Great Depression & Communist Russia

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Information about Great Depression & Communist Russia

Published on March 25, 2008

Author: vtucker

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Powerpoint presentation I did for my APWHII students when they learned the Great Depression and Communism in Russia.

THE GREAT DEPRESSION AND COMMUNIST RUSSIA

I. Legacy of WWI & Peace By 1922, Germany unable to pay reparations France occupied the heavily industrialized Ruhr valley, using mine and factories to collect money in place of reparations Germany responded by printing more money, lowering the value and increasing inflation Germany plagued with political unrest by those unhappy that Germany agreed to the Versailles Treaty

By 1922, Germany unable to pay reparations

France occupied the heavily industrialized Ruhr valley, using mine and factories to collect money in place of reparations

Germany responded by printing more money, lowering the value and increasing inflation

Germany plagued with political unrest by those unhappy that Germany agreed to the Versailles Treaty

Map: Ruhr Valley

I. Legacy of WWI & Peace 1924, the U.S. Dawes Plan reduced German reparation payments and based payments on the ability of Germany to pay Included a loan of $200 million Heavy U.S. investment in Europe 1925, Treaty of Locarno Allowed Germany into the League of Nations

1924, the U.S. Dawes Plan reduced German reparation payments and based payments on the ability of Germany to pay

Included a loan of $200 million

Heavy U.S. investment in Europe

1925, Treaty of Locarno

Allowed Germany into the League of Nations

I. Legacy of WWI & Peace Alsace-Lorraine returned to France Rhineland a neutral zone Disarmament weak – League said to disarm “to the lowest point consistent with national safety” – nations not quick to disarm due to mutual lingering mistrust

Alsace-Lorraine returned to France

Rhineland a neutral zone

Disarmament weak – League said to disarm “to the lowest point consistent with national safety” – nations not quick to disarm due to mutual lingering mistrust

II. The Great Depression Domestic economies weak and increasingly controlled by governments Countries plagued by war debts and reparation payments Prices for agricultural goods declining due to over production To protect economies, central and eastern Europeans countries closed borders off to trade and imposed tariffs

Domestic economies weak and increasingly controlled by governments

Countries plagued by war debts and reparation payments

Prices for agricultural goods declining due to over production

To protect economies, central and eastern Europeans countries closed borders off to trade and imposed tariffs

II. The Great Depression Economies were international U.S. invested heavily in German bonds and industries, which brought prosperity to all of Europe between 1924-1929 American economy booming, so investors pulled out of Germany to invest at home Buying on margin (only paying 10% of cost at the time) led to a lot of buying and selling for profit – stock prices rose – when people lost confidence in the market, they sold in mass numbers

Economies were international

U.S. invested heavily in German bonds and industries, which brought prosperity to all of Europe between 1924-1929

American economy booming, so investors pulled out of Germany to invest at home

Buying on margin (only paying 10% of cost at the time) led to a lot of buying and selling for profit – stock prices rose – when people lost confidence in the market, they sold in mass numbers

II. The Great Depression October, 1929, crash of the stock market led to panicked withdrawal of money from German and European markets Withdrawal of money weakened Germany and other European states

October, 1929, crash of the stock market led to panicked withdrawal of money from German and European markets

Withdrawal of money weakened Germany and other European states

Primary Source: Newspaper

II. The Great Depression Women’s roles and the family Women able to secure low paying jobs in housekeeping or servants while men were unemployed – men resentful of this Young men with nothing to do joined gangs Government inability to fix bad conditions led some countries to be taken easily by Marxist doctrine and dictatorial solutions

Women’s roles and the family

Women able to secure low paying jobs in housekeeping or servants while men were unemployed – men resentful of this

Young men with nothing to do joined gangs

Government inability to fix bad conditions led some countries to be taken easily by Marxist doctrine and dictatorial solutions

Primary Source: Women Serving Soup

III. The World in Depression Britain Suffering after WWI from a decline in the steel, coal, and textile industry – led to unemployment Labour Party replaced by Conservatives who provided low interest loans, devalued the pound, balanced the budget, and used protective tariffs

Britain

Suffering after WWI from a decline in the steel, coal, and textile industry – led to unemployment

Labour Party replaced by Conservatives who provided low interest loans, devalued the pound, balanced the budget, and used protective tariffs

III. The World in Depression Cambridge economist, John Maynard Keynes said that unemployment could be brought to an end by putting people back to work even if the government went into debt so that demand would go back up Britain alleviated when it began its armament industries again

Cambridge economist, John Maynard Keynes said that unemployment could be brought to an end by putting people back to work even if the government went into debt so that demand would go back up

Britain alleviated when it began its armament industries again

III. The World in Depression France Not hit hard until 1932 due to its balanced economy Depression led to political chaos – leftist communist, socialist, and radicals formed Popular Front party Instituted collective bargaining, 40-hour work week, two week paid vacations, and minimal wages Did not solve conditions of depression

France

Not hit hard until 1932 due to its balanced economy

Depression led to political chaos – leftist communist, socialist, and radicals formed Popular Front party

Instituted collective bargaining, 40-hour work week, two week paid vacations, and minimal wages

Did not solve conditions of depression

III. The World in Depression Germany Weimar Republic established in 1918 Economic troubles led the German people to dislike the Weimar government, which gave rise to extremist parties

Germany

Weimar Republic established in 1918

Economic troubles led the German people to dislike the Weimar government, which gave rise to extremist parties

III. The World in Depression U.S. Franklin D. Roosevelt brought in the New Deal, a program of government intervention in the economy Public works projects put people back to work Beginning of the welfare state and Social Security U.S. alleviated by the growth of the armaments industry

U.S.

Franklin D. Roosevelt brought in the New Deal, a program of government intervention in the economy

Public works projects put people back to work

Beginning of the welfare state and Social Security

U.S. alleviated by the growth of the armaments industry

IV. Socialism in Russia Problems in Russia: food hording so that it wouldn’t be taken, drought, and reduced industrial production March 1921- New Economic Plan (NEP) Allowed peasants to sell their food Allowed small private businesses though heavy industry, transportation and banking remained in the governments hands By 1922, the market was revived and there was a good harvest

Problems in Russia: food hording so that it wouldn’t be taken, drought, and reduced industrial production

March 1921- New Economic Plan (NEP)

Allowed peasants to sell their food

Allowed small private businesses though heavy industry, transportation and banking remained in the governments hands

By 1922, the market was revived and there was a good harvest

IV. Socialism in Russia Women’s Rights Led by Alexandra Kollontai Health care for women and children, marriage as a civil act, legal divorce, and legal abortions Often faced violence from men who felt threatened by the possible rights of their wives Undone by later Communist leaders

Women’s Rights

Led by Alexandra Kollontai

Health care for women and children, marriage as a civil act, legal divorce, and legal abortions

Often faced violence from men who felt threatened by the possible rights of their wives

Undone by later Communist leaders

IV. Socialism in Russia Leadership after the death of Lenin Lenin died in 1924 Two political groups battled for power Left- led by Leon Trotsky: end NEP, industrialize, and spread Communism abroad Right- concentrate on making a socialist state and continue the NEP

Leadership after the death of Lenin

Lenin died in 1924

Two political groups battled for power

Left- led by Leon Trotsky: end NEP, industrialize, and spread Communism abroad

Right- concentrate on making a socialist state and continue the NEP

IV. Socialism in Russia Joseph Stalin was party secretary and used his skills of organization to become leader of the Communist Party

Joseph Stalin was party secretary and used his skills of organization to become leader of the Communist Party

V. Culture and Intellectual Trends WWI supported beliefs that humans were violent animals incapable of rationality Women- shorter skirts, more makeup, short hair, and more exposed body – sexual issues more out in the open Popularity of nihilism- being does not have purpose, value, or truth – morality or higher power does not exist

WWI supported beliefs that humans were violent animals incapable of rationality

Women- shorter skirts, more makeup, short hair, and more exposed body – sexual issues more out in the open

Popularity of nihilism- being does not have purpose, value, or truth – morality or higher power does not exist

V. Culture and Intellectual Trends Dadaism “ Everything happens in a completely idiotic way. . . . Like everything in life, Dada is useless.” Anti-art to reflect the insanity of life Hannah Hoch- Cut With The Kitchen Knife criticized the German Weimar Republic – popular for feminist themes

Dadaism

“ Everything happens in a completely idiotic way. . . . Like everything in life, Dada is useless.”

Anti-art to reflect the insanity of life

Hannah Hoch- Cut With The Kitchen Knife criticized the German Weimar Republic – popular for feminist themes

Primary Source: Cut With The Kitchen Knife

V. Culture and Intellectual Trends Surrealism Reality outside of the material – dreamlike – the unconscious – nightmares and fantasies Salvador Dali- The Persistence of Memory – objects outside of their rightful context and place stress irrationality

Surrealism

Reality outside of the material – dreamlike – the unconscious – nightmares and fantasies

Salvador Dali- The Persistence of Memory – objects outside of their rightful context and place stress irrationality

Primary Source: Persistence of Memory

V. Culture and Intellectual Trends Functionalism in architecture spread by German Bauhaus school Arnold Schonberg created atonal music without recognizable harmony “ Stream of Consciousness” writing popular – stressed internal dialogue such as James Joyce’s Ulysses ; other writers like Hermann Hesse wrote about the spiritual loneliness of modern life

Functionalism in architecture spread by German Bauhaus school

Arnold Schonberg created atonal music without recognizable harmony

“ Stream of Consciousness” writing popular – stressed internal dialogue such as James Joyce’s Ulysses ; other writers like Hermann Hesse wrote about the spiritual loneliness of modern life

V. Culture and Intellectual Trends Mass entertainment popular Hollywood, radio shows, sports, and soap operas popular

Mass entertainment popular

Hollywood, radio shows, sports, and soap operas popular

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