Grape trellis and training systems

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Information about Grape trellis and training systems

Published on December 31, 2007

Author: parker


Growing Wine Grapes, Trellis and Training Systems:  Growing Wine Grapes, Trellis and Training Systems Steve Renquist Horticulture Department Topics to be Covered:  Topics to be Covered Trellis Systems VSP Guyot Lyre Geneva Double Curtain Training Systems Guyot Cordon Scott Henry Smart Dyson Irrigation RDI PRD Trellis Systems:  Trellis Systems There is no system that fits all situations Many factors will influence your decision Vineyard vigor, variety, rootstock Soil depth, irrigation Spacing, height, materials Mechanization Yield, and quality Costs (budget) Complexity and labor supply Assessing Vigor (potential vigor) (Assessed by pruning weights):  Assessing Vigor (potential vigor) (Assessed by pruning weights) Low Vigor: <.5 lb/ft Use VSP or Sprawl Medium Vigor: .5-.75lbs/ft Use Scott Henry, Lyre, Smart Dyson High Vigor: >.75lbs/ft Use GDC Site Fertility Irrigation Trellis and Vine Row Direction:  Trellis and Vine Row Direction Majority of cool season growing areas arrange rows north-south Recent research showing warm season growing areas should put rows 45 degrees east of north-south to reduce sun burn on grapes Trellising:  Trellising Sprawl Guyot (VSP) Vertical Scott Henry Vertical and hanging Lyre Vertical but spread Geneva double curtain Hanging system Slide7:  Sprawl System Sprawl System:  Sprawl System Low vigor low yield sites One fruit wire one foliage wire Head or goblet trained vines Low cost, low labor Can be mechanically harvested Vertical Shoot Positioning:  Vertical Shoot Positioning Vertical Shoot Positioning:  Vertical Shoot Positioning Low to moderate vigor One fruit wire, usually four foliage wires Need 2 feet of post above fruiting wire Works for cordon trained spur pruned or head trained cane pruned vines Easy to mechanize pruning, leaf removal, harvesting Slide11:  VSP Lyre Open Center:  Lyre Open Center Lyre Open Center:  Lyre Open Center Lyre Like Open Center:  Lyre Like Open Center Lyre Open Center:  Lyre Open Center Moderate vigor Requires 2 fruiting wires, 8 foliage wires, 2 end posts, large canopy spreader Cordon trained spur pruned vines Mechanized summer pruning, harvest Extra training time required Scott Henry:  Scott Henry Scott Henry:  Scott Henry Moderate vigor Cane pruned vines, cool climate regions Two fruiting wires, five foliage wires Can mechanize summer pruning, harvest 30% higher yield than VSP and high quality Slide18:  Geneva Double Curtain Geneva Double Curtain:  Geneva Double Curtain High vigor vineyards Two fruiting and two foliage wires Very productive Can mechanize winter and summer pruning, leaf pulling, not so good for harvesting Excess fruit exposure to sun Training Systems:  Training Systems Guyot (VSP) Cordon Scott Henry Open Lyre Geneva Double Curtain Training System- Guyot:  Training System- Guyot Simple system to develop Single trunk, head trained for cane pruning Best for narrow row systems (5-6’) Easy to prune and harvest For long internode varieties this system is too limiting. Trunk 24-26 inches tall Training System- Cordon:  Training System- Cordon More involved than the Guyot Requires more time to develop arms Will allow you to leave more fruit buds Keep spurs on the upper side of the arm Not good for varieties with fruitless buds Spurs-smaller clusters in cool climates Trunks 24-26 inches tall Training System- Scott Henry:  Training System- Scott Henry More time to establish than VSP Need to develop two levels or alternate high and low forms More labor intensive Difficult to keep lower canopy vigorous Slide28:  Scott Henry Training System- Open Lyre:  Training System- Open Lyre Most expensive system System spreads buds out Works well for upright growers Pruning and harvesting mechanized Higher costs for positioning shoots Need to watch over-cropping 32 inch high trunk Training Lyre Open Center:  Training Lyre Open Center Training System- Geneva Double Curtain:  Training System- Geneva Double Curtain Takes about five years to develop Need a vigorous vine to get enough buds Labor force needs careful training Training Geneva Double Curtain:  Training Geneva Double Curtain Approximate Costs of Trellis Systems:  Approximate Costs of Trellis Systems $2,500-$3,000 per acre to establish trellis 9’ Metal highway stakes 3’ in ground 8’ wood end posts driven 3’ in ground 12 gauge high tensil wire for fruit wire 14 gauge high tensil wire for foliage, drip wire End row anchors Trellis Before Planting Young Vines:  Trellis Before Planting Young Vines Plant dormant self rooted cuttings or grafted plants early, in Feb-Mar Plant green growing vines after last frost date, May 15-30 If grafted vine put union 4 inches above soil Have your trellis done before planting! Irrigation:  Irrigation Why irrigate in Oregon? Seasonal rainfall Evapotranspiration high in hot areas Soil moisture holding capacity low Vine age size (young vines) When is Water Needed by Vine:  When is Water Needed by Vine Budbreak to bloom < 5% Bloom to fruit set 15% Fruit set to veraison 60% Veraison to harvest 20% Harvest to leaf fall < 5% How much water do grapes need? 1-1.5 acre ft per year Water Stress Index (Smart):  Water Stress Index (Smart) Growing: leaf tip is last through the hand Slowing: leaf tip is even with the leaf below Slowed: leaf below tip is the last through the hand Smart Leaf Temperature Index:  Smart Leaf Temperature Index Leaf Temperature Index:  Leaf Temperature Index Water stressed: leaf hot to the touch Slightly stressed: leaf warm to the touch Not stressed: leaf cool to the touch Monitor Soil and Weather Data:  Monitor Soil and Weather Data Regulated Deficit Irrigation:  Regulated Deficit Irrigation Regulated Deficit Irrigation:  Regulated Deficit Irrigation Regulated deficit irrigation: cutting water at specific times (10-50% of ET) Restrict early growth to improve quality Soil water deficit over time Applied after fruit set Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI):  Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI) Water stress post flowering will: Control vegetative growth: will reduce vigor Reduce berry size: the later the water stress the smaller the impact. Not impact Brix much but smaller berries have higher quality (anthocyanins) RDI-Success:  RDI-Success Partial Root Zone Drying (PRD):  Partial Root Zone Drying (PRD) Soil water deficit over space Water applied throughout the season No plant water deficit Maintains berry size and yield Partial Rootzone Drying (PRD):  Partial Rootzone Drying (PRD) Partial Root Zone Drying:  Partial Root Zone Drying Open canopy, better bunch exposure, less disease Better vine balance: increased fruit weight/ pruning ratio Better fruit quality: higher anthocyanins, higher phenolics, lower pH White versus Red Grape Varieties:  White versus Red Grape Varieties RDI useful for most red grapes RDI require more N fert than PRD Berry size and sun exposure less important for most white grapes More water and N may delay ripening of red grapes Think of Pinot noir as a red white grape, it does not handle stress well

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