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Grapevine varieties, trellises, and mechanization of the California raisin industry

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Information about Grapevine varieties, trellises, and mechanization of the California...
Education

Published on July 22, 2013

Author: viticulture

Source: slideshare.net

Description

An overview of traditional and mechanized raisin production in California, including typical varieties and trellis systems.
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Grapevine  varie*es,  trellis  systems,     and  mechaniza*on  of  the  California   raisin  industry   Ma:hew  Fidelibus   Vi*culture  and  Enology   UC  Davis  

Outline   •  Overview  of  CA  raisin  industry   •  Tradi*onal  produc*on  methods   •  Mechaniza*on  op*ons  for  tradi*onal   vineyards   •  Newer  dry-­‐on-­‐vine  (DOV)  systems   •  Future  goals  

California  Raisin  Industry   •  140  year  history   •  Located  ~  60  mile  radius  around   Fresno  in  SJV   •  90%  natural  sun-­‐dried   •  ~170,000  acres   •  ~340,000  tons  dried  raisins/yr  

California  Raisin  Industry   •  Small  family  farms;  ~40  ac  mean  size   •  Historical  10-­‐15%  ROI  +  land   apprecia*on  

Varie*es  

THOMPSON SEEDLESS

Problems  with  Tradi*onal  Raisin   Produc*on   •  Labor  intensive   •  Fruit  laid  on  ground   •  Produc*vity  limits  

Op*ons  for  growers  with   tradi*onal  Thompson  vineyards   •  Dry-­‐on-­‐vine  (DOV)   •  Con*nuous  tray        

Con*nuous-­‐Tray   •  Harvest  pruning  (HP)  facilitates  abscission;   minimizes  ‘juicing’   •  Harvester  removes  green  fruit   •  A  layer  of  green  berries  are  spread  on  paper   ‘tray’  that  runs  the  length  of  the  row  middle   •  Berries  dry  as  in  tradi*onal  trays   •  Raisins  collected  with  a  pick-­‐up  machine  

Fresno Numberofoccurrences August September October ½ Aug. = 2 ½ Aug. = 2 ½ Aug. = 0 ½ Aug. = 0 Sept. total = 12 Sept. total = 12 Sept. total = 0 Sept. total = 0 0.24” .01” 0.74” .25” .75” ½ Oct. = 5 ½ Oct. = 3 ½ Oct. = 0 ½ Oct. = 8 Sum, all

Dry  on  the  Vine  (DOV)  

Dried  on  the  Vine  (DOV)    Raisin  Produc*on     •  Eliminates  the  need  to  hand  harvest  and  lay   fruit  on  paper  trays   •  Requires  that  fruit  bearing  canes  be  severed  at   harvest  

Thompson  Seedless  DOV  Systems   •  Tradi*onal  trellis   •  South-­‐side  

South  Side  Systems   +  Exis*ng  Thompson  Seedless  acreage   Equipment  availability   –  Yield  limita*ons   Trellis  modifica7on  

Can  Thompson  Seedless  be  dried   on  the  vine  in  CA?   •  Yes,  and  harvest  costs  can  be  reduced,  but  late   maturity  makes  adequate  drying  difficult  and   yield  poten*al  is  limited   •  Varie*es  that  ripen  earlier  than  Thompson,  on   more  expansive  training  and  trellising  systems,   are  required  for  op*mal  DOV  produc*on   efficiency  

Fiesta DOVineThompson Seedless Selma Pete All canes severed 8/14/01, pictured 9/10/01

DOV  Raisin  Varie*es  

BLACK CORINTH (ZANTE CURRANT)

FIESTA

DOVine

SELMA PETE

SUMMER MUSCAT DIAMOND MUSCAT

Open  Gable   •  Large  Y-­‐shaped  trellis  supports  larger  canopy   •  Increased  yield  poten*al–  about  twice  as   produc*ve  as  standard  trellising  on  a  per  acre   basis   •  Decrease  harvest  cost,  but  increased  pruning   costs  and  significant  investment  for  trellis   installa*on  required    

OVERHEAD  ARBOR   •  2.5  to  3  *mes  as  produc*ve  as   conven*onal  trellis  systems   •  Not  well  suited  for  Thompson   Seedless  or  other  mid-­‐season   cul*vars   •  Significant  investment  required  

Changes  in  raisin  produc*on  methods  

Area  planted  to  raisin  grapes  declining,   and  becoming  increasingly   mechanized  

California  Raisin  Industry   •  DOV  produc*on   •  New  cul*vars  &  trellis  systems   •  Corporate  farms   •  Fewer  acres   Future?

Acknowledgements   •  L.  Peter  Christensen,  Stephen  Vasquez  (UC)   •  David  Ramming  (USDA-­‐ARS)   •  Earl  and  Randy  Rocca  (Rocca  Ranches)   •  California  Raisin  Marke*ng  Board  

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