grandjunction4 12 05

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Published on February 13, 2008

Author: Rina

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Mitigation of Methane Emissions from Coal Mine Ventilation Air :  Mitigation of Methane Emissions from Coal Mine Ventilation Air H. Lee Schultz Manager, Environmental Programs, BCS Inc., Columbia, MD Richard Mattus Business Manager, MEGTEC Systems, De Pere, WI F. Peter Carothers Senior Engineer, Methane Mitigation, IRG, Washington, DC Western States Coal Mine Methane Recovery and Use Workshop Grand Junction, Colorado April 19-20, 2005 April 19-20, 2004 Presentation Overview:  Background on VAM VAM Technologies - Capturing VAM VAM Technologies - Use Options for VAM VAM Oxidation VAM Oxidation with Energy Recovery Large scale plant for electricity from VAM Emerging Energy Recovery Technologies: EDL CSIRO Lean Fuel Gas Turbine Ingersoll-Rand FlexEnergy CSIRO – Liquatech Hybrid Concentrator Recent Developments Conclusions Presentation Overview Background on VAM :  Background on VAM Ventilation air methane (VAM) is largest CMM source Has been difficult to capture and use Large airflows – 100,000 to 1 million cfm (47 to 470 m3/s) Low concentrations – 0.1 to 1.0%, typically 0.3 to 0.5% Variable, both flow and concentration Little technology available, until now … CMOP is investigating VAM capture and use technologies Two major reports, technical assistance, etc. Slide4:  Global Marginal Abatement Cost Curve VAM Power Production VAM Technologies – Capturing VAM :  VAM Technologies – Capturing VAM Several designs available Direct versus indirect Pull slip stream or re-channel entire flow Concerns are: Cannot affect airflow pressure or velocity from evasé (diffuser) Assure separation of mining environment from VAM recovery plant environment Mining regulators in several countries are reviewing designs VAM Technologies – Use Options for VAM:  VAM Technologies – Use Options for VAM Ancillary: VAM supplements primary fuel, (e.g., gob gas, natural gas, coal, etc.) Combustion air for IC engines, gas turbines, coal-fired plants, etc. - Appin & Tower Collieries, Australia) Principal: VAM is primary fuel, (e.g., in oxidizers, gas turbines, etc.) Example: West VAMP project in Australia Slide7:  760 °C (1400 °F) 1000 °C (1830 °F) Grade of Oxidation Oxidation of VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) Temperature Spontaneous With catalyst VAM Oxidation :  VAM Oxidation Two Oxidation Systems Currently Available: MEGTEC Systems, a US corporation, manufactures the VOCSIDIZER Thermal flow-reversal reactor (TFRR) with oxidation at full temperature without catalyst ~700 units sold globally to industries for VOC emission control Demonstrated at coal mines in UK and Australia CANMET, a Canadian laboratory, developed a catalytic flow-reversal reactor (CFRR), the CH4MIN Catalyst allows oxidation in a cooler range than TFRR below Tested at bench scale for prolonged periods VAM Oxidation - Catalytic:  VAM Oxidation - Catalytic Schematic of a CFRR (Double Bed) Valve #1 open = Valve #2 open = *Heat recovery piping not shown Heat Exchange Valve 2 Valve 1 Valve 1 Valve 2 Air & CH4 Heat Exchange Medium Heat Exchange Medium Catalyst Catalyst Air & C02, H20 & Heat* VAM Oxidation - Catalytic:  VAM Oxidation - Catalytic Schematic of a CFRR (Double Bed) Valve #1 open = Valve #2 open = *Heat recovery piping not shown Heat Exchange Valve 2 Valve 1 Valve 1 Valve 2 Air & CH4 Heat Exchange Medium Heat Exchange Medium Catalyst Catalyst Air & C02, H20 & Heat* Combustion chamber VAM Oxidation - Thermal:  VAM Oxidation - Thermal Schematic of a VOCSIDIZER (Single Bed) Valve #1 open = Valve #2 open = *Heat recovery piping not shown Heat Exchange Valve 2 Valve 1 Valve 1 Valve 2 Air & CH4 Air & C02, H20 & Heat* Heat Exchange Medium Heat Exchange Medium NO combustion chamber Slide12:  The Flameless VOCSIDIZER Flameless: Oxidation completely in-bed. No NOx: No flame. Homogeneous temp distribution without peaks. Start-up: Heating elements in centre of ceramic bed. Heat efficient: Self sustaining at low concentrations (0.1% of methane). 20oC / 70 F 1000oC / 1830 F 60oC / 140 F VOCSIDIZER PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:  VOCSIDIZER PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION Vent air with methane Vent air without methane Flow down Flow up VOCSIDIZER VAM ABATEMENT:  VOCSIDIZER VAM ABATEMENT TRIAL UNIT AT BRITISH COAL: Demonstration of abatement 8000 m3/h of ventilation air with 0.3 – 0.6 % methane. Abatement self sustaining at 0.1 % methane. 1st INSTALLATION AT A COAL MINE - abating vent air methane in 1994 RECOVERING ENERGY FROM VOCSIDIZER BED:  RECOVERING ENERGY FROM VOCSIDIZER BED Steam Steam Water Superheated steam Rule of thumb: Energy content of CH4 above 0.2% can be recovered, i.e. * at 0.4% CH4, 50% can be recovered (0.2% CH4) * at 1.0% CH4, 80% can be recovered (0.8%) VOCSIDIZER VAM PRIMARY FUEL FOR GENERATÍON OF ENERGY:  TRIAL UNIT AT APPIN COLLIERY, BHP AUSTRALIA 2001 - 2002 Demonstration of heat recovery 6000 m3/h of ventilation air 90% recovery as hot water. Operated during 12 months. VOCSIDIZER VAM PRIMARY FUEL FOR GENERATÍON OF ENERGY 2001 - 2002 2nd INSTALLATION AT A COAL MINE - small scale generation of energy ACARP Award 5 April 2005 Best Australian Greenhouse Gas Project VOCSIDIZER STEAM CYCLE FOR POWER GENERATION:  VOCSIDIZER STEAM CYCLE FOR POWER GENERATION OPTIONAL COOLING ENERGY:  OPTIONAL COOLING ENERGY Example: 800 000 m3/h 1% methane 72 MW(th) 18 MW(el) 16 MW(el) + 38 MW(cool) (at 25% turbine eff) LARGE SCALE VOCSIDIZER PLANT VAM PRIMARY FUEL FOR GENERATÍON OF ENERGY:  INSTALLATION FOR BHP Billiton AUSTRALIA 2005 Demonstration of large scale heat recovery 250 000 m3/h (150 000 SCFM) of ventilation air generating 6 MW of electricity Principle Layout 3rd INSTALLATION AT A COAL MINE - first large scale generation of energy LARGE SCALE VOCSIDIZER PLANT VAM PRIMARY FUEL FOR GENERATÍON OF ENERGY LARGE SCALE VAM PRIMARY FUEL FOR GENERATÍON OF ENERGY:  An installation taking the full flow of ventilation air of a major mine generates approx 20 - 25 Mwe LARGE SCALE VAM PRIMARY FUEL FOR GENERATÍON OF ENERGY and reducing GreenHouse Gas emissions by approx 1 million CO2te per year. Emerging Energy Recovery Technologies :  Emerging Energy Recovery Technologies Energy Developments Ltd.’s - Carbureted Lean-Fuel Gas Turbine Contact: Tom Chapman, EDL, Tom.Chapman@edl.com.au Fuel: Enriched VAM – 1.6% methane Output: 2.7 MW from a SOLAR Centaur gas turbine Feature: Special carbureted combustor Development: Undergoing endurance testing Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) - Lean-Fuel Gas Turbine Contact: Dr. Shi Su, CSIRO, Shi.Su@csiro.au Fuel: Enriched VAM – 1.0% methane Output: Electric power from a gas turbine (to be selected) Feature: Catalytic combustor Development: Planning prototype unit fabrication and testing Emerging Energy Recovery Technologies:  Emerging Energy Recovery Technologies Ingersoll-Rand (IR) - Lean-Fuel Microturbine Contact: Patrick Reinks, IR, Patrick_reinks@irco.com Fuel: Enriched VAM – 1.0% methane and below Output: Electric power from small gas turbines Feature: Patented recuperator Development: In prototype testing phase at 250 kW FlexEnergy - Lean-Fuel Microturbine Contact: Edan Prabhu, FlexEnergy, edanprabhu@cox.net Fuel: Enriched VAM – 1.5% methane Output: 30 kW (will be higher) Development: Field testing underway Emerging Energy Recovery Technologies:  Emerging Energy Recovery Technologies CSIRO – Liquatech Hybrid Coal and Gas Turbine System Contact: Dr. Cliff Mallett, CSIRO, Cliff.Mallett@csiro.au Fuel: VAM and waste coal Output: 1.2 MW (demonstration unit) Features: VAM and unprocessed waste coal combust in rotary kiln. Development: Laboratory trials and 1.2 MW prototype tests complete VOC Concentrator Research to date: EPA commissioned Environmental C&C, Inc. to run tests on a fluidized bed adsorber EC&C selected an adsorbent, but performance was less than hoped for EC&C continues to search for improved adsorbent Primary use would be to upgrade VAM to optimum inlet concentration for other technologies Recent Developments:  Recent Developments DOE & EPA providing cost-sharing grant to CONSOL Energy for oxidation demonstration project in US Project delayed as MSHA evaluates safety aspects of VAM capture approaches Underground equipment? Permissibility? Appropriate connection to evasé As interim measure, DOE, EPA and CONSOL looking at test case using abandoned mine methane as source and manipulating flows and concentrations to simulate various mine ventilation flows Conclusions:  Conclusions USEPA is now investigating VAM mitigation VAM comprises the largest source of methane emissions from coal mines VAM presents technical challenges Huge airflows Very dilute Energy conversion can be difficult Oxidizers lead the commercialization race Other technologies getting closer Important greenhouse gas emissions reduction impact – as much as 200 million tonnes CO2e per year For More Information:  For more information on VAM technologies and markets…Contact USEPA Coalbed Methane Outreach Program: Clark Talkington (202) 343-9484 (talkington.clark@epa.gov) Pamela Franklin (202) 343-9476 (franklin.pamela@epa.gov) Or visit the Ventilation Air Methane portion of the program’s web site at www.epa.gov/coalbed. For More Information The Authors:  The Authors H. Lee Schultz (410) 997-7778, ext. 221 lschultz@bcs-hq.com Richard Mattus +46-705-22 66 10 rmattus@megtec.se F. Peter Carothers (802) 388-4922 pcarothers@worldnet.att.net

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