Greece and the Arts

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Information about Greece and the Arts

Published on February 23, 2009

Author: PaulVMcDowell

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Describes the Art and Architecture of Classical Greece

Greece and the Arts Two-Dimensional Art, Sculpture, and Architecture

Principles Underlying Greek Art Catchword: Man is the Measure of All Things Even the Gods were anthropomorphic (shaped like humans) Evolved from stylization of Egyptians to Naturalism Emphasis is on balance, ideal forms, and the Golden Mean

Catchword: Man is the Measure of All Things

Even the Gods were anthropomorphic (shaped like humans)

Evolved from stylization of Egyptians to Naturalism

Emphasis is on balance, ideal forms, and the Golden Mean

Pottery Pottery was made of terra cotta (earthenware material) which may or may not be glazed Black-figure pottery was popular. Figures were painted in black Details were incised with a sharp tool, exposing the orange clay below Vase was fired to turn the painted figures black and the surface areas orange Red-figure vases involved reversal of this process Details: box on p. 145

Pottery was made of terra cotta (earthenware material) which may or may not be glazed

Black-figure pottery was popular.

Figures were painted in black

Details were incised with a sharp tool, exposing the orange clay below

Vase was fired to turn the painted figures black and the surface areas orange

Red-figure vases involved reversal of this process

Details: box on p. 145

Archaic Period: Form Followed Function Hydria: water jug with 3 handles: two for lifting and the top for pouring (upper left) Lekythos: flask for pouring oil Krater: bowl for mixing wine and water (lower left) Amphora: vessel for storing olive oil, wine, honey, or water Kylix: drinking cup Oenachoe: jug for pouring wine

Hydria: water jug with 3 handles: two for lifting and the top for pouring (upper left)

Lekythos: flask for pouring oil

Krater: bowl for mixing wine and water (lower left)

Amphora: vessel for storing olive oil, wine, honey, or water

Kylix: drinking cup

Oenachoe: jug for pouring wine

Examples of Black-Figure Pottery Achilles and Ajax playing board game. Achilles killing the Amazon warrior Penthesilea, an ally of the Trojans In this scene, Achilles tragically falls in love with her as she dies from her wound

Achilles and Ajax playing board game.

Achilles killing the Amazon warrior Penthesilea, an ally of the Trojans

In this scene, Achilles tragically falls in love with her as she dies from her wound

Black Figure Pottery: Olympic Races This amphora depicts a race among contestants at the earliest Olympic games All contestants competed in the nude—a good way to avoid cheating The games were held at Olympia in honor of the gods

This amphora depicts a race among contestants at the earliest Olympic games

All contestants competed in the nude—a good way to avoid cheating

The games were held at Olympia in honor of the gods

Mosaics Mosaics do not appear until the Hellenistic period, when Alexander the Great conquered Persia, then Central Asia This scene depicts the decisive battle of Issus (Issos) in which Alexander defeats Darius; see p. 149

Mosaics do not appear until the Hellenistic period, when Alexander the Great conquered Persia, then Central Asia

This scene depicts the decisive battle of Issus (Issos) in which Alexander defeats Darius; see p. 149

Sculpture, Classical Greece: Egyptian Influences Archaic Greek statues reflect the proportionality of Egyptian sculpture (left) Statue Kouros show one foot forward, hands to side in clenched fists (left) Kritos Boy shows greater naturalism (right)

Archaic Greek statues reflect the proportionality of Egyptian sculpture (left)

Statue Kouros show one foot forward, hands to side in clenched fists (left)

Kritos Boy shows greater naturalism (right)

Sculpture: Early Classical Nudity that characterizes much Greek sculpture first appears here Nudity is characteristic of males, but not females in this era Female figures, remain clothed, such as Athena, pictured left Early classical sculpture is also known for its “archaic smile”

Nudity that characterizes much Greek sculpture first appears here

Nudity is characteristic of males, but not females in this era

Female figures, remain clothed, such as Athena, pictured left

Early classical sculpture is also known for its “archaic smile”

Theme of Poseidon/Zeus Whether this is the top god Zeus or the sea god Poseidon (Neptune to the Romans) Depends on inference and interpretation Clearly reflects growing Greek interest in athletics Most like, a spear is missing from this image Focus of his aim, tensing of body, and other details emphasize intensity of purpose An example of lost wax casting

Whether this is the top god Zeus or the sea god Poseidon (Neptune to the Romans)

Depends on inference and interpretation

Clearly reflects growing Greek interest in athletics

Most like, a spear is missing from this image

Focus of his aim, tensing of body, and other details emphasize intensity of purpose

An example of lost wax casting

Theme of Athleticism Discus Thrower (far left) Warriors from Race (middle and right) Some of the sculptors visited the gymnasium for models of their work Athletic or not, the subjects were depicted as well proportioned, a canon of Greek sculpture

Discus Thrower (far left)

Warriors from Race (middle and right)

Some of the sculptors visited the gymnasium for models of their work

Athletic or not, the subjects were depicted as well proportioned, a canon of Greek sculpture

Sculpture, Late Classic Toward the late classic, the sculptor Praxiteles adopted an S-shaped curve in the human form Female nudes were added to the repertoire Aphrodite of Knidos (left) reflected the new trend Right hand modestly hides her genitalia, while left hand hold her garments Lysippos specialized in portraits and was court sculptor for Alexander the Great

Toward the late classic, the sculptor Praxiteles adopted an S-shaped curve in the human form

Female nudes were added to the repertoire

Aphrodite of Knidos (left) reflected the new trend

Right hand modestly hides her genitalia, while left hand hold her garments

Lysippos specialized in portraits and was court sculptor for Alexander the Great

Architecture To the Greeks, as elsewhere, temples were thought to be houses for the gods Called megarons (rectangular structures with columns, they included a portico, or front porch The cult statue of the god or goddess was located in the center. They usually had a decorated pediment, or roof façade, portraying gods or other themes

To the Greeks, as elsewhere, temples were thought to be houses for the gods

Called megarons (rectangular structures with columns, they included a portico, or front porch

The cult statue of the god or goddess was located in the center.

They usually had a decorated pediment, or roof façade, portraying gods or other themes

Parts of a Temple: The Doric Order as Example The main column is known as a shaft, with 20 flutes running lengthwise The foot is known as the stylobate The top part of the column is called the neck See diagram for other parts of the column

The main column is known as a shaft, with 20 flutes running lengthwise

The foot is known as the stylobate

The top part of the column is called the neck

See diagram for other parts of the column

The Three Orders of Columns

Comparing the Three Orders The three orders are depicted in the prior panel The Doric is the simplest, with no decoration at the top The Ionic contains volutes (scroll shapes) that replace the echinus (the bulge above the necking) of the Doric The Corinthian has a flowery capital just above the necking

The three orders are depicted in the prior panel

The Doric is the simplest, with no decoration at the top

The Ionic contains volutes (scroll shapes) that replace the echinus (the bulge above the necking) of the Doric

The Corinthian has a flowery capital just above the necking

The Cult Figure of the Temple The cult figure occupies the temple center Temple of Zeus: the head god himself in Olympia Acropolis: Hilltop containing the temples in Athens Parthenon: Temple dedicated to Athena Nike Temple: to the goddess of war and victory Erechtheneum: to Athena Pallas as patron of Athens

The cult figure occupies the temple center

Temple of Zeus: the head god himself in Olympia

Acropolis: Hilltop containing the temples in Athens

Parthenon: Temple dedicated to Athena

Nike Temple: to the goddess of war and victory

Erechtheneum: to Athena Pallas as patron of Athens

The Parthenon The temple was dedicated to Athena (upper left) It is surrounded by Doric columns The statue of Athena stood at the center (lower left) “ Parthenon” is derived from the term “virgin,” which myth says she was The temple is embellished by friezes on the inner part of the temple and by others in the pediments.

The temple was dedicated to Athena (upper left)

It is surrounded by Doric columns

The statue of Athena stood at the center (lower left)

“ Parthenon” is derived from the term “virgin,” which myth says she was

The temple is embellished by friezes on the inner part of the temple and by others in the pediments.

The Pediments Pediments are the triangles on either ene of a gabled roof, usually with decoration The left side of the east pediment depicts Athena’s birth from the forehead of Zeus They also depict three goddesses: Persephone, Demeter, and either Hebe or Iris The right side of the east pediment depict horses marking the rise of the sun They also depict a reclining male nude, possibly Herakles (Hercules) or Dionysus

Pediments are the triangles on either ene of a gabled roof, usually with decoration

The left side of the east pediment depicts Athena’s birth from the forehead of Zeus

They also depict three goddesses: Persephone, Demeter, and either Hebe or Iris

The right side of the east pediment depict horses marking the rise of the sun

They also depict a reclining male nude, possibly Herakles (Hercules) or Dionysus

Inside (Ionic) Frieze The inside frieze depicts a procession of gods, humans, and beasts Horses are depicted as small relative to the riders. All the heads of the procession are set at the same level Shading of the frieze creates the illusion of movement

The inside frieze depicts a procession of gods, humans, and beasts

Horses are depicted as small relative to the riders.

All the heads of the procession are set at the same level

Shading of the frieze creates the illusion of movement

Inside (Ionic) Frieze: Details Left: Detail from the east pediment of the Parthenon Right: Details from the procession depicted in the Ionic Frieze, with seated gods and goddesses witnessing the event

Left: Detail from the east pediment of the Parthenon

Right: Details from the procession depicted in the Ionic Frieze, with seated gods and goddesses witnessing the event

Hellenistic Greek Themes The Hellenistic Styles anticipate what one will find for Rome The architecture emphasizes the value of size The arts are extensions of the canons begun in Classical Greece Portraits assume a greater importance Much Hellenic and Hellenistic art is copied by Romans

The Hellenistic Styles anticipate what one will find for Rome

The architecture emphasizes the value of size

The arts are extensions of the canons begun in Classical Greece

Portraits assume a greater importance

Much Hellenic and Hellenistic art is copied by Romans

Architecture: Altar of Zeus Given to larger, monumental forms than that of Classical Greece. The Altar of Zeus at Pergamon, Asia Minor, commemorating a battle with the invading Gauls

Given to larger, monumental forms than that of Classical Greece.

The Altar of Zeus at Pergamon, Asia Minor, commemorating a battle with the invading Gauls

Statuary Realism Themes of statue are victory of intellect over barbarism, Olympian gods over Titans Athena triumphs over Male, son of the Earth Mother Laco őn and sons captured by sea serpent sent by Athena (lower left) This is in revenge for his warning the Trojans of an impeding attack The Hellenic ideal form is displaced by realism that also portray children and the aging This anticipates Roman sculpture

Themes of statue are victory of intellect over barbarism, Olympian gods over Titans

Athena triumphs over Male, son of the Earth Mother

Laco őn and sons captured by sea serpent sent by Athena (lower left)

This is in revenge for his warning the Trojans of an impeding attack

The Hellenic ideal form is displaced by realism that also portray children and the aging

This anticipates Roman sculpture

Other Sculpture: Nike and Aphrodite The Winged Victory gives a sense of movement as the wind whips against Nike’s garment Nike descends from the heavens on the prow of a ship to celebrate a naval victory Aphrodite de Melos (aka Venus de Milo ) continues the trend toward a fleshier style than classic proportions The same trend emphasizes the sensuality begun by Praxitcles Aphrodite of Knidos

The Winged Victory gives a sense of movement as the wind whips against Nike’s garment

Nike descends from the heavens on the prow of a ship to celebrate a naval victory

Aphrodite de Melos (aka Venus de Milo ) continues the trend toward a fleshier style than classic proportions

The same trend emphasizes the sensuality begun by Praxitcles Aphrodite of Knidos

Conclusion This sample illustrates the following trends From formalism to naturalism in sculpture and the two-dimensional arts Importance of male nudity, followed much later by female nudity The emergence of three distinct columns: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian The emergence of temples dedicated to particular gods: Zeus, Athena, Nike The emergence of portrait and realism in the Hellenistic period

This sample illustrates the following trends

From formalism to naturalism in sculpture and the two-dimensional arts

Importance of male nudity, followed much later by female nudity

The emergence of three distinct columns: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian

The emergence of temples dedicated to particular gods: Zeus, Athena, Nike

The emergence of portrait and realism in the Hellenistic period

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