Guide to the Bee Genera within Apidae of Eastern North America, Part 1

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Information about Guide to the Bee Genera within Apidae of Eastern North America, Part 1
Technology

Published on January 27, 2009

Author: sdroege

Source: slideshare.net

Description

This is a guide to the identification of bees in the Family Apidae from eastern North America. This is part 1 of a 2 part presentation

Big Bees – Part 1

Acknowledgements This presentation has been put together by a consortium of North American bee biologists This presentation has developed over many years and the original web picture acknowledgements were lost, if you see one of your pictures let us know and we will add your picture credit Correspondence can be sent to Sam Droege at sdroege@usgs.gov

This presentation has been put together by a consortium of North American bee biologists

This presentation has developed over many years and the original web picture acknowledgements were lost, if you see one of your pictures let us know and we will add your picture credit

Correspondence can be sent to Sam Droege at sdroege@usgs.gov

Format Each Genus has an information page followed by a page of illustrations and a map of the distribution of Eastern North American species; western populations of Eastern species are shown, but the Western species are not mapped. The number of Eastern species are listed at the top of the page

Each Genus has an information page followed by a page of illustrations and a map of the distribution of Eastern North American species; western populations of Eastern species are shown, but the Western species are not mapped.

The number of Eastern species are listed at the top of the page

Apidae (Recently Combined with Anthophoridae) Groups of Genera Covered in this presentation: Anthophora – 6 species Melecta - 1 Habropoda - 1 Holcopasites - 3 Neolarra - 1 Nomada - 80 Centris – 3 Ericrocis - 1 Ptilothrix – 1 Cemolobus - 1 Xylocopa – 2 Ceratina – 4 Euglossa - 1 Epeoloides – 1 Covered in Apidae part 2 presentation: Peponapis - 1 Xenoglossa - 2 Apis - 1 Bombus - 20 Anthophorula - 2 Exomalopsis - 1 Eucera - 7 Florilegus - 1 Melissodes – 27 Triepeolus - 23 Epeolus - 20 Melitoma - 1 Svastra - 5 Tetraloniella - 2 Xeromelecta - 2

Covered in this presentation:

Anthophora – 6 species

Melecta - 1

Habropoda - 1

Holcopasites - 3

Neolarra - 1

Nomada - 80

Centris – 3

Ericrocis - 1

Ptilothrix – 1

Cemolobus - 1

Xylocopa – 2

Ceratina – 4

Euglossa - 1

Epeoloides – 1

Covered in Apidae part 2 presentation:

Peponapis - 1

Xenoglossa - 2

Apis - 1

Bombus - 20

Anthophorula - 2

Exomalopsis - 1

Eucera - 7

Florilegus - 1

Melissodes – 27

Triepeolus - 23

Epeolus - 20

Melitoma - 1

Svastra - 5

Tetraloniella - 2

Xeromelecta - 2

Anthophora Large, bumblebee in size, shape, and often coloration, can be found from Spring through Fall Lacks the bare patch (corbicula) found on the tibia of Bombus females Often nests in aggregations in the ground, in banks of dirt, or earthen homes Interior cells of the forewing without the abundant small hairs common in most of the other large species (except Habropoda and Melecta ). These hairs most readily visible by sighting across the plane of the wing Told from Habropoda by the shape of the marginal and submarginal cells A recently introduced European species, Anthophora plumipes , expected to spread widely Similar genera: Melecta, Xeromelecta, Florilegus, Tetraloniella, Melissodes, Svastra, Peponapis, Melitoma, Eucera

Large, bumblebee in size, shape, and often coloration, can be found from Spring through Fall

Lacks the bare patch (corbicula) found on the tibia of Bombus females

Often nests in aggregations in the ground, in banks of dirt, or earthen homes

Interior cells of the forewing without the abundant small hairs common in most of the other large species (except Habropoda and Melecta ). These hairs most readily visible by sighting across the plane of the wing

Told from Habropoda by the shape of the marginal and submarginal cells

A recently introduced European species, Anthophora plumipes , expected to spread widely

Similar genera: Melecta, Xeromelecta, Florilegus, Tetraloniella, Melissodes, Svastra, Peponapis, Melitoma, Eucera

Anthophora - 6

Melecta About the size of a medium bumblebee and similar in aspect Rare nest parasite of Anthophora Marginal cell unusually short, its length only about as long as the end of the marginal cells Similar to Anthophora in that it has no minute hairs on the surface of the front wing’s interior cells Female has no pollen carrying hairs Similar genera: Xeromelecta, Anthophora, Tetraloniella, Svastra, Eucera, Melissodes, Melitoma, Florilegus, Peponapis, Xenoglossa, Cemolobus

About the size of a medium bumblebee and similar in aspect

Rare nest parasite of Anthophora

Marginal cell unusually short, its length only about as long as the end of the marginal cells

Similar to Anthophora in that it has no minute hairs on the surface of the front wing’s interior cells

Female has no pollen carrying hairs

Similar genera: Xeromelecta, Anthophora, Tetraloniella, Svastra, Eucera, Melissodes, Melitoma, Florilegus, Peponapis, Xenoglossa, Cemolobus

Melecta pacifica – Parasite of Anthophora Rare

Habropoda Uncommon, the size of small bumblebee, prefers ericaceous shrubs Usually associated with sandy areas Female looks very bumblebee like, male has bright yellow/ivory facial markings Like Anthophora and Melecta the interior of the front wing’s cells are nearly hairless Shape of the wing cells separates this species from Anthophora Similar genera: Anthophora

Uncommon, the size of small bumblebee, prefers ericaceous shrubs

Usually associated with sandy areas

Female looks very bumblebee like, male has bright yellow/ivory facial markings

Like Anthophora and Melecta the interior of the front wing’s cells are nearly hairless

Shape of the wing cells separates this species from Anthophora

Similar genera: Anthophora

Habropoda laboriosa

Holcopasites Uncommon to rare nest parasite of Calliopsis , tiny, just a few millimeters long The only genus where the male has 12 not the usual 13 antennal segments Abdomens are red with bright white patches of very short, prone hair, often in small regular patches Note that the tip of the marginal cell is clearly pulled away from the margin of the wing Similar genera: None

Uncommon to rare nest parasite of Calliopsis , tiny, just a few millimeters long

The only genus where the male has 12 not the usual 13 antennal segments

Abdomens are red with bright white patches of very short, prone hair, often in small regular patches

Note that the tip of the marginal cell is clearly pulled away from the margin of the wing

Similar genera: None

Holcopasites – 3 Tiny, Overlooked, Male antennae = 12

Neolarra Very rare (no specimens seen recently in the East), nest parasite of Perdita Only genus with 1 submarginal cell Sometimes small members of the closely related (to bees) Sphecid wasp genus Oxybelus are mistaken for this genus An effort should be made to look for this species in Perdita areas Similar genera: None

Very rare (no specimens seen recently in the East), nest parasite of Perdita

Only genus with 1 submarginal cell

Sometimes small members of the closely related (to bees) Sphecid wasp genus Oxybelus are mistaken for this genus

An effort should be made to look for this species in Perdita areas

Similar genera: None

Neolarra – Perdita Parasite - 1 Super small, super rare, 1 submarginal cell

Nomada Common, nest parasite of Andrena and a few other genera, almost always some striking pattern of yellow, red, and black Most species are found in the spring but a few are found in the Summer and Fall Often mistaken for wasps due to the general lack of hair and thin wasp-like appearance Many species are in taxonomic limbo with unassociated males and females, poor descriptions, and recent molecular work indicating that there are more species present in the bidentate and white-spined groups than there are currently names…expect quite a number of changes over the coming few years Jugal lobe unusually short only one-sixth the size of the vannal lobe or less Similar genera: Sphecodes

Common, nest parasite of Andrena and a few other genera, almost always some striking pattern of yellow, red, and black

Most species are found in the spring but a few are found in the Summer and Fall

Often mistaken for wasps due to the general lack of hair and thin wasp-like appearance

Many species are in taxonomic limbo with unassociated males and females, poor descriptions, and recent molecular work indicating that there are more species present in the bidentate and white-spined groups than there are currently names…expect quite a number of changes over the coming few years

Jugal lobe unusually short only one-sixth the size of the vannal lobe or less

Similar genera: Sphecodes

Nomada – Andrena Parasite - 80 Common, Wasp-like, lots of red or yellow usually present

Centris Size of small bumblebees, restricted to Florida, native species are uncommon to rare, an introduced species is becoming common in South Florida Females are pollen specialists on only a few plant genera Both the males and females have very robust rear legs, covered in thick hair Wing venation important, note the very small stigma and the shape of the submarginal cells Similar genera: Bombus, Ptilothrix, Xylocopa

Size of small bumblebees, restricted to Florida, native species are uncommon to rare, an introduced species is becoming common in South Florida

Females are pollen specialists on only a few plant genera

Both the males and females have very robust rear legs, covered in thick hair

Wing venation important, note the very small stigma and the shape of the submarginal cells

Similar genera: Bombus, Ptilothrix, Xylocopa

Centris - 3 - Go to Florida

Ericrocis Extremely rare, restricted to Florida, no recent specimen records, nest parasite of Centris A dramatic looking bee, most similar to Xeromelecta , has prominent patches of light hair on the abdomen and thorax and a distinctly pointed rear of the abdomen Instead of the usual pointed tibial spur on the middle leg found on most bees, their tibial spurs are slightly broadened at the tip which is notched or has small spines An effort should be made to see if this species still exists in Florida Similar genera: Epeolus, Triepolus, Epeoloides

Extremely rare, restricted to Florida, no recent specimen records, nest parasite of Centris

A dramatic looking bee, most similar to Xeromelecta , has prominent patches of light hair on the abdomen and thorax and a distinctly pointed rear of the abdomen

Instead of the usual pointed tibial spur on the middle leg found on most bees, their tibial spurs are slightly broadened at the tip which is notched or has small spines

An effort should be made to see if this species still exists in Florida

Similar genera: Epeolus, Triepolus, Epeoloides

Ericrocis lata – Centris parasite Florida species, very rare

Ptilothrix Common early to mid-Summer species, most often found along marsh edge habitats and urban areas (where garden plants in the mallow family have been planted) Pollen specialist on Hibiscus , size of a medium bumblebee, to which it closely resembles and is mistaken for Has no arolium (pad) between its tarsal claws Similar genera: Bombus, Xylocopa

Common early to mid-Summer species, most often found along marsh edge habitats and urban areas (where garden plants in the mallow family have been planted)

Pollen specialist on Hibiscus , size of a medium bumblebee, to which it closely resembles and is mistaken for

Has no arolium (pad) between its tarsal claws

Similar genera: Bombus, Xylocopa

Ptilothrix bombiformis

Cemolobus Rare, size of a medium bumblebee Unique in that the rim of the clypeus is not smooth but has three lobes, the central one wide and thick, the lateral ones more knob-like. The other Eucerines have uninterrupted clypeal rims Pollen specialist on morning glories ( Ipomoea ) Similar genera: Melitoma, Anthophora, Eucera, Melissodes, Tetraloniella, Melecta, Xeromelecta, Peponapis, Svastra, Florilegus

Rare, size of a medium bumblebee

Unique in that the rim of the clypeus is not smooth but has three lobes, the central one wide and thick, the lateral ones more knob-like. The other Eucerines have uninterrupted clypeal rims

Pollen specialist on morning glories ( Ipomoea )

Similar genera: Melitoma, Anthophora, Eucera, Melissodes, Tetraloniella, Melecta, Xeromelecta, Peponapis, Svastra, Florilegus

Cemolobus ipomoeae – Morning Glory Specialist Rare, Size of Eucera, Looks like that group too

Melitoma Regularly occurring species, but nowhere abundant, a bit larger than a honeybee Hind wing venation is used to separate this genus in the guides, but the combination of the distinctive coloration and hair patterns along with the extremely long tongue (extending to the abdomen even when folded) works Similar genera: Melecta, Xeromelecta, Anthophora, Xenoglossa, Peponapis, Florilegus, Melissodes, Eucera, Svastra, Tetraloniella, Cemolobus

Regularly occurring species, but nowhere abundant, a bit larger than a honeybee

Hind wing venation is used to separate this genus in the guides, but the combination of the distinctive coloration and hair patterns along with the extremely long tongue (extending to the abdomen even when folded) works

Similar genera: Melecta, Xeromelecta, Anthophora, Xenoglossa, Peponapis, Florilegus, Melissodes, Eucera, Svastra, Tetraloniella, Cemolobus

Melitoma taurea – Morning Glory Specialist Tongue extends to abdomen, even when folded

Xylocopa Common, the size of large bumblebees Told from bumblebees in the field by the combination of all black abdomen ( X. virginica has sparse but uniform yellow hairs at the base of the abdomen) and that those hairs present on the abdomen are sparse enough to clearly see the shining integument (skin) below Males with a white spot on their face, females dark When resting hold their wings splayed some to the sides (resembling swept-back jet fighter wings), not neatly overlapped down the back like bumblebees Under the microscope the unusually long and narrow marginal cell is distinctive Similar genera: Bombus, Ptilothrix

Common, the size of large bumblebees

Told from bumblebees in the field by the combination of all black abdomen ( X. virginica has sparse but uniform yellow hairs at the base of the abdomen) and that those hairs present on the abdomen are sparse enough to clearly see the shining integument (skin) below

Males with a white spot on their face, females dark

When resting hold their wings splayed some to the sides (resembling swept-back jet fighter wings), not neatly overlapped down the back like bumblebees

Under the microscope the unusually long and narrow marginal cell is distinctive

Similar genera: Bombus, Ptilothrix

Xylocopa - 2 – Carpenter Bees

Ceratina Size of a single long-grain rice kernel Dark metallic blue (often appearing black) with a prominent white mark on the clypeus Skinny, lacks obvious hair, abdomen parallel-sided and ribbed like a plastic water bottle Tip of abdomen with a small projecting point Often holds its abdomen more upright than other genera Easier to tell by learning the general shape and coloration of the clypeus than keying out Similar genera: None, although many Osmia are about the same color

Size of a single long-grain rice kernel

Dark metallic blue (often appearing black) with a prominent white mark on the clypeus

Skinny, lacks obvious hair, abdomen parallel-sided and ribbed like a plastic water bottle

Tip of abdomen with a small projecting point

Often holds its abdomen more upright than other genera

Easier to tell by learning the general shape and coloration of the clypeus than keying out

Similar genera: None, although many Osmia are about the same color

Ceratina - 4 Small Carpenter Bee Very Common, pith nester

Euglossa One introduced species that is becoming common in certain parts of southern Florida Bright green, lacks the wing venation of the other bright green bees in the area (all halictids) Has extremely long tongue and rear legs with prominent projecting flanges Similar genera: None

One introduced species that is becoming common in certain parts of southern Florida

Bright green, lacks the wing venation of the other bright green bees in the area (all halictids)

Has extremely long tongue and rear legs with prominent projecting flanges

Similar genera: None

Euglossa viridissima Recent introduction into Florida

Epeoloides Extremely rare, however there are recent records from Connecticut and the Maritimes A little bit smaller than a honeybee Nest parasite of Macropis Different looking than other bees, but should key out easily Similar genera: Triepeolus, Epeolus, Ericrocis

Extremely rare, however there are recent records from Connecticut and the Maritimes

A little bit smaller than a honeybee

Nest parasite of Macropis

Different looking than other bees, but should key out easily

Similar genera: Triepeolus, Epeolus, Ericrocis

Epeoloides pilosula – Parasite of Macropis Very rare, endangered?

Resources Species lists, Identification Guides, and Maps for genera and species are available at: http://www.discoverlife.org/20/q?search=Apoidea A guide to the genera of the bees of Canada is available at: http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/bsc/ejournal/pgs_03/pgs_03.html Mitchell’s 1960’s book on the bees of the Eastern United States is available as a series of pdf files at: http://insectmuseum.org/easternBees.php A slightly out of date guide to the identification of the genera of ALL of North America is available at: http://www.knoxcellars.com/Merchant5/merchant.mvc?Screen=PROD&Store_Code=KCNP&Product_Code=BGNA&Category_Code=BL

Species lists, Identification Guides, and Maps for genera and species are available at:

http://www.discoverlife.org/20/q?search=Apoidea

A guide to the genera of the bees of Canada is available at:

http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/bsc/ejournal/pgs_03/pgs_03.html

Mitchell’s 1960’s book on the bees of the Eastern United States is available as a series of pdf files at:

http://insectmuseum.org/easternBees.php

A slightly out of date guide to the identification of the genera of ALL of North America is available at:

http://www.knoxcellars.com/Merchant5/merchant.mvc?Screen=PROD&Store_Code=KCNP&Product_Code=BGNA&Category_Code=BL

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