Growth and Characterization of IV-VI Sem

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Published on December 23, 2008

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Slide 1: Growth and Characterization of IV-VI Semiconductor Multiple Quantum Well Structures Patrick J. McCann, Huizhen Wu, and Ning Dai* School of Electrical and Computer Engineering *Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Oklahoma Norman, OK 73019 Electronic Materials Conference Santa Barbara, CA June 27, 2002 Slide 2: Outline IV-VI Semiconductors Biomedical Applications MBE Growth and Characterization Square and Parabolic MQWs Summary Slide 3: IV-VI Semiconductors (Pb-Salts) Unique Features High Dielectric Constants ? Defect Screening Can be Grown on Silicon ? Low Cost, Integration Possibilities Symmetric Band Structure ? High Electron and Hole Mobilities Applications Thermoelectric Coolers (Low Lattice Thermal Conductivity) Infrared Detectors (Silicon Integration Possible) Spintronics (Quantum Dots with Magnetic Impurities) Tunable Mid-IR Lasers (Medical Diagnostics, etc.) Slide 4: IV-VI Laser Materials Slide 5: Breath Analysis with IV-VI Lasers IV-VI Laser Slide 6: Asthma Diagnosis High exhaled NO indicates airway inflammation. People with asthma suffer from chronic airway inflammation. Quantum cascade mid-IR lasers have not been able to do such measurements even though several attempts have been made. Laser Focus World, June 2002, P. 22 Roller et al., Optics Letters 27, 107 (2002). Slide 7: IV-VI Epitaxial Layers High quality layers can be grown on silicon McCann et al., Journal of Crystal Growth 175/176, 1057 (1997). Strecker et al., Journal of Electronic Materials 26, 444 (1997). Room temperature cw photoluminescence McCann et al., Applied Physics Letters 75, 3608 (1999). McAlister et al., Journal of Applied Physics 89, 3514 (2001). Optical devices on silicon Through-the-substrate inter-chip optical interconnects (PC Magazine, January 21, 2002). Modulators for free-space optical communication. Infrared imaging arrays. Slide 8: MBE Growth on Silicon and BaF2 SiO2 desorption at 700°C allows epitaxial growth of nearly lattice-matched CaF2 on Si CaF2 growth on Si is layer-by-layer BaF2 growth on CaF2 is layer-by-layer PbSrSe growth on low surface energy BaF2 is initially 3D (island) PbSrSe layer eventually becomes 2D after growth of more than 1 µm IV-VI MBE Chamber at OU Sources: PbSe, Sr, Se, PbTe, BaF2, CaF2, Ag, Bi2Se3 Si(111) (7?7) after oxide desorption After growth of 2 nm CaF2 After growth of 600 nm BaF2 BaF2 (111) substrate (1?1) at 500 °C After growth of 6 Å of PbSrSe on BaF2 After growth of 3 µm of PbSrSe on BaF2 Slide 9: PbSe/PbSrSe MQWs 4 nm to 100 nm HRXRD MQWs on Si have high crystalline quality MQWs on BaF2 substrates have higher crystalline quality due to better thermal expansion match Slide 10: Photoluminescence Near-IR (~980 nm) cw diode laser pumping (low intensity, ~250 mW) Strong Quantum Size Effect Strong CW Emission at 55°C Interference Fringes Dominate Spectra Spacings depend on index of refraction and epilayer thickness Strong optical resonance indicates stimulated emission processes Slide 11: Mid-IR Emitter on Silicon Near-IR (~980 nm) cw diode laser (~250 mW) Emission through Silicon Substrate – Promising optical interconnect architecture IV-VI MQW Si Substrate Slide 12: InGaAs (972 nm) diode laser pump current Optical Heating of Epilayers H. Z. Wu et al., J. Vac. Sci. and Technol. B 19, 1447 (2001). Slide 13: IR Transmission Differential Transmission Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy – Subtract transmission spectra collected at two different temperatures – Peaks yield interband transition energies H. Z. Wu et al., Applied Physics Letters 78, 2199 (2001). LQW=20.6 nm Slide 14: Quantum Size Effects Slide 15: Removal of L-Valley Degeneracy Direct gap is at the L-point in k-space Four Equivalent L-valleys Symmetric conduction and valence bands Potential variation in [111] direction One L-valley is normal to the (111) plane in k-space Three L-valleys are at oblique angles Two different effective masses for electrons (and holes) in the PbSe MQWs Slide 16: Interband Transitions Slide 17: Energy Levels Normal Oblique Slide 18: PL Emission Oblique Valleys Lowest energy level has a low density of states Lower threshold for population inversion Stimulated emission at low excitation rates Four-level laser design Density of States ?? Slide 19: Lasing Thresholds IV-VI Mid-IR VCSELs Bulk Active Region Optical pumping threshold: 69 kW/cm2 Z. Shi et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 76, 3688 (2000) MQW Active Region Optical pumping threshold: 10.5 kW/cm2 C. L. Felix et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3770 (2001) Slide 20: Parabolic MQWs Slide 21: Parabolic MQW Analysis Measured bandgaps in strained PbSe (caused by lattice mismatch with PbSrSe) compared to 77 K bandgap for bulk PbSe allows determination of deformation potentials: Dd = 6.1 eV and Du = -1.3 eV. Energies for the higher confined states in 100 nm sample allows determination of band non-parabolicity parameters: ?c = ?v = 1.9?10-15 cm2 Slide 22: Summary IV-VI semiconductors are versatile materials for a variety of applications. A mid-IR laser spectroscopy application for asthma diagnosis has been developed. PbSe-based MQW structures have attractive properties for improved mid-IR laser technology. L-valley degeneracy removal. Energy level structure in MQWs on (111)-oriented substrates enables low population inversion thresholds.

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