Guided Inquiry*: An Instructional Framework for Designing Effective Inquiry Units

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Published on February 27, 2014

Author: lhay

Source: slideshare.net

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Lecture by LYN HAY, Head of Professional Learning, Syba Academy and Adjunct Lecturer, Charles Sturt University

Presented to Librarian's Knowledge Sharing Workshop participants and teaching staff of Jerudong International School, Friday 21 February, 2014
Brunei Darussalam

+ GUIDED INQUIRY An Instructional Framework for Designing Effective Inquiry Units LYN HAY Head of Professional Learning, Syba Academy & Adjunct Lecturer, Charles Sturt University

+ Educating for the now & next n  How to we educate our students to meet the high levels of literacy in the technological workplace? n  How do we prepare our students to navigate and make sense of the global information environment? n  How do we enable our students to draw on the knowledge and wisdom of the past while using the technology of the present to advance new discoveries for the future? n  How do we prepare our students to think for themselves, make good decisions, develop expertise, and learn through life? Many teachers are turning to inquiry learning in subjects across the curriculum to meet the challenge of educating their students for lifelong learning

+ Seven Survival Skills as defined by business leaders in their own words CRITICAL THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING “The idea that a company’s senior leaders have all the answers and can solve problems by themselves has gone completely by the wayside…The person who’s close to the work has to have strong analytic skills. You have to be rigorous: test your assumptions, don’t take things at face value, don’t go in with preconceived ideas that you’re trying to prove.” —Ellen Kumata, consultant to Fortune 200 companies COLLABORATION ACROSS NETWORKS AND LEADING BY INFLUENCE “The biggest problem we have in the company as a whole is finding people capable of exerting leadership across the board…Our mantra is that you lead by influence, rather than authority.” —Mark Chandler, Senior Vice President and General Counsel at Cisco AGILITY AND ADAPTABILITY “I’ve been here four years, and we’ve done fundamental reorganization every year because of changes in the business…I can guarantee the job I hire someone to do will change or may not exist in the future, so this is why adaptability and learning skills are more important than technical skills.” —Clay Parker, President of Chemical Management Division of BOC Edwards http://www.tonywagner.com/7-survival-skills

+ Seven Survival Skills as defined by business leaders in their own words INITIATIVE AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP “For our production and crafts staff, the hourly workers, we need self-directed people… who can find creative solutions to some very tough, challenging problems.” —Mark Maddox, Human Resources Manager at Unilever Foods North America EFFECTIVE ORAL AND WRITTEN COMMUNICATION “The biggest skill people are missing is the ability to communicate: both written and oral presentations. It’s a huge problem for us.” —Annmarie Neal, Vice President for Talent Management at Cisco Systems ACCESSING AND ANALYZING INFORMATION “There is so much information available that it is almost too much, and if people aren’t prepared to process the information effectively, it almost freezes them in their steps.” —Mike Summers, Vice President for Global Talent Management at Dell http://www.tonywagner.com/7-survival-skills

+ Visible Learning Meta-analyses of educational research shows that the most significant impacts on student learning & achievement are: n  role of teacher and quality of instruction n  developing a supportive learning environment n  engaging students in discovery, inquiry, thinking, metacognition and knowledge building     (Ha%e,  2009)        

+ Qualities not measured by most tests https://sphotos-b.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn1/p480x480/293198_495527183803939_1792655796_n.png

+ Inquiry underpins 21C learning n  Critical thinking & problem solving expert thinking n  Communication & collaboration complex communicating n  Creativity & innovation applied imagination & invention

+ Digital literacy n  Information literacy access information efficiently/effectively, evaluate information critically/competently, use information accurately/creatively n  Media literacy analyse media, ethically/legally access & use media, create media products by effectively using media tools n  ICT literacy use technology as a tool to research, organise, evaluate, communicate, social networking, ethically/legally use technologies www.21stcenturyskills.org

+ Life & career skills n  Flexibility & adaptability adapt to varied roles/job responsibilities/schedules/ contexts, understand, negotiate, balance diverse views/beliefs, find workable solutions n  Initiative & self-direction manage goals/time, work independently, be self-directed learners, go beyond basic mastery, reflect critically on past experiences to inform future progress n  Social & cross-cultural interaction know when to listen/when to speak, be respectful interacting with others, work effectively in diverse teams, be open-minded to different ideas/values, leverage social/cultural difference to create new ideas, innovate& improve quality of own/groups’ work www.21stcenturyskills.org

+ Life & career skills n Productivity & accountability manage projects, set/meet goals, deal with obstacles/pressures, prioritise/plan/manage to achieve intended result, produce results through multitasking, managing time effectively, respect/appreciate team diversity n Leadership & responsibility project-based, studio model of work more prevalent now, guide & lead others, use interpersonal/problem-solving skills to influence/ guide others towards a goal, inspire other to accomplish, lead by example, selflessness, acting responsibly with interests of larger community in mind www.21stcenturyskills.org

+ The challenge: frame schooling around questions developed and shaped by kids

+ Inquiry underpins disciplinary thinking Inquiry is interdisciplinary Keri Smith (2008) How to be an explorer of the world. New York: Perigree

+ Inquiry moves beyond fact finding

+ Inquiry moves beyond just fact finding tasks Raises  standard  of  research  assignments  to   higher  level  by:   §  §  §  §  §  §  Drawing on life experiences Learning from a wide range of sources Forming deep understanding Gaining sense of accomplishment Developing competence and expertise Helps student consolidate learning across subject areas

+ Inquiry learning §  Is an approach to learning whereby students find and use a variety of sources of information and ideas to increase their understanding of a problem, topic or issue §  It requires more than simply answering questions or getting a right answer §  It espouses investigation, exploration, search, quest, research, pursuit and study §  Inquiry does not stand alone; it engages, interests and challenges students to connect their world within the curriculum §  It is often an individual pursuit §  Can be enhanced by being part of a community of learning §  Without some guidance, inquiry learning can be daunting §  Inquiry is not an add-on to the curriculum, it is a way of learning content, skills and values within the curriculum through inquiry

+ Learning in the school library Students  actively  engage  with  diverse  and  often   conflicting  sources  of  information  and  ideas  to  discover   new  ones,  to  build  new  understandings,  and  to  develop   personal  viewpoints  and  perspectives.   KNOWLEDGE  OUTCOME   -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐   It  is  underpinned  by  stimulating  encounters  with   information  –  encounters  which  capture  their  interest   and  attention,  and  which  motivate  and  direct  their   ongoing  inquiry.   INFORMATION  FOUNDATION   (Todd 2008)

+ Information process models See http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/schoollibraries/teachingideas/isp/docs/infoskills.pdf

The Big 6 §  a  6  step  problem-­‐solving   model  devised  to  support   students  when  dealing   with  informa7on   §  addresses  physical  and   cogni7ve  steps     §  very  popular   interna7onally  with   professional  support   material  incl.  Books,   newsle>er,  website,   conference  and  listserv   support  –  see   h>p://www.big6.com    

+ Inquiry Research by Carol Kuhlthau Information Seeking Process (ISP) Affective Domain & Uncertainty Principle Guided Inquiry

The Uncertainty Principle §  a cognitive state §  causes anxiety and lack of confidence §  these affective symptoms can be expected in the early stages of the ISP “…uncertainty, confusion and frustration are associated with vague, unclear thoughts about a topic or question”

From Uncertainty to Understanding... ___________________________________________ uncertainty ------------- understanding T vague clear F anxious confident A exploring documenting access ------------------- information ____________________________________________ 3 levels of experience: thinking (cognitive) feeling (affective) acting (physical)

+ ISP stages n  Initiation: Research task is given to the students n  Selection: Choice of topics within a curriculum theme n  Exploration: Building background knowledge, encountering many perspectives n  Formulation: Selection of focus question n  Collection: Accessing and using complex information n  Presentation: Presenting outcome of research n  Assessment: Reflection on learning process and learning outcomes

  Information Search Process Tasks   Initiation Selection Exploration Formulation Collection Presentation Assessment --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Feelings uncertainly optimism confusion (affective) frustration doubt clarity sense of direction/ confidence satisfaction or disappointment Thoughts vague----------------------------------------→focused (cognitive) ---------------------------------------------------→ increased interest Actions seeking relevant information-------------------------------→seeking pertinent information (physical) exploring documenting Zone of Intervention: the critical point / need for instruction GUIDED INQUIRY Kuhlthau, C, Caspari, A., & Maniotes, L. (2007) Guided Inquiry: Learning in the 21st Century. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited

+ Inquiry-centred pedagogy & ISP Students develop capacity to: §  think beyond the immediate situation to consider the ‘big picture’ before focusing on the detail (Exploration) §  suspend judgment about a situation to consider alternative pathways (Exploration) §  pose insightful and purposeful questions (Formulation) §  apply strategies to uncover meaning and make reasoned judgments (Collection) §  reflect on thinking, actions and processes (all stages, Assessment) (Todd, 2011)

+ Inquiry-centred pedagogy & ISP Students develop capacity to: §  generate and develop ideas and possibilities (Collection) §  analyse information logically and make reasoned judgements (Collection) §  evaluate ideas and create solutions and draw conclusions (Collection) §  assess the feasibility, possible risks and benefits in the implementation of their ideas (Collection, Assessment) §  create meaningful representations of their deep knowledge (Presentation)   (Todd, 2011)

+ The emotional rollercoaster §  Very  dis7nc7ve  ebb  and  flow  of  emo7ons   following  the  demands  of  the  research   process   §  Construc7vist  approach  to  learning:    staged,   guided   §  Students  are  not  ‘abandoned’  in  the   research  process   §  Focus  on  deep  learning,  competence,   mastery,  and  self  empowerment      

Implications of Kuhlthau's ISP n  Learning is an individual process, even though the same information process model is used n  Knowledge is constructed based on past experience n  TLs & teachers must develop expertise in dealing with individual student's affective concerns when completing information tasks

What we now know.... n  No matter how many times we use an information process, a certain level of uncertainty will always affect student's completion of information tasks when encountering new or 'unique' information n  TLs & teachers must employ a range of strategies during learning process to assist students to cope with the uncertainty principle

+ Motivation & inspiration http://www.inspirationstation.co.za/?page_id=112

Introducing Guided Inquiry.... “The  information  age  calls  for  transforming   schools  to  meet  new  challenges”     n  Guided inquiry is a new learning and instructional model n  Occurs in a collaborative learning environment led by an instructional team n  Learning from a variety of sources n  Inquiry process for deep understanding 'unique' information

+ Guided Inquiry... “... is carefully planned, closely supervised targeted intervention(s )of an instructional team of school librarians and teachers to guide students through curriculum based inquiry units that build deep knowledge and deep understanding of a curriculum topic, and gradually lead towards independent learning.” CISSL, Guided Inquiry (2009) http://cissl.scils.rutgers.edu/guided_inquiry.html

+ Planning a guided inquiry unit

+ GI stages of reflection & intervention Set  of  3  templates  for  monitoring  progress  in  the  Guided  Inquiry   process  can  be  downloaded  from   h>p://studentslearn.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/gi-­‐reflec7on-­‐ sheet-­‐templates.docx    

+ Teaching a Guided Inquiry Approach Kuhlthau, C.C., Maniotes, L.., & Caspari, A.. (2012). Guided inquiry design: A framework for inquiry in your school. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited.

  Information Search Process Tasks   Initiation Selection Exploration Formulation Collection Presentation Assessment --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Feelings uncertainly optimism confusion (affective) frustration doubt clarity sense of direction/ confidence satisfaction or disappointment Thoughts vague----------------------------------------→focused (cognitive) ---------------------------------------------------→ increased interest Actions seeking relevant information-------------------------------→seeking pertinent information (physical) exploring documenting Zone of Intervention: the critical point / need for instruction Open Immerse Explore Identify Gather Create Share Evaluate Kuhlthau, C, Caspari, A., & Maniotes, L. (2007) Guided Inquiry: Learning in the 21st Century. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited

+ Teaching strategies for Guided Inquiry Kuhlthau, C.C., Maniotes, L.., & Caspari, A.. (2012). Guided inquiry design: A framework for inquiry in your school. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited.

This  phase  engages  students,  gets  them  excited   about  the  topic  /  curriculum  theme  they  will  be   exploring,  and  encourages  them  to  begin  thinking   about  how  the  inquiry  unit  connects  to  pre-­‐exis7ng   knowledge.     Students  develop  background  knowledge  about  the   research  topic  as  a  community  without  focusing  on   “too  much  detail.”      Get  the  BIG  picture     Students  explore  their  topic,  find  new  informa7on   and  consider  different  perspec7ves,  and    develop   sufficient  knowledge  to  move  forward  in  the   research  process.    

  Students  choose  a  research  ques7on  and  focus  for   their  research.                                 Students  collect  detailed  informa7on  from  a  variety   of  sources.    They  evaluate  sources  and  record  key   ideas  from  the  sources.  They  take  detailed  notes  and   learn  how  to  organize,  quote,  and  use  informa7on   ethically.   Students  are  encouraged  to  go  beyond  lis7ng  a   collec7on  of  facts.    They  use  technology  tools  to   create  a  product  that  shows  what  they  have  learned  

Students  have  the  opportunity  to  present  their   ideas  to  others.  They  communicate  what  they   have  learned  to  others       Students,  teachers  and  school  librarians  assess   the  learning  outcomes  and  reflect  on  what   needs  to  be  done  

Use this GI model with your students Source: Kuhlthau, C.C., Maniotes, L.K., & Caspari, A.K. (2012). Guided inquiry design: A framework for inquiry in your school. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited.

GI unit design template for teacher/TL teams Download PDF version from http://wp.me/aryyn-dv

+ QUESTIONS? LYN HAY Head of Professional Learning, Syba Academy & Adjunct Lecturer, Charles Sturt University

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