Published on March 11, 2014
Introduction to Group Dynamics
What is a Group? Definition of a group: – Two or more individuals who are connected to one another by social relationships.
Features of Group 1. Interaction between members 2. Awareness 3. Group Perception 4. Shared Goal Interest
Types of groups • Billions of groups in the world, but they can be classified into basic categories, or clusters
Congregations, work groups, unions, professional associations Larger, less intimate, more goal-focused groups typical of more complex societies Secondary groups Families, close friends, tight-knit peer groups, gangs, elite military squads Small, long-term groups characterized by face-to- face interaction and high levels of cohesiveness, solidarity, and member identification Primary groups ExamplesCharacteristicsType of Group
Formal Vs Informal Groups Types of Formal Groups: 1.Command Groups 2.Task Groups Types of Informal Groups: 1.Friendship Groups 2.Interest Groups
Formal Vs Informal S.No . FORMAL INFORMAL 1 Deliberately designed & structured Emerge spontaneously and Naturally 2 Purpose – achievement of goals Satisfaction of social & personal needs 3 Formal Leadership People accepted Leadership 4 Formal relationships based on rationality, legality & contract Informal groups based on personal, social and emotional elements. 5 Larger in Size Smaller in size 6 Communication - Chain of command Informal communication 7 More stable Loosely structured
Reasons for Formation of Informal Groups 1. Companionship 2. Sense of Identification 3. Source of Information 4. Job Satisfaction 5. Protection of Members 6. Outlet for Frustration 7. Perpetuation of Cultural Values 8. Generation of New Ideas
Problems Created by Informal Groups 1. Negative attitude of Informal Leaders 2. Conformity 3. Resistance to Change 4. Rumor 5. Role Conflict
Stages of Group Development Forming Storming Norming Adjourning Task Performing
Theories of Group Formation 1. Propinquity Theory – spatial or geographical nearness 2. Homans Theory – Activities, Interaction and sentiments 3. Balance Theory – Newcomb 4. Exchange Theory – reward cost relationship
Group Dynamics • Keith Davis – “the social process by which people interact face to face in small groups.” • Group dynamics is concerned with the formation of groups, their structure & processes, and the way they affect individual members, other groups and organization.
Team Vs Group S.No Groups Teams 1 Performance is summation of each member’s individual contribution Synergy 2 Must have strong and focused leader Shared Leadership Roles 3 Members are individually accountable Both individual and mutual accountability
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