refuge with Artemis Laelaps, a hound that always caught its prey An unerring javelin Subsequent reconciliation between Cephalus and Procris Transformation of Laelaps and his prey into a statue Death of Procris Philomela, Procne, and Tereus Pandion, successor of Erichthonius, father of Philomela and Procne Tereus, Thracian king, given Procne in marriageItys Rape and mutilation of Philomela by Tereus Murder of Itys; served to Tereus at a feast Transformation of Procne into a nightingale, Philomela into a swallow, and Tereus into a hoopoe; for Latin authors Philomela became a nightingale and Procne a swallow The Ion of Euripides Pandion, succeeded by Erechtheus Creusa, daughter of Erechtheus, not sacrificed by her father Apollo and CreusaIon Ion exposed, but saved by Hermes Ion brought to Delphi and made temple servant Creusa given as wife to Xuthus Xuthus’ attempt upon Ion’s life Ion, ancestor of four Ionic tribes Colonization of part of the coast of Asia Minor and the islands; Ionia Slide51:  Theseus Orithyia and Boreas and Their Children Orithyia, daughter of Erechtheus, and Boreas (North Wind)Zetes and Calaïs; and Cleopatra and Chione Zetes and Calaïs, Argonauts Chione and PoseidionEumolpus Cleopatra and Phineus The Confused Genealogy of the Kings of Athens Repetition of Pandion and Cecrops in the kingship lists Pandion exiled by Metion, his uncle Pandion’s flight to Megara Four sons: Aegeus, Pallas, Nisus, and Lycus Recovery of kingship of Athens Aegeus becomes king of Athens Nisus becomes king of Megara Theseus Aegeus is another form of Poseidon; connection with the Aegean Sea Poseidon as father of Theseus Childlessness of Aegeus Consultation of the Delphic oracle: “not to undo the wineskin’s mouth” Pittheus, king of Troezen Aethra, daughter of King Pittheus Theseus grows to maturity; the rock, the sword, and the sandals Journey to Athens Hero of Attica Associations with Heracles Slide52:  Theseus Theseus’ Six Labors on His Journey from Troezen to Athens 1. Periphetes, or Corynetes (“club man”), brigand and son of Hephaestus 2. Sinis, or Pityocamptes (“pine bender”), at the Isthmus of Corinth, robber 3. The Crommyon sow 4. Sciron and the gigantic turtle 5. Cercyon at Eleusis 6. Procrustes (“the stretcher”) Theseus Is Recognized by Aegeus Bacchylides of Ceos, Dithyramb 18 Medea’s attempts upon the life of Theseus Medus, son of Aegeus and Medea Recognition of Theseus Theseus foils plot hatched by Pallas, Aegeus’ brother. The Bull of Marathon Capture of bull (sometimes identified with the bull of Heracles’ Labors) Sacrifice to Apollo Delphinius Hecale, old woman who entertained Theseus Honors to Zeus Hecalus The Minotaur Androgeus, son of King Minos of Crete, killed in Attica Vengeance of Minos against Athens and Megara, an ally of Athens Treaty made with Aegeus Tribute of seven Athenian youths and seven girls to be fed to the Minotaur in the Labyrinth Theseus volunteers to go to Crete. On the voyage: Midas’ attack on the maid Eriboea and his claim to be a son of Zeus Theseus’ claim to be Poseidon’s son The sign of the ring Bacchylides’ Dithyramb 17 Assistance of Ariadne, daughter of Minos Killing of the Minotaur Slide53:  Theseus Ariadne on Naxos Ariadne and the wreath (or Amphitrite’s wreath) Flight of Ariadne and Theseus to Naxos (or Dia, its earlier name) Abandonment of Ariadne and the arrival of Dionysus Transformation of the wreath to the constellation Corona Ariadne, originally divine, perhaps a form of Aphrodite Hesiod’s Theogony Catullus 64 Ovid’s Ars Amatoria 1 Homer: Ariadne killed by Artemis on Naxos Variant: Ariadne dies in Cyprus giving birth to Theseus’ child Institution of ritual Ariadne Aphrodite Imitation by young men of women in childbirth Theseus Becomes King of Athens Theseus on Delos The Crane dance (geranos) Imitation of the windings of the Labyrinth Sailing to Athens and the suicide of Aegeus The naming of the Aegean Sea Synoecism of Attica (union of villages into a political unit around Athens) Refounding of Isthmian Games Slide54:  Theseus The Amazons Expedition against Amazons with Heracles Antiope and TheseusHippolytus Symbol of conquest over barbarism Theseus and Pirithoüs Pirithoüs, king of Lapiths and son of Ixion, friend of Theseus Fight between Lapiths and Centaurs Attempt to get wives: Pirithoüs (Persephone); Theseus (Helen) Helen kidnapped, hidden with Aethra, and rescued by the Dioscuri Menestheus and the institution of cult to the Dioscuri Aethra becomes servant of Helen Pirithoüs and Theseus in the Underworld; the magic chairs Rescue of Theseus by Heracles Theseus, Phaedra, and Hippolytus Aphrodite and Artemis Phaedra (“bright”), daughter of Minos Theseus and PhaedraDemophon and Acamas Phaedra may have divine origins Love of Phaedra for Hippolytus The role of Phaedra’s nurse Phaedra’s letter of accusation and suicide Banishment of Hippolytus by Theseus Theseus’ prayer to Poseidon Death of Hippolytus Euripides’ two tragedies about Hippolytus Seneca’s version Racine’s Phèdre Cult of Hippolytus at Troezen in connection with Artemis Cult of Hippolytus at Athens in connection with Aphrodite Resurrection by Asclepius; resurrected Hippolytus as Virbius to Romans Slide55:  Theseus Theseus as Champion of the Oppressed Kings of Athens as protectors of victims of tyranny Protection of Medea by Aegeus Protection of Oedipus and the mothers of the Seven against Thebes by Theseus Theseus as noble king in later literature Statius’ Thebaid Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, “The Knight’s Tale” Shakespeare’s Midsummer Night’s Dream (as Duke Theseus) Other Adventures of Theseus Association with the Argonauts Association with the Calydonian boar hunt “Not without Theseus” “A second Heracles” End of Theseus’ life Exiled from Athens Menestheus assumes kingship. Theseus sails to Scyros and is killed by Lycomedes Menestheus dies at Troy Sons of Theseus regain throne The recovery of the “bones of Theseus” after the capture of Scyros in the Persian Wars by the Athenian Cimon at the command of the Delphic oracle Theseus in Greek Tragedy Contrast between the character of Theseus of Euripides’ Hippolytus and that in other sources Elements in legend of Theseus develop before fifth century Idealized portrait of Theseus created with the emergence of democracy and the establishment of the Athenian Empire Theseus in Euripides’ Suppliants and Heracles; Sophocles’ Oedipus at Colonus Slide56:  Theseus Demophon Assistence given to the Heraclidae (“children of Heracles”) Love of Phyllis, a Thracian princess and her suicide; transformation into an almond tree Codrus Last king of Athens Sacrifice of his life for the city Minos Daedalus and Minos Daedalus, son or grandson of Metion, brother of Cecrops Craftsman and inventor Assistance of nephew Perdix, who invented the saw Daedalus’ attempted murder of Perdix, who was transformated into a partridge (perdix) The bull from the sea sent by Poseidon in answer to Midas’ prayer Pasiphaë’s love for the bull and Daedalus’ wooden cow Birth of the Minotaur Construction of the Labyrinth Historical elements behind the myth Importance of the bull in Cretan civilization Labrys or double-headed axe, a common sacred object The maze and the layout of the palace at Cnossus Minos and Pasiphaë, originally divine figures Minos as son and friend of Zeus Pasiphaë (“all shining”) as daughter of Helius Slide57:  Theseus The Flight of Icarus Escape of Daedalus and his son, Icarus, from Crete The wings of wax The death of Icarus and the Mare Icarium Ovid’s Metamorphoses Daedalus reaches Sicily Cocalus, the king of Camicus Pursuit of Minos Ruse of the spiral shell Death of Minos The Family of Minos Children of Minos and Pasiphaë: the sons Catreus, Deucalion, Glaucus, and Androgeos; the daughthers Ariadne and Phaedra Catreus, king of Crete Althaemenes, son of Catreus and the oracle of his fate Death of Althaemenes’ sister Apemosyne Death of Catreus at the hands of his son Althaemenes swallowed by the earth; hero cult established Deucalion (not of the flood legend) Father of Idomeneus, Cretan leader at Troy Glaucus and the vat of honey Polyidus, a seer The simile of the mulberry Polyidus’ imprisonment and his resurrection of Glaucus Androgeos Killed in Attica Minos’ attack on Megara Nisus, king of Megara and his purple lock of hair The treachery of his daughter, Scylla Transformation into bird: Scylla into the ciris; Nisus into a sea eagle forever in pursuit Slide58:  Chapter 24: Jason, Medea, and the Argonauts Introduction: The Minyae Crew of the Argo comprising heroes from the generation before the Trojan War Minyae, descendants of gods and ancestors of noble families Importance of Iolus in Thessaly and Miletus in Ionia Reflection of colonization from eighth century onward Folktale elements Aea (“land”) Aeëtes (“man of the land”) Hero set a number of impossible tasks Success of adventure Aid by local princess Marriage The Golden Fleece Quest motif Athamas, Boeotian king, and mysterious first wife Nephele (“cloud”)Phrixus and Helle Nephele returns to the sky Athamas marries Ino, daughter of Cadmus Jealousy of Ino towards her stepchildren Intrigue of Ino with the aid of the Delphic oracle to murder her stepchildren Escape of Phrixus and Helle on a golden-fleeced ram, given by Hermes Death of Helle; the naming of the Hellespont Phrixus makes land at Colchis on the Black Sea Received by King Aeëtes, son of Helius, brother of Circe and Pasiphaë Phrixus and Chalciope, daughter of AeëtesArgus, Melas, Phrontis, and Cytisorus Fleece given to Aeëtes, hung up in a grove sacred to Ares, guarded by a serpent Slide59:  Jason Jason and Pelias Cretheus, brother of Athamas, king of Iolcus, husband of Tyro Poseidon and TyroPelias Cretheus and TyroAeson, rightful heir of the throne of Iolcus Pelias’ usurpation Aeson and PolymedeJason The child Jason sent away to be raised by Chiron and his mother, Philyra Jason’s return “Beware the man with one sandal.” Hera disguised as an old woman and the loss of one of Jason’s sandals Promise or condition to fetch the Golden Fleece and then become the rightful king The Argonauts The ship Argo Built by Argus, son of Arestor, with Athena’s help Incorporation of a piece of oak from Zeus’ shrine at Dodona The crew Orpheus and Heracles, neither originally part of expedition Heroes from Thessaly, including Jason Heroes from the Peloponnese, including Augeas, king of Elis Heroes who took part in the Calydonian boar hunt, including Meleager The parents of the heroes of the Trojan War Peleus (father of Achilles) Telamon (father of Ajax the Greater) Oileus (father of Ajax the Lesser) Nauplius (father of Palamedes) The seers Idmon and Mopsus Castor (horseman) and Polydeuces (boxer) Idas and Lynceus (of especially keen sight) Periclymenus, son of Neleus, who could change his shape Euphemus, son of Poseidon (unusually fast runner) Zetes and Calaïs, winged sons of Boreas Argus, the shipwright Tiphys, the helmsman Slide60:  Jason The Voyage to Colchis Hypsipyle and the Lemnian women Crime and punishment of the women of Lemnos King Thoas, father of Hypsipyle, son of Dionysus, spared and transported to the land of the Tauri, where he becomes priest of Artemis One-year stay of the Argonauts Jason and Hypsipyletwins Euneos and Thoas (or Nebrophonus) Hypsipyle’s deception in saving her father discovered She is exiled and becomes servant of Lycurgus, king of Nemea, and nurse of his son Opheltes Institution of the Nemean Games Statius’ Thebaid Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica Ovid’s Heroides Cyzicus and Cios Initiation in to the mysteries at Samothrace Aid to the Doliones and Cyzicus, king of Cyzicus Accidental killing of the Doliones Cios and the loss of Hylas and Heracles Amycus Land of the Bebryces on the Euxine (Black) Sea Amycus, king of the Bithynian tribe Polydeuces beats Amycus in boxing match and kills him. Phineus and the Harpies and the Symplegades Salmydessus on the Euxine Received by King Phineus, a blind prophet The Harpies (“snatchers”), two winged monsters who snatch away or befoul Phineus’ food Harpies driven off by Zetes and Calaïs Phineus’ prophecy of the expedition and good counsel The Symplegades (“clashing rocks”) Slide61:  Jason The Voyage through the Euxine Sea Mariandyni and their king, Lycus Idmon killed by a boar Death of Tiphys Ancaeus, new helmsman Island of Ares and the Stymphalian Birds Phrixus’ four sons Sailing up the river Phasis to Colchis Jason at Colchis Jason’s tasks To yolk a pair of brazen-footed, fire-breathing bulls To plow a field and sow the dragon’s teeth To kill the armed men that sprang up from the teeth Medea’s role Medea, Aeëtes’ younger daughter Falls in love with Jason through the agency of Hera and Aphrodite Priestess of Hecate, niece of Circe Magic ointment to protect Jason from fire or iron Jason with the aid of Medea succeeds in his tasks. Eurpides’ Medea and Medea’s larger role in Jason’s legend Ovid’s narrative Restoration of Jason’s heroic stature Slide62:  Jason The Return of the Argonauts Jason wins Fleece and Medea Pursuit of the Colchians, led by Apsyrtus, Medea’s brother Death of Apsyrtus Pindar’s narrative Journey to Ocean and to the “Red Sea” (Indian Ocean) Portage of the ship? Lemnos and the Lemnian Games Apollonius’ narrative and the marriage of Jason and Medea Sailing to Italy and a visit with Circe, Medea’s aunt Purification of Jason and Medea The Planctae, Scylla and Charybdis, and the Sirens Land of the Phaeacians and King Alcinoüs and Queen Arete Marriage of Jason and Medea Voyage to Libya Portage of ship to lake Tritonis, past the garden of the Hesperides Mopsus killed by a snake Aid of Triton Talus An island near Crete guarded by a bronze giant, Talus Vulnerable ankle Death of Talus The end of the journey Iolcus Pelias given Fleece Dedication of Argo to Poseidon Death of Jason years later, struck on the head by a piece of rotting timber from the Argo Confused geographical details of the voyage Slide63:  Jason Jason and Medea in Greece Iolcus Pelias refusal to give up throne Medea’s magic arts and the death of Pelias at the hands of his daughters Corinth Pollution of murder and exile to Corinth Euripides’ Medea Connection between Medea and Corinth In an alternate version of the legend Jason becomes king of Corinth Medea’s connection with Hera Death of the children and their cult Version of Euripides: Creon as king of Corinth and Medea’s flight to Athens Jason’s marriage to Glauce (or Creusa), daughter of Creon Medea’s deadly wedding gifts to the princess The deaths of Glauce and Creon Medea murders her children. Escape to Athens in Helius’ chariot Reception of Medea in Athens by Aegeus Athens Aegeus and MedeaMedus Arrival of Theseus and his attempted murder Medea’s flight to Persia and return to Colchis Slide64:  Jason Interpretations of the Saga The Argonauts in later literature Argonauts and Homer Corinthian poet Eumelos, 8th century Apollonius of Rhodes and the Argonautica, 3rd century Ovid’s Metamorphoses Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 1st century A. D. Statius’ Thebaid Euripides’ Medea Modern versions of the legend The hero’s quest The quest and Propp’s model Elements of legend belong to the earliest stages of Greek mythology Additional Reading Euripides’ Medea Three encounters between between Jason and Medea Slide65:  Chapter 25: Greek and Roman Legends in Ovid’s Poetry Introduction Presence of local heroes and heroines and local cults Panhellenic cults and heroes and heroines Legends surviving in tragedies, epics, and other poems Legends surviving in other works of art Importance of vase-paintings Compilations of mythology Apollodorus’ Library (2nd century A. D.) Hyginus’ Genealogiae (2nd century A. D.) Ovid’s Amores and Heroides Use of myth for artistic embellishment or allusion Heroides Fifteen letters from mythological heroines to absent lovers, together with three pairs of letters between lovers Ovid’s understanding of the psyche of his heroines Two tales from the Heroides Hero and Leander Leander, man from Abydos Hero, priestess of Aphrodite in Sestos Lovers separated by the Hellespont Drowning of Leander Suicide of Hero Cydippe and Acontius Cydippe, a girl from Ceos Acontius, social inferior to Cydippe Trick of the apple’s inscription Cydippe is unwittingly bound by vow. Slide66:  Legends Ovid’s Fasti Ovid’s exile to Tomis in 8 A. D. Fasti left half-finished in six books Poem on festivals of the Roman calendar Characters often speak directly in response to the author’s questions. Flora and Zephyrus Flora, an Italian fertility goddess of flowering Floralia, six-day spring festival Rape and marriage to Zephyrus, god of the West Wind Associated with the Seasons (in Latin, Horae) and the Charites or the Graces (Gratiae) Use of Greek mythology to give narrative substance to Roman/Italian divinities who have no myths Ovid’s Metamorphoses Ovid’s work has exercised the most important influence in the transmission of Greco- Roman mythology Epic poem in dactylic hexameter Pomona and Vertumnus Pomona, an Italian fertility deity, no Greek equivalent, linked to fruit Etruscan god, Vertumnus, could assume different disguises (Latin vertere—“to turn” or “to change”) Vertumnus, as an old woman, advises Pomona to marry. Vertumnus employs the story of Iphis and Anaxarete to persuade her (see next screen). Ceyx and Alcyone Ovid’s Metamorphoses: tragic, romantic lovers Ceyx, king of Trachis and son of Eosphorus (Lucifer, the Morning Star)

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