Published on March 8, 2014
Qualitative Research Methods Grounded Theory
TRUE OR FALSE • • • • It requires us to ask analytic questions You start this process as soon as you finish collecting data GT is a systematic methodology that involves the generation of theory from data In GT you, first, code the data; then, you group the information into concepts and finally, theory emerge.
o Grounded Theory Defining Grounded Theory: the systematic generation of theory from systematic research; a set of rigorous research procedures leading to the emergence of conceptual categories
Key definitions Creswell (2009), “a qualitative strategy of inquiry in which the researcher derives a general, abstract theory of process, action, or interaction grounded in the views of participants in a study.” (p. 13 & 229) This process involves using multiple stages of data collection and the refinement and interrelationships of categories of information (Charmaz, 2006; Strauss and Corbin, 1990, 1998).
Grounded Theory Characteristics - Purpose is to develop to theory about phenomenon of interest - should be grounded or rooted in observation o - Allows researcher to seek out and conceptualize latent social patterns and structures through constant comparisons
o Grounded Theory Characteristics - Iterative (repetitive) process - Rich description is important, but not primary focus - Purposive sampling
o Grounded Theory Glaserian Hallmarks - Researcher must suspend existing beliefs/preconceptions, remain open, and trust in the emergence of concepts from the data
Consist of 4 stages Compare incidents (tentative catg) Compar Changes (integrating) Delimitation of the theory (reducing similar) Forming Systematic substantive theory (reasonable accurate statement)
Grounded Theory Stages/Steps Topic selection and preparation - minimize preconceptions - Do not do a literature review at this point! 1. Data collection - a variety of methods can be used
Grounded Theory Stages/Steps Analysis constant comparative method: involves comparing one segment of data with another to determine similarities and differences o a. overall objective is to identify patterns in the data
o 1. Grounded Theory Stages/Steps Analysis b. While you do comparisons you will be taking notes and coding coding: identifying categories and properties - can be done formally or informally
o 1. Grounded Theory Stages/Steps Analysis c. Ask 3 general questions of the data: 1. What is the data a study of? 2. What category does this incident indicate? 3. What is actually happening in the data?
Grounded Theory Stages/Steps 4. Memoing memos: theorizing write-up of ideas about codes and their relationships - notes to yourself o * Data collection, analysis, and memoing are ongoing and overlap
o Grounded Theory Stages/Steps Data collection Note taking Coding Memoing Sorting Writing
Grounded Theory Stages/Steps 5. Sorting and Theoretical Outline: refers to conceptual sorting of memos into an outline of the emergent theory, showing relationships and concepts o 6. Write up/report
o Grounded Theory The Literature 1. Avoid reading literature regarding the specifics of your study at first, rather read broadly 2. Access relevant literature as it becomes relevant 3. Can be used as data
CODING (Charmaz, K. 2007) Coding means categorizing segments of data with a short name that simultaneously summarizes and accounts for each piece of data. Your codes show how to select, separate, and sort data to begin an analytic accounting of them.
CODING Naming segments of data to categorize, summarize and account for data Generates the bones of your analysis Basis to build the analysis Make your codes fit your data rather than forcing your data to fit them
Coding is the pivotal link between collecting data and developing and emergent theory to explain these data. Through coding, you define what is happening in the data and begin to grapple with what it means.
Types of coding OPEN CODING “the process of breaking down, examining, comparing, conceptualizing, and categorizing data” (p. 61 AXIAL CODING SELECTIVE CODING relates categories to subcategories, specifies the properties and dimensions of a category, and reassembles the data you have fractured during initial coding to give coherence to the emerging analysis It is “the process of selecting the core category, systematically relating it to other categories, validating those relationships, and filling in categories that need further refinement and development” (p. 116)
INITIAL CODING Remain open Stay close to the data Keep your codes simple and precise Construct short codes Preserve actions Compare data with data Move quickly through the data
Focused coding Using the most significant and/or frequent earlier codes to sift through large amounts of data. Making decisions about which ininitail codes make the most analytic sense to categorize your data completely.
Theoretical coding Finding coding families One of the most problematic areas, particularly for novice researchers, is the theoretical coding process which includes finding the theoretical code that willinteg rate the emerg ing substantive theory “Substantive codes conceptualize the empiricalsubstance of the area of research. Theoretical codes conceptualizehow the substantive codes may relate to each other as hypothesesto be integ rated into the theory” (Glaser, 1978, p. 55) Substantivecodes break down (fracture the data) while theoretical codes “weave the fractured story back tog ether ag ain” (Glaser, 1978, p.72) into “an org anized whole theory (Glaser, 1998, p. 163). Theoretical codes must not be preconceived, ratherthey are emerg ent in the data, and therefore, “earn their way intothe theory as much as substantive codes” (Glaser, 1998, p. 164).
Which questions do grounded theorists use when coding data? • • • • What is happening? (Glaser, 1978) What theoretical category does this datum indicate? (Glaser, 1978) What does the data suggest? Pronounce? From whose point of view?
CODING AND CATEGORIES in the diagnostic stage CODING CATEGORIES Lack of listening SKILLS Oral production reading & writing SKILLS Ss attendance ATTITUDE Relationship ATTITUDE Improve my teaching STRATEGIES Learning strategies & writing STRATEGIES Mistakes GRAMMAR Lack of grammar GRAMMAR verb agreement GRAMMAR
Problems when coding Coding at too general a level Identifying topics instead of actions and processes Overlooking how people construct actions Attending to disciplinary or personal rather than participants’ concerns Coding out of context Using codes to summarize not to analyze
Categories and codes for the implementation stage sub categories Teachers’ perceptions about how students view of English class ss feelings with each other and the teacher lack of motivation Rapport Negative Reaction about the language ss negative reactions to the language lack of commitment led to bad performance commitment ss' commitment caused good results Teachers' desire for improvement teachers' desire for self-improvement improvement teachers' desire to improve their classes reflect on becoming updated Reflect Teachers reflecting about ss' needs reflect on ss' profile teachers' development of autonomy in ss development
INTERPRETATION GRAMMAR It refers to the order of the words within a sentence. Teachers mentioned that students needed to improve in accuracy SAMPLE K EQ2 Students had some mistakes during the activities in written exercises C EQ3 Ss present problems when working with Passive/clauses/P. perfect C EQ2 They had terrible bases. No grammar, nothing INTERPRETATION The data suggest that teachers are still focusing on grammar and the importance of accuracy when teaching or using a skill. Teachers never mentioned that due to the fact that learners showed problems with grammar that they were not able to convey feeling or thoughts. However, this comes to show us that teachers are still not aware that the Institution implements the communicative approach.
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