Published on March 11, 2014
• What is graphene?
What is graphene?
What is graphene? ▪ It is a single layer of Graphite (pure crystaline carbon)
What is graphene? ▪ It is a single layer of Graphite (pure crystaline carbon) ▪ Graphite was discovered in 1564 at Seathwaite (Borrowdale), Northumberland Left: Tall graphite mine, near Seathwaite, England CA12 5XJ Oldest surviving pencil circa 17th Cent.
What is graphene? ▪ It is a single layer of Graphite (pure crystaline carbon) ▪ Graphite was discovered in 1564 at Seathwaite (Borrowdale), Northumberland ▪ ‘Graphene’ was first isolated in the lab by Professor Andre Geim with former student Konstantin Novoselov at the University of Manchester, England in 2004 ◄Sir Andre K. Geim, FRS email@example.com +44(0)161 275-4120 firstname.lastname@example.org +44(0)161 275-4119 Schuster Building, Rooms 2.10 & 2.11 The School of Physics and Astronomy The University of Manchester Manchester, M13 9PL Sir “Kostya” Novoselov, FRS► The University of
What is graphene? ▪ It is a single layer of Graphite (pure crystaline carbon) ▪ Graphite was discovered in 1564 at Seathwaite (Borrowdale), Northumberland ▪ ‘Graphene’ was first isolated in the lab by Professor Andre Geim with former student Konstantin Novoselov at the University of Manchester, England in 2004 2010 Nobel Prize for “groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene” (Both were later Knighted, twice)
What is graphene? ▪ It is a single layer of Graphite (pure crystaline carbon) ▪ Graphite was discovered in 1564 at Seathwaite (Borrowdale), Northumberland ▪ ‘Graphene’ was first isolated in the lab by Professor Andre Geim with former student Konstantin Novoselov at the University of Manchester, England in 2004 ▪ Graphene is among several allotropes (forms) of carbon Forms of carbon: a) graphite 3D b) diamond 3D c) Buckminsterfullerene “Buckyballs” 0D d) carbon nanotube 1D e) graphene 2D Although graphene is the first Two- dimensional crystal ever discovered, there are several new 2D materials including MoS2, WSe2, W2S, BN, and SiC which can be used with graphene to make new hybrid electronic devices.
The Amazing Properties of graphene
The Amazing Properties of graphene ▪ It is the thinnest material imaginable (~0.345 nm thick). [2,3] ▪ It is the strongest material ever measured. ►200x stronger than steel (~1,100TPa/125 GPa)  ►Stiffer than diamond [2,3] ▪ It is electrically conductive – best known so far. [2,3] ►1,000,000x more conductive than copper (current density @ room temp.)  ▪ Electrons behave as light inside graphene (“Massless Dirac fermions”).  ▪ It conducts heat even better than diamond (~5000 W m-1 K-1 ).  ▪ Tunable electronic properties (bandgap for transistors, FETs). [2,3,8] ▪ It is flexible & stretchable: The first elastic 2D crystal.  ▪ Good for flexible, wearable devices. [2,3] ▪ It is transparent: One atom-thick layer sheet absorbs ~2.3% visible light (πα).  ▪ Replacement for ITO, Solar cells, touchscreens, new computers, batteries, etc. 
The Amazing Properties of graphene http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/balancing-act/ @qikipedia — “It would take an elephant, balanced on a pencil to break through a sheet of graphene the thickness of cling film.” Illustration by Matt Collins
The Uses of graphene ▪ Head tennis racquet (Andy Murray, Maria Sharapova, Novak Djokovic and Gilles Simon) ▪ Security devices printed inside cardboard layers (Vorbeck Materials/MeadWestvaco) (And the patents are growing exponentially)
The Future of graphene Recently, researchers at IBM (Watson) demonstrated a RF graphene IC chip that received a text message 1000x faster than current silicon chips that are used today. 
The Future of graphene ▪ Nokia G-Flex™ , Morph™ ▪ Samsung Galaxy Skin™ ▪ Supercapacitor batteries ▪ Water filters …
With all the amazing properties of graphene,With all the amazing properties of graphene, there is little wonderthere is little wonder itit isis the Wonder materialthe Wonder material of the 21of the 21stst CenturyCentury
List of References 1. Novoselov, K. S.,. et al., “Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films”, Science 306, 666-669 (2004). 2. Novoselov, K. S., Fal'ko, V. I., Colombo, L., Gellert, P. R., Schwab, M. G. & Kim, K., “A Roadmap for Graphene”, Nature 490, 192-200 (2012). 3. Geim, A. K. & Novoselov, K. S., “The Rise of Graphene”, Nature Materials 6, 183-191 (2007). 4. Morozov, A. S., et al., “Micrometer-scale ballistic transport in encapsulated graphene at room temperature”, Nano Lett. 11, 2396- 2399 (2011). 5. Lee, C., et al., “Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene”, Science 321, 385-388 (2008). 6. Moser, J., Barrieiro, A., & Bachtold, A., “Current-induced cleaning of graphene”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 163513 (2007). 7. Novoselov, K. S., et al., “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene”, Nature 438, 197-200 (2005). 8. Yavari, F., et al., “Tunable Bandgap in Graphene by the Controlled Adsorption of Water Molecules”, Small 6, 2535-2538 (2010). 9. Zhang, Y., et al., “Direct observation of a widely tunable bandgap in bilayer graphene”, Nature 459, 820-823 (2009). 10. Galavdin, A., “Thermal properties of graphene and monostructured carbon materials”, Nature Matter. 10, 569-581 (2011). 11. Nair, R. R., et al., “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene”, Science 320, 1308 (2008). 12. Han, S., Garcia, A. V., Oida, S., Jenkins, K. A. & Haensch, W., “Graphene radio frequency receiver integrated circuit”, Nature Communications 5, (2014)
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