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Green Antifouling Alternatives

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Information about Green Antifouling Alternatives
Technology

Published on November 28, 2008

Author: emuturi

Source: slideshare.net

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BIOFOULING : THE SEARCH FOR GREEN ANTIFOULING ALTERNATIVES Elisheba Muturi December 1’06

Biofouling defined Biological fouling (Biofouling) is the undesirable attachment of microorganisms, plants and animals to artificial surfaces submerged under water Microfoulers: tiny organisms such as bacteria Macrofoulers: barnacles, zebra mussels

Biological fouling (Biofouling) is the undesirable attachment of microorganisms, plants and animals to artificial surfaces submerged under water

Microfoulers: tiny organisms such as bacteria

Macrofoulers: barnacles, zebra mussels

Biofouling effects Affects shipping, offshore, oil and gas, water treatment, fishing industries Ship hulls: reduce efficiency, corrode, cause drag (50% of marine transport costs) Ship heating and cooling systems Fishing equipment, mesh cages (80% of pearl industry costs)

Affects shipping, offshore, oil and gas, water treatment, fishing industries

Ship hulls: reduce efficiency, corrode, cause drag (50% of marine transport costs)

Ship heating and cooling systems

Fishing equipment, mesh cages (80% of pearl industry costs)

 

 

Zebra mussels infestations in pipes

Antifouling technologies Antifouling technologies refer to the means of combating biofouling: Hull cleaning with harsh chemicals Mechanical removal Application of anti-fouling coatings to submerged surfaces

Antifouling technologies refer to the means of combating biofouling:

Hull cleaning with harsh chemicals

Mechanical removal

Application of anti-fouling coatings to submerged surfaces

Environmental impact The most effective anti-fouling coatings are organotins: contain tin eg. tributyltin (TBT). TBT is very effective but toxic to non-target organisms: imposex in whelks Compounds persist and could enter the food chain Mechanical removal results in transfer of invasive species

The most effective anti-fouling coatings are organotins: contain tin eg. tributyltin (TBT).

TBT is very effective but toxic to non-target organisms: imposex in whelks

Compounds persist and could enter the food chain

Mechanical removal results in transfer of invasive species

In November 1999, IMO adopted … International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships … a global prohibition on the application of organotin compounds which act as biocides in anti-fouling systems on ships by 1 January 2003, and a complete prohibition by 1 January 2008 .

The search for green alternatives Research into natural products antifoulants and non-toxic alternatives: Foul release coatings; non-stick surfaces Biological control methods predation Marine bioactive compounds from sponges etc. Mechanical or electrochemical deterrents: pulse power devices, cathodic, vibration

Research into natural products antifoulants and non-toxic alternatives:

Foul release coatings; non-stick surfaces

Biological control methods

predation

Marine bioactive compounds from sponges etc.

Mechanical or electrochemical deterrents: pulse power devices, cathodic, vibration

 

Cross-disciplinary Marine and fresh water biology Oceanography Toxicology Water pollution Environmental Engineering Environmental chemistry Shipping Aquaculture

Marine and fresh water biology

Oceanography

Toxicology

Water pollution

Environmental Engineering

Environmental chemistry

Shipping

Aquaculture

Key databases Environmental Sciences Environmental Sciences & Pollution Management ASFA Oceanic Abstracts EnviroNetBase E-book collection Biology Biosis Previews Zoological Record

Environmental Sciences

Environmental Sciences & Pollution Management

ASFA

Oceanic Abstracts

EnviroNetBase E-book collection

Biology

Biosis Previews

Zoological Record

Databases… Chemical Chemical Abstracts SciFinder Scholar General Web of Science GrayLit

Chemical

Chemical Abstracts SciFinder Scholar

General

Web of Science

GrayLit

Lay sources Clare, Anthony Natural ways to barnish barnacles, New Scientist , 1995 Stanczak, Marianne Biofouling : It's Not Just Barnacles Anymore (CSA Discovery Guide)

Clare, Anthony Natural ways to barnish barnacles, New Scientist , 1995

Stanczak, Marianne Biofouling : It's Not Just Barnacles Anymore (CSA Discovery Guide)

Scientific journals

CSA controlled vocabulary

CSA controlled vocabulary

CSA Search strategy ((natural or non?toxic or "non toxic" or alternative? or biocide?free or "biocide free" or ((Tributyltin or TBT) NEAR alternative*) or (environment* (sound or friend* or benign)) or DE= ((biological control) or (pollution prevention) or (water pollution prevention) or (water pollution control)))) and ((DE= ((antifouling substances) or (fouling control) or (antifoulants))))

((natural or non?toxic or "non toxic" or alternative? or biocide?free or "biocide free" or ((Tributyltin or TBT) NEAR alternative*) or (environment* (sound or friend* or benign)) or DE= ((biological control) or (pollution prevention) or (water pollution prevention) or (water pollution control)))) and ((DE= ((antifouling substances) or (fouling control) or (antifoulants))))

Web of Science articles

Web of Science subject areas

Key authors

Key researchers Research Groups affiliated to Academic Institutions Biofouling Research Group, Russian Individual researchers Canada Centre for Marine Biofouling and Bio-Innovation, U of Calgary University of New South Wales Centre for Marine Biofouling and Bio-Innovation

Research Groups affiliated to Academic Institutions

Biofouling Research Group, Russian

Individual researchers

Canada Centre for Marine Biofouling and Bio-Innovation, U of Calgary

University of New South Wales Centre for Marine Biofouling and Bio-Innovation

Impact of alternatives Positive Research into more efficient antifoulants for industry Reduced transfer of alien species Much better for the environment Negative Non-stick surfaces not effective in slow vessels: increase in fouling Uneven regulation may lead to black market

Positive

Research into more efficient antifoulants for industry

Reduced transfer of alien species

Much better for the environment

Negative

Non-stick surfaces not effective in slow vessels: increase in fouling

Uneven regulation may lead to black market

Barriers to alternatives No alternative with global approval; no commercial applications available Long-term toxicity of alternatives unknown Higher costs of foul-release coatings Poor disposal of toxic coatings

No alternative with global approval; no commercial applications available

Long-term toxicity of alternatives unknown

Higher costs of foul-release coatings

Poor disposal of toxic coatings

Stakeholders Government agencies at national and international level Transportation authorities: International Maritime Organization Environmental agencies such as World Wide fund, UNEP Shipping companies, aquaculture industry Paint manufacturers

Government agencies at national and international level

Transportation authorities: International Maritime Organization

Environmental agencies such as World Wide fund, UNEP

Shipping companies, aquaculture industry

Paint manufacturers

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