Published on October 18, 2016
1. GRAMMAR SYLLABUS, ESL 1.- the alphabet, family members, cardinal numbers 1- 10, saying hello and goodbye, the article (the / a, an), demonstratives the English alphabet (26 letters) A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z family members: father, dad / mother, mum / son, daughter brother, sister / husband, wife / grandfather / grandmother grandson, granddaughter uncle, aunt / cousin / nephew, niece brother-in-law / sister-in-law cardinal numbers (1-10) one, two, three, four, five, six seven, eight, nine, ten saying hello and goodbye Hello! / hi! How are you? – I´m fine, thanks Good morning! / good afternoon! (up to 12.00 am) Good evening! (from 12.00 am to 6.00 pm) Good night! Bye! / goodbye! See you! the articles the definite article: the (el, la, lo, los, las) the indefinite article: a /an (un, una, uno) The sun rises everyday I love this book. The book is my sister´s book I play the piano What do you do? – I am a teacher / doctor / bricklayer What do you do? – We are teachers Have you got an umbrella? It is raining outside demonstratives this.este, esta, esto these.estos, estas that.ese, esa, eso, aquel, aquella, aquello those.esos, esas, aquellos, aquellas
2. GRAMMAR SYLLABUS, ESL 1.- (II) Colours, days of the week, cardinal numbers (11-24), personal pronouns of subject, the verb to be, the verb to have, conjugation of a lexical verb in the present tense, saying sorry colours white.blanco black.negro blue.azul yellow.amarillo green.verde red.rojo beige.béis grey.gris brown.marrón days of the week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday cardinal numbers eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen seventeen, eighteen, nineteen, twenty, twenty-one, twenty-two twenty-three, twenty-four personal pronouns of subject I you he / she / it we you they the verb to be to be was/were been.ser /estar the verb to have to have had had.tener / haber the verb to do to do did done.hacer / * interrogar y negar verbos léxicos conjugation of auxiliary verbs in the present simple tense I am.yo soy / yo estoy You are He is We are You are They are I have not You have not She has not We have not.nosotros no tenemos You have not They have not I must You must She must We must You must They must.ellos deben
3. conjugation of a lexical verb in the present simple tense I finish You finish She finishes.ella termina We finish You finish They finish I do not like You do not like.a ti no te gusta She does not like We do not like You do not like They do not like saying sorry I´m sorry.lo siento (perdón-después de haberse equivocado o cometer una falta) Excuse me.disculpe (entrar en habitación, pedir permiso para hablar) It´s fine.no se preocupe It´s all right.no pasa nada GRAMMAR SYLLABUS, ESL 1.- (III) personal pronouns (object), ordinal numbers, the time, seasons of the year, months, skeleton of a verb, conjugation of a lexical verb in the present simple tense (interrogative form) personal pronouns (object) me you him / her / itus you them (a mí / me, a ti / te, a él / le, etcétera) John loves her (John la ama a ella) The teacher wants us to work hard (el profesor quiere que nosotros trabajemos mucho) That present is for them (ese regalo es para ellos) ordinal numbers first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, twelfth the time what time is it? / what is the time? it is ten o´clock / it´s half past two / it´s a quarter past four is it ten to three? (¿son las tres menos diez?) thanks! / you´re welcome (gracias / de nada)
4. seasons of the year spring, summer, autumn (fall), winter months of the year January, February, March, April, May, June July, August, September, October, November, December skeleton of a verb (3 forms) to write wrote written: escribir INFINITIVE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE We can do lots of things with these 3 forms: Present simple tense: I write, she writes Past simple tense: I wrote, we wrote Present continuous tense: I am writing, you are writing Present perfect tense: I have written, you have written conjugation of a lexical verb in the present simple tense interrogative: Do I want?.¿quiero yo? Do you want? Does she want? Do we want? Do you want? Do they want? GRAMMAR SYLLABUS ESL 1.- (iv) .- frequency adverbs frequency adverbs, saxon genitive and of genitive, plural of nouns, uses of the present simple tense ** frequency adverbs are generally used in the present simple tense always, usually, often, sometimes, hardly ever, never the commoner position of a frequency adverb is before the verb in case it is a lexical verb She always arrives late to school / I never run / We don´t hate reading books in English however, with auxiliary verbs, the frequency adverb is placed afterwards She is never in bad mood / John´s brother has often forgotten his dictionary at home **
5. with nouns referring to people we use the saxon genitive (´s) to mean a possession or a kind of relationship Peter´s car (el coche de Pedro); your sister´s bag (el bolso de tu hermana); Helen´s book (el libro de Helen) with nouns referring to things or animals we use the of genitive the rooms of the house (las habitaciones de la casa); the wings of the bird (las alas del pájaro) ** plural of nouns some nouns have an irregular plural form : man-men / woman-women / child- children person-people / thief-thieves / wolf-wolves the general rule for plurals is adding an -s or -es to the singular form book-books / pen-pens / city-cities / box-boxes / brush-brushes ** the present simple tense: uses for repeated actions: Jane goes to the cinema once a week generalizations: All men like football scheduled events in the near future: The train to Glasgow leaves at 3:45 now (non continuous verbs) : You look wonderful today GRAMMAR SYLLABUS ESL 1.- (V) imperative Imperative / countries / yes and no questions / parts of the body / adjectives expressing emotions Imperative: request or command come here!.venga aquí open that window!.abra esa ventana stop talking, please!.dejen de hablar, por favor copy these sentences from the board.copien estas frases de la pizarra do not shout!.no grite open your books at page 22, will you?.abran sus libros por la página 22, ¿quieren? Countries and nationalities Spain (Spanish); France (French); Italy (Italian); Morocco (Moroccan); England (English); Switzerland (Swiss); China (Chinese); Japan (Japanese); Denmark (Dane); Germany (German); America (American); Norway (Norwegian) Yes and no questions Can you type?- Yes, I can / No, I can´t Are you Irish?- No, I am not
6. Is she your sister? – Yes, she is Do you understand me? –No, I don´t Have you brought the ticket? –Yes, I have Parts of the body head (cabeza) / arms (brazos) / belly (barriga) / hair (pelo) / legs (piernas) hands (manos) / elbows (codos) / fingers (dedos) / feet (pies) / bottom (culo) back (espalda) / nose (nariz) / eyes (ojos) / knees (rodillas) Adjectives expressing emotions happy (feliz); sad (triste); disappointed (decepcionado); angry (enfadado) nervous (nervioso); quiet (tranquilo); cheerful (alegre); moody (melancólico) GRAMMAR SYLLABUS ESL 1.- (VI) possessive adjectives Possessive adjectives / present continuous tense / modal auxiliaries : can & can´t / titles, first names and last names Possessive adjectives My, your, his /her/ its, our your their They always accompany a noun (possessive adjective + NOUN) That is not your rucksack, it is John´s My book is very interesting His girlfriend looks nice. Don´t you agree? My book, your book, his book, her book, its book, our book, your book, their book Present continuous tense Subject + am/is/are + Ving + complements You are reading the newspaper now Our teacher is not looking at them The present continuous tense is used to express something happening now or at the moment of speaking. It refers to a temporary activity Modal auxiliary verbs: CAN/ CAN´T (permission, ability) I can swim very fast / I can´t smoke in class Can I go to the toilet, please? Titles, first names and last names What is your title?- It´s Ms (Ms: mujer soltera, casada, separada o divorciada) What is your title?- It is Miss (Miss: mujer soltera) What is your title?- It is Mrs (Mrs: mujer casada) What is your title? – It is Mr (Mr: hombre soltero, casado, separado o divorciado)
7. What is your first name? – It´s James / It´s Mary What is your last name? – It´s Jones / It´s Fouz How do you spell that, please? – It is J- O- N- E- S Grammar syllabus ESL 1.- (vii) food and drinks food and drinks.- sandwiches, chicken, lettuce / prawn, mayonnaise / tuna salads, egg salad, onion soup, potato salad / pizza, cheese, tomato paella / sausages / pasta / spaghetti / fish desserts, ice cream, fruit salad, chocolate cake hot drinks, cappuccino, espresso, tea cold drinks, apple, orange, coke, mineral water dates.- 1st April / 9 November 2004 / 31st March Steve Jobs was born on 24th of February 1955 When is your birthday? My birthday is on 12th of January What day of the week is it today? Today is Wednesday simple past tense.-lexical verbs.- The past simple tense is used for actions in the past. It is also used for finished actions I went to Madrid last week Susan´s brother did not live with us in England in 1998 I forgot to tell her She came here two minutes ago Did you watch the film on TV last night? We loved the book we read yesterday simple past tense.- auxiliary verbs.- I was born yesterday She could read in French when she was 9 Were you angry with him? Tom didn´t have to lend his books to her That might be true ** uncountable nouns.- Uncountable nouns are substances, concepts etc that we cannot divide into separate elements. We cannot "count" them. For example, we cannot count "milk". We can count "bottles of milk" or "litres of milk", but we cannot count "milk" itself. Here are some more uncountable nouns: music, art, love, happiness advice, information, news furniture, luggage rice, sugar, butter, water
8. electricity, gas, power money, currency We usually treat uncountable nouns as singular. We use a singular verb. For example: This news is very important. Your luggage looks heavy. We do not usually use the indefinite article a/an with uncountable nouns. We cannot say "an information" or "a music". But we can say a "something" of: a piece of news a bottle of water a grain of rice We can use some and any with uncountable nouns: I've got some money. Have you got any rice? We can use a little and much with uncountable nouns: I've got a little money. I haven't got much rice. GRAMMAR SYLLABUS ESL1.- (viii) some, any, no some, any, no some, any, no we use some and any before countable and uncountable nouns COUNTABLE NOUNS He´s got a book / some books Susan´s nephew hasn´t got any pencils Have your brothers got any mobiles? UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS I´ve got some luggage Tom and Anne haven´t got any luggage Has Martha got any equipment for the basketball match? Some is often used in questions which are requests (peticiones) or offers (ofrecimientos): Can you buy some crisps? Shall I buy some food? No means “not any” Our teacher has got no bags : Our teacher hasn´t got any bags
9. Somebody / anybody / nobody / everybody Somebody (alguien), nobody (nadie), everybody (todo el mundo) Something, not anything / nothing, anything Have I forgotten anything? We haven´t found anything There isn´t anybody here. There is nobody here Everything is okay Nobody is perfect Cf. Louise Hashemi, Grammar for PET (Cambridge) GRAMMAR SYLLABUS ESL 1.- (IX) future tense (going to future vs. will future) Going to or will When we want to talk about future facts or things we believe to be true about the future, we use 'will'. The President will serve for four years. The boss won't be very happy. I'm sure you'll like her. If we are not so certain about the future, we use 'will' with expressions such as 'probably', 'possibly', 'I think', 'I hope'. I hope you'll visit me in my home one day. She'll probably be a great success. I'll possibly come but I may not get back in time. I think we'll get on well. If you are making a future prediction based on evidence in the present situation, use 'going to'. Look at the queue. We're not going to get in for hours. The traffic is terrible. We're going to miss our flight. Be careful! You're going to spill your coffee. At the moment of making a decision, use 'will'. Once you have made the decision, talk about it using 'going to'. *
10. Present simple tense * with Lexicals (lexical verbs) for example: to live, to walk, to hate, to understand, to smell, to read, to want AFFIRMATIVE: S + V s/es + C [Subject + verb (s/es) + complements] You live in this nice town; His sister Anna walks to school every day; She often reads romantic novels at night NEGATIVE: S + DO es + NOT + V + C She does not speak French; John and Peter do not hate her INTERROGATIVE: DO es + S + V + C? Do you understand him?; Does she want us? ** with Auxiliaries (auxiliary verbs) for example: to be, to have, to do, can, could, must, shall, should, will, would, may, might AFFIRMATIVE: S + AUX + (V)+ C I am Spanish; You can ́t smoke in here NEGATIVE: S + AUX + NOT + (V) + C They must not fail their exams; I can ́t see her. It ́s too dark to see anything INTERROGATIVE: AUX + S + (V) + C? Can I leave now?; Will you help me, please? EF.-19012016 *
11. La presentación de un verbo en inglés tiene tres elementos. Estos tres elementos se llaman: infinitivo, pasado y participio de pasado. Es importante recordar que son elementos o formas y no tiempos verbales. Para hacernos una idea de la diferencia entre forma y tiempo verbal, diremos que una forma del enunciado (por ejemplo, infinitivo) equivaldría a la rueda de una bicicleta en una tienda de bicicletas. Es algo inmóvil y estático. Lo mismo sucedería con el sillín o el manillar. Sin embargo, una vez que uno coge esa bicicleta y la pone a rodar entonces la rueda se vuelve útil y funcional. En el caso de la forma del infinitivo, el pasado o el participio ocurre algo similar y pasa a ser un tiempo verbal. To speak (infinitivo) spoke (pasado) spoken (participio de pasado) = hablar Si tomamos el infinitivo y le colocamos un pronombre personal de sujeto delante podremos conjugar un presente (o un futuro en el caso de anteponerle a esa forma WILL, por ejemplo). Estaremos tratando entonces con un tiempo verbal. I speak : yo hablo, you speak: tú hablas, she speaks: ella habla, we speak: nosotros hablamos I will speak: yo hablaré, you will speak: tú hablarás, she will speak: ella hablará En el caso de la forma del pasado SPOKE ocurrirá esto: I spoke: yo hablé /yo hablaba, you spoke: tú hablaste / tú hablabas, she spoke: él habló /él hablaba (aquí estaremos tratando de un tiempo verbal también) Con la forma del participio de pasado podremos conjugar el pretérito perfecto compuesto o Present Perfect tense I have spoken: yo he hablado , you have spoken: tú has hablado, she has spoken: ella ha hablado (y aquí también también estaremos tratando de un tiempo verbal) *
12. How to conjugate verbs in English 1/ class of verb (lexical verb [play, speak, write, understand]or auxiliary verb [do, be, have, can, could, must, will]) 2/ verbal tense (present, past, future) 3/ form (affirmative, negative, interrogative) For example: Conjugate the verb TO SPEAK (hablar) [lexical verb] in the present simple tense [verbal tense] negative [negative form] Translate one form into Spanish.- I do not speak You do not speak She does not speak- ella no habla We do not speak You do not speak They do not speak ** Conjugate the verb TO PLAY (jugar) [lexical verb] in the present simple tense [verbal tense] interrogative [interrogative form] Translate one form into Spanish.- Do I play? Do you play? Does she play? Do we play? Do you play? Do they play?- ¿juegan ellos? ** Affirmative formula for lexical verbs in the present simple tense S + VERB + S / ES + COMPLEMENTS Negative formula for lexical verbs in the present simple tense S + DO NOT / DOES NOT + VERB + COMPLEMENTS Interrogative formula for lexical verbs in the present simple tense DO / DOES + S + VERB + COMPLEMENTS +? Eugene -8/10/2014 ***
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