Published on March 1, 2014
Introduction Overview of the Authentication Methods Text Password and drawbacks. Graphical Passwords. The Types Of Graphical Survey: Recognition Based Techniques Recall Based Techniques Discussion Advantages Disadvantages Conclusion
INTRODUCTION: Access to computer systems is most often based on the use of alphanumeric passwords. However, users have difficulty remembering a password that is long and random-appearing. Instead, they create short, simple, and insecure passwords. Graphical passwords have been designed to try to make passwords more memorable and easier for people to use and, therefore, more secure. Using a graphical password, users click on images rather than type alphanumeric characters.
Until recently computer and network security has been formulated as a technical problem. A key area in security research is authentication, the determination of whether a user should be allowed access to a given system or resource. Traditionally, alphanumeric passwords have been used for authentication, but they are known to have security and usability problems. Today other methods, including graphical passwords, are possible alternatives.
What is PASSWORD? PASSWORD is a secret word or string of characters that is used for user authentication to prove his identity and gain access to resources. -> T H E M O S T C O M M O N L Y U S E D F O R M O F U S E R A U T H E N T I C A T I O N . ->THE WEAKEST LINKS OF COMPUTER SECURITY SYSTEMS. - > T W O C O N F L I C T I N G R E QU I R E M E N T S O F A L P H A N U M E R I C PA S S W O R D S : (1) EASY TO REMEMBER AND (2) HARD TO GUESS. MANY PEOPLE TEND TO IGNORE THE SECOND REQUIREMENT WHICH L E A D T O W E A K PA S S W O R D S . M A N Y S O L U T I O N S H AV E B E E N P R O P O S E D. G R A P H I C A L PA S S W O R D I S O N E O F T H E S O L U T I O N S .
PASSWORDS are used for? Logging into accounts. Retrieving emails. Accessing applications. Networks. Websites Databases workstations
Token based authentication: key cards, band cards, smart card. Biometric based authentication: Fingerprints, iris scan, facial recognition. Knowledge based authentication: text-based passwords, picture-based passwords most widely used authentication techniques.
GRAPHICAL PASSWORDS is an authentication system that works by having the user select from images, in a specific order, presented in a graphical user interface (GUI). For this reason, the graphical-password approach is sometimes called graphical user authentication (GUA). • Graphical passwords were originally described by BLONDER in 1996. It can be used in: – web log-in application – ATM machines – mobile devices
An example of a graphical password uses an image on the screen and lets the user choose a few click points; these click points are the "password", and the user has to click closely to these points again in order to log in.
Two Categories Of Graphical Passwords: Recall Based Techniques: A user is asked to reproduce something that he created or selected earlier during the registration stage Recognition Based Techniques: A user is presented with a set of images and the user passes the authentication by recognizing and identifying the images he selected during the registration stage.
Recall Based Techniques: “PassPoint” Scheme: User click on any place on an image to create a password. A tolerance around each chosen pixel is calculated. In order to be authenticated, user must click within the tolerances in correct sequence. Password Space: N^K ( N -the number of pixels or smallest units of a picture, K - the number of Point to be clicked on ).
Recognition Based Techniques Sobrado and Birget Scheme System display a number of pass-objects (pre selected by user) among many other objects,user click inside the convex hull bounded by pass-objects. – authors suggested using 1000 objects, which makes the display very crowed and the objects almost indistinguishable. password space: N!/K! (N-K)! ( N-total number of picture objects K-number of pre-registered objects)
Other Schemes Pass faces.. Using human faces as password. Difficult to attack. Select a sequence of images as password
COMPARISION BETWEEN ALPHANUMERIC & GRAPHICAL PASSWORDS: Commonly used guidelines for alpha-numeric passwords are: The password should be at least 8 characters long. The password should not be easy to relate to the user (e.g., last name, birth date). Ideally, the user should combine upper and lower case letters and digits. Graphical passwords The password consists of some actions that the user performs on an image. Such passwords are easier to remember & hard to guess.
GRAPHICAL PASSWORDS WHAT A CONCEPT! Here you pick several icons to represent the password. Then when you want to authenticate it, a screen is drawn as a challenge to which you must respond. The screen has numerous icons, at some of which are your private password icons. You must locate your icons visually on the screen and click on the screen to the password.
A SIMPLE GRAPHICAL PA S S W O R D S C H E M E The user choose these regions when he or she created the password . The choice for the four regions is arbitrary, but the user will pick places that he or she finds easy to remember. The user can introduce his/her own pictures for creating graphical passwords. Also, for stronger security, more than four click points could be chosen.
A D VA N TA G E S O F G R A P H I C A L PA S S W O R D S Graphical password schemes provide a way of making more human-friendly passwords . Here the security of the system is very high. Here we use a series of selectable images on successive screen pages. Dictionary attacks are infeasible.
DRAWBACKS Password registration and log-in process take too long. Require much more storage space than text based passwords. Shoulder Surfing: It means watching over people's shoulders as they process information. Examples include observing the keyboard as a person types his or her password, enters a PIN number, or views personal information.Because of their graphic nature, nearly all graphical password schemes are quite vulnerable to shoulder surfing.
S O L U T I O N TO S H O U L D E R S U R F I N G PROBLEM (1) TRIANGLE SCHEME
(2) MOVABLE FRAME SCHEME
CONCLUSION Graphical passwords are an alternative to textual alphanumeric password. It satisfies both conflicting requirements i.e. it is easy to remember & it is hard to guess. By the solution of the shoulder surfing problem, it becomes more secure & easier password scheme. By implementing other special geometric configurations like triangle & movable frame, one can achieve more security.
It is more difficult to break graphical passwords using the traditional attack methods such as : burte force search, dictionary attack or spyware. Not yet widely used, current graphical password techniques are still immature.
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