Grammar Review

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Information about Grammar Review

Published on February 12, 2009

Author: davidsoj

Source: slideshare.net

Grammar Review

Spanish Subjects Yo- I Tú- Familiar You Él - He Ella- She Usted- Formal You Nosotros- We (male or mixed group) Nosotras- We (female) Vosotros- You all familiar (male or mixed group) Spain only! Vosotras- You all familiar (female) Spain only! Ellos- They (male or mixed group) Ellas- They (female) Ustedes- You all formal

Yo- I

Tú- Familiar You

Él - He

Ella- She

Usted- Formal You

Nosotros- We (male or mixed group)

Nosotras- We (female)

Vosotros- You all familiar (male or mixed group) Spain only!

Vosotras- You all familiar (female) Spain only!

Ellos- They (male or mixed group)

Ellas- They (female)

Ustedes- You all formal

AR Verb Endings Yo- o Tú- as Él - a Ella - a Usted - a Nosotros,as- amos Vosotros,as- áis Ellos- an Ellas- an Ustedes- an

Yo- o

Tú- as

Él - a

Ella - a

Usted - a

Nosotros,as- amos

Vosotros,as- áis

Ellos- an

Ellas- an

Ustedes- an

ER Verb Endings Yo- o Tú- es Él - e Ella - e Usted - e Nosotros,as- emos Vosotros,as- éis Ellos- en Ellas- en Ustedes- en

IR Verb Endings Yo- o Tú- es Él - e Ella - e Usted - e Nosotros,as- imos Vosotros,as- ís Ellos- en Ellas- en Ustedes- en

Reminder In order to conjugate a verb you must first--- Find the stem. Remove the ending. Replace with appropriate ending that matches the subject of the sentence. Example. Yo- hablar Habl ar Habl Hablo

In order to conjugate a verb you must

first---

Find the stem.

Remove the ending.

Replace with appropriate ending that matches the subject of the sentence.

Example. Yo- hablar

Habl ar

Habl

Hablo

Let’s Practice! Yo- beber Nosotros- bailar Tú- caminar Nosotras- comer Él - hablar Ellos- vivir Ella- escribir Ellas- tomar Usted- pagar Ustedes-mirar

Yo- beber Nosotros- bailar

Tú- caminar Nosotras- comer

Él - hablar Ellos- vivir

Ella- escribir Ellas- tomar

Usted- pagar Ustedes-mirar

Answers… Check your work! Yo- bebo Nosotros- bailamos Tú- caminas Nosotras- comemos Él - habla Ellos- viven Ella- escribe Ellas- toman Usted- paga Ustedes-miran

Nouns, Articles, Adjectives Remember that in Spanish a sentence must agree in gender and number. That is why it is important to remember how to use nouns, articles, and adjectives in the singular and the plural.

Remember that in Spanish a sentence must agree in gender and number.

That is why it is important to remember how to use nouns, articles, and adjectives in the singular and the plural.

Nouns Nouns are people, places, or things. A noun that ends in a vowel can be made plural by adding –s . Example: blusa – blusas A noun that ends in a consonant such as -n or -l is made plural by adding –es . Example: mantel - manteles

Nouns are people, places, or things.

A noun that ends in a vowel can be made plural by adding –s .

Example: blusa – blusas

A noun that ends in a consonant such as -n or -l is made plural by adding –es .

Example: mantel - manteles

Articles Definite Articles- signify the. El- masc. sing. La- fem. sing. Los- masc. plur. Las- fem. plur. El libro- the book Los libros- the books Indefinite Articles- signify a or an in the singular and some in the plural. Un- masc. sing. Una- fem. sing. Unos- masc. plur. Unas- fem. plur. Una blusa- a blouse Unas blusas- some blouses

Definite Articles- signify the.

El- masc. sing.

La- fem. sing.

Los- masc. plur.

Las- fem. plur.

El libro- the book

Los libros- the books

Indefinite Articles- signify a or an in the singular and some in the plural.

Un- masc. sing.

Una- fem. sing.

Unos- masc. plur.

Unas- fem. plur.

Una blusa- a blouse

Unas blusas- some blouses

Adjectives- Agreeing in Number An adjective is a word that describes a noun. An adjective that ends in a vowel can be made plural by adding –s . Example: rojo – rojos An adjective that ends in a consonant such as -n or -l is made plural by adding –es . Example: azul - azules

An adjective is a word that describes a noun.

An adjective that ends in a vowel can be made plural by adding –s .

Example: rojo – rojos

An adjective that ends in a consonant such as -n or -l is made plural by adding –es .

Example: azul - azules

Adjectives- Agreeing in Gender An adjective that ends in an –o is masculine and modifies masculine nouns. Example: carro rojo If you want that adjective to modify a feminine noun, you must change the –o to –a. Example: blusa roja If an adjective ends in another letter such as -e or -l, it is neutral and has no gender. It can modify a masculine or feminine word. Example: alumno inteligente casa azul

An adjective that ends in an –o is masculine and modifies masculine nouns.

Example: carro rojo

If you want that adjective to modify a feminine noun, you must change the –o to –a.

Example: blusa roja

If an adjective ends in another letter such as -e or -l, it is neutral and has no gender. It can modify a masculine or feminine word.

Example: alumno inteligente

casa azul

Adjectives- Agreeing in Gender (cont.) Once you have changed the adjective to match the noun for gender, you add an –s or –es if the noun it modifies is plural. Example: blusas rojas carros azules

Once you have changed the adjective to match the noun for gender, you add an –s or –es if the noun it modifies is plural.

Example: blusas rojas

carros azules

Irregular Verbs...

Irregular Verbs Ser - soy eres es somos sois son Ir - voy vas va vamos vais van Dar - doy das da damos dais dan Estar - estoy estás está estamos estáis están Tener - tengo tienes tiene tenemos tenéis tienen

Ser - soy eres es somos sois son

Ir - voy vas va vamos vais van

Dar - doy das da damos dais dan

Estar - estoy estás está

estamos estáis están

Tener - tengo tienes tiene

tenemos tenéis tienen

Irregular Verbs (cont.) These verbs are irregular only in the yo form. Hacer- hago haces hace hacemos hacéis hacen Poner- pongo pones pone ponemos ponéis ponen Traer- traigo traes trae traemos traéis traen

Irregular Verbs (cont.) Salir- salgo sales sale salimos sal ís salen Saber- sé sabes sabe sabemos sabéis saben Conocer- conozco conoces conoce conocemos conocéis conocen

Salir- salgo sales sale

salimos sal ís salen

Saber- sé sabes sabe

sabemos sabéis saben

Conocer- conozco conoces conoce conocemos conocéis conocen

Stem Changing Verbs... Present Tense

How do I stem change? Find the change. (This is listed in most dictionaries and will be given on tests or quizzes. After practice, you will start to remember them on your own.) Make the switch. (Not in nosotros or vosotros, remember the boot) Conjugate the verb appropriately. Examples coming…

Find the change. (This is listed in most dictionaries and will be given on tests or quizzes. After practice, you will start to remember them on your own.)

Make the switch. (Not in nosotros or vosotros, remember the boot)

Conjugate the verb appropriately.

Examples coming…

Examples Ella- empezar (e:ie) e:ie Empiezar Empieza Nosotros- poder (o:ue) o:ue Poder Podemos *Notice I did not stem-change the verb b/c we are in the nosotros form.*

Ella- empezar (e:ie)

e:ie

Empiezar

Empieza

Nosotros- poder (o:ue)

o:ue

Poder

Podemos

*Notice I did not stem-change the verb b/c we are in the nosotros form.*

Common Stem-Changing Verbs Empezar- e:ie Querer- e:ie Perder- e:ie Preferir- e:ie Volver- o:ue Poder- o:ue Comenzar- e:ie Jugar- u:ue AND THAT’S JUST Dormir- o:ue A FEW!!!!!

Empezar- e:ie Querer- e:ie

Perder- e:ie Preferir- e:ie

Volver- o:ue Poder- o:ue

Comenzar- e:ie

Jugar- u:ue AND THAT’S JUST

Dormir- o:ue A FEW!!!!!

Practice---Put in Notes. Yo- empezar Nosotros- comenzar Tú- perder Nosotras- jugar Él - poder Ellos- volver Ella-dormir Ellas- preferir Usted- querer Ustedes-devolver

Yo- empezar Nosotros- comenzar

Tú- perder Nosotras- jugar

Él - poder Ellos- volver

Ella-dormir Ellas- preferir

Usted- querer Ustedes-devolver

Answers… Check your work! Yo- empiezo Nosotros- comenzamos Tú- pierdes Nosotras- jugamos Él - puede Ellos- vuelven Ella-duerme Ellas- prefieren Usted- quiere Ustedes-devuelven

Yo- empiezo Nosotros- comenzamos

Tú- pierdes Nosotras- jugamos

Él - puede Ellos- vuelven

Ella-duerme Ellas- prefieren

Usted- quiere Ustedes-devuelven

Possessive Adjectives

Possessive Adjectives – modify a noun to show possession! Mi, Mis - My Tu,Tus – Familiar Your Su, Sus – His, Her, Formal and Plural Your, Their *Note: these possessive adjectives only need to match the noun in number. They have no gender. * Ex. Mi casa- Mis casas My house- My houses Tu libro- Tus libros Your book- Your books

Mi, Mis - My

Tu,Tus – Familiar Your

Su, Sus – His, Her,

Formal and Plural Your, Their

*Note: these possessive adjectives only need to match the noun in number. They have no gender. *

Ex. Mi casa- Mis casas My house- My houses

Tu libro- Tus libros Your book- Your books

Possessive Adjectives – modify a noun to show possession! Nuestro- our Nuestros - our Nuestra- our Nuestras – our *Note: these possessive adjectives need to match the noun in gender and number. * Ex. Nuestra casa- Nuestras casas Our house- Our houses Nuestro libro- Nuestros libros Our book- Our books

Nuestro- our Nuestros - our

Nuestra- our Nuestras – our

*Note: these possessive adjectives need to match the noun in gender and number. *

Ex. Nuestra casa- Nuestras casas

Our house- Our houses

Nuestro libro- Nuestros libros Our book- Our books

Gustar Verbs

Literal Meaning The verb gustar means to like, but literally it means to be pleasing to. This is why with the gustar verbs we use indirect object pronouns. When we say…”Me gusta pizza.” We are literally saying…”Pizza is pleasing to me.”

The verb gustar means to like, but literally it means to be pleasing to. This is why with the gustar verbs we use indirect object pronouns. When we say…”Me gusta pizza.” We are literally saying…”Pizza is pleasing to me.”

Let’s review the indirect pronouns. Me - me Te – you (fam.) Le – you (form.) him her Nos - us Os – you plural (fam.) Les – you plural (form.) them You choose which pronoun to use depending upon who is doing the verb…i.e. “ Who is liking” “Who is it boring”, etc.

Me - me

Te – you (fam.)

Le – you (form.)

him

her

Nos - us

Os – you plural (fam.)

Les – you plural (form.)

them

Verbs like gustar Here is a list of verbs that are used like gustar: Gustar – to like Costar (o:ue) – to cost Aburrir – to bore Fascinar – to facinate Encantar – to love Molestar – to bother Interesar – to interest

Here is a list of verbs that are used like gustar:

Gustar – to like Costar (o:ue) – to cost

Aburrir – to bore Fascinar – to facinate

Encantar – to love Molestar – to bother

Interesar – to interest

Verbs like gustar are all conjugated the same. If you are talking about a singular object or an infinitive verb, you use the he/she form. Ex. Me gust a el verano. Les gust a correr. If you are talking about a plural object, you use the they form. Ex. Me gusta n los zapatos. Le gusta n las peliculas.

If you are talking about a singular object or an infinitive verb, you use the he/she form.

Ex. Me gust a el verano.

Les gust a correr.

If you are talking about a plural object, you use the they form.

Ex. Me gusta n los zapatos.

Le gusta n las peliculas.

Two last things to remember… *The verb agrees with the subject of the sentence– that is, with the person or thing being liked. *You can use the preposition a + noun or pronoun to emphasize or specify the name of the person referred to by the indirect object pronoun. Ex. Le gusta el pollo. He/She likes the chicken. A Eva le gusta el pollo. Eva likes the chicken.

*The verb agrees with the subject of the sentence– that is, with the person or thing being liked.

*You can use the preposition a + noun or pronoun to emphasize or specify the name of the person referred to by the indirect object pronoun.

Ex. Le gusta el pollo. He/She likes the chicken.

A Eva le gusta el pollo. Eva likes the chicken.

Ser vs Estar

The basics… Ser expresses a fundamental quality and identifies the essence of a person or thing. Estar expresses more transitory qualities and often implies the possibility of change.

Ser expresses a fundamental quality and identifies the essence of a person or thing.

Estar expresses more transitory qualities and often implies the possibility of change.

Uses of Ser Basic nature or character of a person or thing. It is also used with expressions of age that do not refer to a specific number of years. Example: La orquesta es buena. Yo soy joven. Material that things are made of. Example: Las mesas son de metal Denote nationality, origin, and profession or trade. Example: Sandra es norteamericana. Yo soy de Caracas. Mi madre es profesora.

Basic nature or character of a person or thing.

It is also used with expressions of age that do not refer to a specific number of years.

Example: La orquesta es buena.

Yo soy joven.

Material that things are made of.

Example: Las mesas son de metal

Denote nationality, origin, and profession or trade.

Example: Sandra es norteamericana.

Yo soy de Caracas.

Mi madre es profesora.

Uses of Ser cont. Expressions of time with dates. Example: Hoy es jueves, cuatro de abril. Son las cuatro y cuarto de la tarde. With events as the equivalent of taking place. Example: La fiesta es en el club Los Violines. To indicate possession or relationship. Example: Los discos compactos son de Julia. Antonio es el hermano de Pablo.

Expressions of time with dates.

Example: Hoy es jueves, cuatro de abril.

Son las cuatro y cuarto de la tarde.

With events as the equivalent of taking place.

Example: La fiesta es en el club Los Violines.

To indicate possession or relationship.

Example: Los discos compactos son de Julia.

Antonio es el hermano de Pablo.

Uses of Estar Place or location. Example: Mi prima no está aquí. ¿ Dónde está ? Condition. Example: Mis amigos está n muy cansados. Sara está enferma. With personal reactions. It describes what is perceived through the senses—that is how a person or thing seems, looks, tastes, or feels. Example: El ponche está delicioso. With the present progressive. (Will be reviewing later.)

Place or location.

Example: Mi prima no está aquí. ¿ Dónde está ?

Condition.

Example: Mis amigos está n muy cansados.

Sara está enferma.

With personal reactions.

It describes what is perceived through the senses—that is how a person or thing seems, looks, tastes, or feels.

Example: El ponche está delicioso.

With the present progressive.

(Will be reviewing later.)

Pronouns

Two types of pronouns… Direct Object Pronouns take the place of a direct object. The direct object of a sentence may be either a person or thing that directly receives the action of the verb. Ex. Ellos compran el libro. Subject verb direct object. Answers the question whom or what about what the subject is doing. What are they buying? The book.

Direct Object Pronouns take the place of a direct object. The direct object of a sentence may be either a person or thing that directly receives the action of the verb.

Ex. Ellos compran el libro.

Subject verb direct object.

Answers the question whom or what about what the subject is doing.

What are they buying? The book.

Direct Object Pronouns Me - me Te – you (fam.) Lo – you (form. masc.) him, it (masc.) La – you (form. fem.) her, it (fem.) Nos - us Os – you plural (fam.) Los – them (masc.) you plural (form. masc.) Las- them (fem.) you plural (form. fem.)

Me - me

Te – you (fam.)

Lo – you (form. masc.)

him, it (masc.)

La – you (form. fem.)

her, it (fem.)

D.O.P Rules of Placement DOP placed before a conjugated verb. Ellos sirven la cena. Ellos la sirven. In a negative sentence, the no must precede the DOP. Ellos no sirven la cena. Ellos no la sirven. The DOP may be attached or in front when used with an infinitive verb or with the present progressive. Puedo firmarlo. Lo puedo firmar. Estoy leyéndolo. Lo estoy leyendo. *An accent was added to maintain the correct stress.*

DOP placed before a conjugated verb.

Ellos sirven la cena. Ellos la sirven.

In a negative sentence, the no must precede the DOP.

Ellos no sirven la cena. Ellos no la sirven.

The DOP may be attached or in front when used with an infinitive verb or with the present progressive.

Puedo firmarlo. Lo puedo firmar.

Estoy leyéndolo. Lo estoy leyendo.

*An accent was added to

maintain the correct stress.*

Two types of pronouns… Indirect Object Pronouns take the place of an indirect object. The indirect object of a sentence describes to whom or for whom an action is done. Ex. Yo mando los libros a los estudiantes. Subject verb direct object indirect object In Spanish, the IOP includes the meaning to or for. Ex. Yo les mando los libros. I send the books to them.

In direct Object Pronouns Me - me Te – you (fam.) Le – you (form.) him her Nos - us Os – you plural (fam.) Les – you plural (form.) them

I.O.P Rules of Placement IOP placed before a conjugated verb. Ellos sirven la cena a los chicos. Ellos les sirven la cena. In a negative sentence, the no must precede the IOP. Ellos no sirven la cena a los chicos. Ellos no les sirven la cena. The IOP may be attached or in front when used with an infinitive verb or with the present progressive. Nos está diciendo que viene hoy. Está diciéndonos que viene hoy. *An accent was added to maintain the correct stress.*

Using both pronouns at once… If you are going to use two pronouns in one sentence you need to remember, the Indirect Object Pronoun always comes before the Direct Object Pronoun. Ellos dan la cuenta a mí. Ellos me la dan. If you have two pronouns that begin with –l the first pronoun(IOP) changes to se. Ellos sirven la cena a los chicos. Ellos les la sirven. Ellos se la sirven.

If you are going to use two pronouns in one sentence you need to remember, the Indirect Object Pronoun always comes before the Direct Object Pronoun.

Ellos dan la cuenta a mí. Ellos me la dan.

If you have two pronouns that begin with –l the first pronoun(IOP) changes to se.

Ellos sirven la cena a los chicos.

Ellos les la sirven. Ellos se la sirven.

Present Progressive

Two parts to the Present Progressive Present tense form of estar (Matches the subject) Present Participle (AR- ando ER/IR - iendo) The present progressive is something that is currently taking place. I am walking. Yo estoy caminando.

Present tense form of estar

(Matches the subject)

Present Participle

(AR- ando ER/IR - iendo)

The present progressive is something that is currently taking place.

I am walking. Yo estoy caminando.

More examples… He is running. Él está corriendo. We are talking. Nosotros estamos hablando. They are dancing. Ellos están bailando. Irregular Participles- Leer – leyendo Traer- trayendo

He is running. Él está corriendo.

We are talking. Nosotros estamos hablando.

They are dancing. Ellos están bailando.

Try a couple on your own. We are singing. (cantar) They are writing. (escribir) I am reading. (leer) He is bringing a book. (traer)

We are singing. (cantar)

They are writing. (escribir)

I am reading. (leer)

He is bringing a book. (traer)

Answers… Nosotros estamos cantando. Ellos están escribiendo. Yo estoy leyendo. Él está trayendo un libro.

Nosotros estamos cantando.

Ellos están escribiendo.

Yo estoy leyendo.

Él está trayendo un libro.

Reflexive Verbs

Reflexive Verbs The subject of a reflexive verb both performs and receives the action. Each subject has its corresponding pronoun. Reflexive verbs follow the conjugation rules (i.e. regular ar, er, ir verbs, stem-changers, etc.)

The subject of a reflexive verb both performs and receives the action. Each subject has its corresponding pronoun.

Reflexive verbs follow the conjugation rules (i.e. regular ar, er, ir verbs, stem-changers, etc.)

Pronouns and Examples Yo- me Tú- te Él, Ella, Usted - se Nosotros,as- nos Vosotros,as- os Ellos, Ellas, Ustedes- se

How to do it… 1. Remove the se and move it to the front. 2. Match the pronoun with the subject. 3. Conjugate the verb to match the subject. Ex. Yo- lavarse 1. se lavar 2. me lavar 3. me lavo

1. Remove the se and move it to the front.

2. Match the pronoun with the subject.

3. Conjugate the verb to match the subject.

Ex. Yo- lavarse

1. se lavar 2. me lavar 3. me lavo

You try it. Ella – levantarse Ellos- acostarse (o:ue) Yo- ducharse Tú- cepillarse Él- afeitarse

Ella – levantarse

Ellos- acostarse (o:ue)

Yo- ducharse

Tú- cepillarse

Él- afeitarse

Answers… Ella – levantarse Se levanta Ellos- acostarse (o:ue) Se acuestan Yo- ducharse Me ducho Tú- cepillarse Te cepillas Él- afeitarse Se afeita

Ella – levantarse Se levanta

Ellos- acostarse (o:ue) Se acuestan

Yo- ducharse Me ducho

Tú- cepillarse Te cepillas

Él- afeitarse Se afeita

El Fin

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