Greek Political History1

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Information about Greek Political History1

Published on January 9, 2008

Author: Viola


Greek Political History:  Greek Political History Post War Greece Greece becomes a member of NATO:  Greece becomes a member of NATO In 1952 Greece becomes a member of NATO (North Atlantic Treatise Organization) The core provision of the treaty is Article V, which states: The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all and consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defense recognized by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area. NATO flag:  NATO flag Greece becomes a member of NATO:  Greece becomes a member of NATO In 1953, the first defense cooperation agreement between Greece and the United States was signed, providing for the establishment and operation of American military installations on Greek territory. The United States closed three of its bases in the 1990s. The current mutual defense cooperation agreement (MDCA) provides for the operation by the United States of a naval support facility that exploits the strategically located deep-water port and airfield at Souda Bay in Crete. Political Parties in Post War Greece:  Political Parties in Post War Greece The Greek Communist Party (KKE) was outlawed in 1947 Except for Portugal, Greece demonstrated the highest party instability of all of the Western countries, and the pattern of party representation plotted over time is composed largely of party ups and downs. Political Parties in Post War Greece:  Political Parties in Post War Greece From 1952 to late 1963, Greece was governed by conservative parties. October 1955: Invited by the King to form a government following the death of Prime Minister Alexander Papagos, Karamanlis received the support of the overwhelming majority of Greek Rally deputies. The National Radical Union (ERE) was formed three months later. ERE has been able to withstand the test of time, and even it exists under the guise of a new name (New Democracy). Konstantinos Karamanlis:  Konstantinos Karamanlis Greek statesman, Prime Minister (1955-1958, 1958-1961, 1961-1963, 1974-1980), and President of Greece (1980-1985, 1990-1995) who guided Greece back to democracy after the deposition of the authoritarian "colonels' regime Konstantinos Karamanlis:  Konstantinos Karamanlis He was born in the village of Proti in Macedonia, graduated in law from the University of Athens in 1932, and was elected to the Greek parliament in 1935. Having served in various ministerial posts after World War II, he succeeded to the office of prime minister in 1955. Konstantinos Karamanlis:  Konstantinos Karamanlis The first premiership 1955-63 The main achievements of Karamanlis' governments were as follows: rapid economic recovery and increased economic activity based on a stable currency, revitalization and doubling of agricultural production, electrification and industrialization , development of shipping and tourism, attraction of foreign investment and improvement of the country's exchange rate. Konstantinos Karamanlis:  Konstantinos Karamanlis In foreign policy, together with the unflagging attention paid to strengthening the country's defensive interests, he secured participation in the process of European integration with the signing of the Treaty of Association with the EEC (July 1961). At the same time, after a long and arduous diplomatic struggle, he secured independence for Cyprus (1959). Konstantinos Karamanlis:  Konstantinos Karamanlis The Architect of Greece’s entry into the European Community. January 1, 1981 “I believe that the unification of Europe will be the greatest political event in the history of our continent. An event that will influence not only the destiny of Europe but also the course of all humanity. For it will stabilize relations between the powers of the world, it will guarantee Europe's independence and contribute to the strengthening of world order and peace.” Konstantinos Karamanlis:  Konstantinos Karamanlis “As of today, Greece irrevocably accepts this historical challenge and its European destiny while preserving her national identity. We have confidence both in Europe and in Greece. We have decided to all be Europeans, as Churchill would say, and to all remain Greeks, as Shelley would say. For, to quote Isocrates, the Greeks are not those who are born in Greece but those who espouse the Classical spirit.” Konstantinos Karamanlis:  Konstantinos Karamanlis Konstantinos Karamanlis:  Konstantinos Karamanlis July 1963: Resigned the premiership after a disagreement with King Paul, and spent four months abroad. In November, National Radical Union ( ERE ), under his leadership was defeated in the general election. Karamanlis left Greece. Enosis Kentrou-Center Union:  Enosis Kentrou-Center Union 1963 the liberal Enosis Kentrou (Centre Union, EK) of Georgios Andreou Papandreou is elected: he becomes prime minister until 1965 Papandreou's Center Union government enacted a number of far-reaching social and political reforms. Prominent among them was the release of all political prisoners. To deal with the economic crises, Georgios Papandreou appointed his son Andreas, the former chairman of the Economics Department at the University of California at Berkeley, as minister of the economy Enosis Kentrou-Center Union:  Enosis Kentrou-Center Union The younger Papandreou, who held far more radical views than his father, soon became involved with a group of left leaning military officers known as Aspida. The right viewed these developments suspiciously. Cabals formed in the army as once again rightist military men assumed the role of "protectors" of the nation. To regain control of the armed forces, Georgios Papandreou forced the resignation of his minister of defense and sought the king's approval to name himself minister of defense Enosis Kentrou-Center Union:  Enosis Kentrou-Center Union The constitutional question again came to forefront when Constantine refused the request. In this case, the question was who controlled the military, the king or the prime minister, and the clash of personalities between the two men exacerbated the conflict. Papandreou resigned in disgust in July 1965. In the succeeding months, a series of caretaker governments came and went, leaving the ship of state adrift. Constantine eventually called for elections in May 1967, and an overwhelming Center Union victory seemed certain. Andreas Papandreou:  Andreas Papandreou Education: 1937-40: University of Athens (Law School) 1942: Harvard Univeristy (Master of Economics) 1943: Harvard University (Doctor of Economics) Andreas Papandreou:  Andreas Papandreou Academic Posts: 1942-43: Lecturer, Harvard University 1943-44: Associate Professor, Harvard University 1946-47: Associate Professor, Harvard University 1947-50: Emeritus Professor, Univeristy Minnesota 1950-51: Emeritus Professor, Northwestern University 1951-55: Professor, University of Minnesota 1955-63: Professor, University of California, (1956-59: Dean of the School of Economics) 1968-69: Professor of Economics, University of Stockholm 1969-74: Professor of Economics, York University - Canada (Director of Programme of Post-Graduate Studies of Economics) The Military Junta in Greece (1967-1974) :  The Military Junta in Greece (1967-1974) From 1963 to 1965 the country was governed by George Papandreou. He was dismissed in July 1965 by the palace which, in order to gain its own ends, drove a wedge into the governing Centre Union party. On April 21, 1967 a group of 4 colonels of the Greek army with George Papadopoulos as a leader took control of Greece through a military coup.  Andreas Papandreou:  Andreas Papandreou The Military Junta in Greece (1967-1974):  The Military Junta in Greece (1967-1974) The political leaders of the conservative, liberal and leftist parties were arrested and thousands of party members and followers were jailed or exiled. A new, popular resistance movement was born which culminated in student uprisings in the Law School of Athens University and In the Polytechnic. The dictatorship of the colonels collapsed in 1974 but not before it had delivered about half the territory of Cyprus to the Turks. The Military Junta in Greece (1967-1974):  The Military Junta in Greece (1967-1974) In the autumn of 1973, large-scale student demonstrations, motivated by repression at universities, deterioration of the economy, and a drastic increase in inflation, began open defiance of the junta's ban on public assemblies. When the students occupied the National Polytechnic University of Athens and began clandestine radio broadcasts calling for the people of Athens to rise up against the tyranny, the junta responded by calling in the army in November 1973. Tanks crushed the gathering brutally. The incident exposed the regime's lack of control over society and showed the public that resistance was not futile. The junta lurched even farther to the right when Dimitrios Ioannides, former head of the secret police, toppled Papodopoulos and replaced him at the head of the government. CIA involvement:  CIA involvement On 2 November 1966, and based on a related recommendation by the CIA, the US Embassy in Athens proposed a covert operation to finance moderate candidate Deputies belonging to the Enosis Kentrou Party and FIDHIK [Liberal Democratic Center], so that even if Enosis Kentrou won the election, the Parliamentary majority would be controlled by moderate Deputies not aligned with Andreas Papandreou. CIA involvement:  CIA involvement The State Department archives show that US intelligence knew about Papadopoulos' EENA group months before the 21 April coup. A CIA telegram dated 20 December 1966 includes compelling details about the group's structure and objectives. Everyone who played a role in the junta later on are named in the CIA telegram, which, of course, does not reveal the source of the information. CIA involvement:  CIA involvement In a different telegram, dated 24 March 1967, the US Embassy in Athens asserted: "it is certain that a military intervention plan exists, but we do not have information confirming that the military is going to attempt a coup d'etat. On the contrary, we believe that the Army will not attempt to impose a dictatorship on its own, but will support it once the King decides in favor of this kind of regime". Greece after 1974:  Greece after 1974 The fall of the dictatorship was followed by a government of National Unity under Constantine Karamanlis who returned from Paris. Greece after 1974:  Greece after 1974 Legalization of the KKE was a symbolic step toward finally ending the tensions that had simmered under the surface of Greek politics since the Metaxas regime. In an uncertain climate, Karamanlis scheduled elections for November. Karamanlis's newly formed party, New Democracy (Nea Demokratia--ND), swept into power with 54 percent of the vote and 219 seats in parliament Greece after 1974:  Greece after 1974 the Panhellenic Socialist Movement (Panhellinion Socialistiko Kinima--PASOK), which Andreas Papandreou founded on the basis of his anti-junta resistance group, the Panhellenic Liberation Movement, received nearly 14 percent of the popular vote with a platform opposing Western alliances and the monarchy. Greece after 1974:  Greece after 1974 The United Left Party (Enomeni Aristera), a coalition of the pro-Moscow and anti-Moscow communist factions that had separated in 1968, received 9 percent of the votes Greece after 1974:  Greece after 1974 1975 - New constitution declares Greece a parliamentary republic with some executive powers vested in a President Greece after 1974:  Greece after 1974 All parties, including the communist one, have been free to act. New Democracy (concervatists) PASOK (Panhellenic Socialistic Movement) KKE (Greek Communist Party) Greece after 1974:  Greece after 1974 At the 1974 elections, PASOK received only 13.5% of the vote, but in 1977 it polled 25%, and Papandreou became Leader of the Opposition. At the 1981 elections, PASOK won a landslide victory over the conservative New Democracy Party, and Papandreou became Greece's first socialist Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou:  Andreas Papandreou Series of scandals Papandreou's health began to show signs of strain, having undergone open heart surgery in 1988. In July 1989 he married the Olympic Airways hostess Dimitra Liani, divorcing his American wife of 38 years Margaret Papandreou with whom he had three sons and one daughter Major Political Parties in Greece after 1974:  Major Political Parties in Greece after 1974

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