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Published on April 26, 2014

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Subjunctive in adverbial clauses/ past subjunctive/ comparisons + superlatives/Adverbs/ diminutives + augmentatives/ present perfect/ present perfect subjunctive/ uses of se/ past participles as adjectives/ time expressions with hacer: Subjunctive in adverbial clauses/ past subjunctive/ comparisons + superlatives/Adverbs/ diminutives + augmentatives/ present perfect/ present perfect subjunctive/ uses of se/ past participles as adjectives/ time expressions with hacer Futuro: Futuro caber yo cabr é poner yo pondr é decir yo dir é haber yo habr é salir yo saldr é hacer yo har é poder yo podr é tener yo tendr é querer yo querr é valer yo valdr é saber yo sabr é venir yo vendr é Infinitive + ending (-é, -ás, -á, -emos, -éis, -án) Mañana saldremos para Madrid.   Tomorrow we will leave for Madrid. El lunes iré al hospital. I'll go to the hospital on Monday. Esta noche miramos la televisión.   Tonight we'll watch TV. Lo hago en dos minutos. I'll do it in two minutes. Conditional: Conditional The hypothetical future hablar comer vivir hablaría comería viviría hablarías comerías vivirías hablaría comería viviría hablaríamos comeríamos viviríamos hablaríais comeríais viviríais hablarían comerían vivirían caber yo cabr ía poner yo pondr ía decir yo dir ía haber yo habr ía salir yo saldr ía hacer yo har ía poder yo podr ía tener yo tendr ía querer yo querr ía valer yo valdr ía saber yo sabr ía venir yo vendr ía ¿ Cuál compraría Ud .? Which one would you buy? dijo que terminaría el trabajo . Juan said that he would finish the work. Relative pronouns: Relative pronouns quien , quienes — who, whom l cual, la cual, lo cual, los cuales, las cuales — which , who , whom el que, la que, lo que, los que, las que — which , who , whom donde — where Los libros que son importantes en nuestra vida son todos aquellos que nos hacen ser mejores , que nos enseñan a superarnos . The books that are important in our lives are all those that make us be better, which teach us to improve ourselves. Compré el coche en que íbamos . (I bought the car in which we rode.) Mi hermano es el hombre que salió . (My brother is the man who left.) qué vs cuál: qué vs cuál Qué is used when asking for definitions. Qué normally is most often used before nouns Cuál usually is used before es and other forms of ser when not seeking a definition: Cuál is used to suggest a selection or choice from among a group: Qué has some common idiomatic uses: ¿Qué es tu nacionalidad? Una palabra que indica la nación en la que nací. ¿Qué es tu bebida preferida? La bebida que más me gusta. ¿Qué es la matrícula de tu vehículo? Una placa con números y letras que identifica mi vehículo. And now the " correct " questions with 'cuál': ¿Cuál es tu nacionalidad? Española. ¿Cuál es tu bebida preferida? La cerveza. ¿Cuál es la matrícula de tu vehículo? XZ2004. Neuter LO: Neuter LO lo can be used as an object pronoun- No lo comprendo . I don't understand it . With ser and estar to refer to a preceding noun or adjective: ¿Estaban felices?. —Sí, lo están. As part of lo de : Lo de que las niñas japonesas In various phrases- a lo largo de , throughout a lo lejos , in the distance As a neuter definite article: Lo bueno es que hemos sido más listos. Subjunctive in adverbial clauses: Subjunctive in adverbial clauses No voy a menos que venga ella.    I'm not going unless she comes . Salgo a la una con tal que se termine todo. I leave at 1:00 provided everything is done. Trabaja mucho para que vivan bien. She works hard so they (can) live well. No hago nada sin que lo sepan . I don't do anything without their knowing it. he subjunctive is used in adverb clauses when the action described in the clause is anticipated or hypothetical uando llegaste, ¿te sentiste mejor? Esperó hasta que terminaste. Nos llama siempre que se siente solo. Está viendo la película mientras comemos. When you arrived, did you feel better? (past) He waited until you were done. (past) He calls us whenever he feels lonely. (known fact) He is watching the movie while we eat. (in progress) past subjunctive: past subjunctive yo hubiera tú hubieras él/ella/usted hubiera nosotros/vosotras hubiéramos vosotros/vosotras hubierais ellos/ellas/ustedes hubieran Dudábamos que hubieran llegado . We doubted that they had come . Nos gustó que todo hubiera salido bien. We were glad that all had turned out OK. the past perfect subjunctive is formed by using the imperfect subjunctive of the helping verb haber with the past (or passive) participle: Uses. Similar to the past perfect indicative, this tense is may be used to indicate an action or state that occurred prior to something in the past (usually expressed by the imperfect or preterit indicative, or by the past subjunctive): comparisons + superlatives: comparisons + superlatives Superlatives are used to indicate that something has the most of a particular quality, as can be done with the English suffix "-est.“ Use of the suffix - ésimo is sometimes considered a type of superlative: Ella es altísima . She is extremely tall. Él es guapísimo . He is extremely handsome. Mayor y menos are two common irregular forms of this subject. Este coche es bueno . This car is good. Este coche es mejor . This car is better. Este coche es el mejor . This car is the best. Esta casa es mala. This house is bad. Esta casa es peor . This house is worse. Esta casa es el peor . This house is the worst. Adverbs: Adverbs Put the adjective into the feminine form and add – mente to the end of it. Irregulars: bastante -quite demasiado -too mal -badly mucho- a lot muy -very nunca -never peor -worse poco - little siempre - always Examples: Juan trabaja lenta y cuidadosamente . Juan works slowly and carefully. El chico le habló clara y cortésmente . The boy spoke to him clearly and courteously. El autor escribió rápida y fácilmente . The author wrote quickly and easily. diminutives + augmentatives: diminutives + augmentatives Diminutives make a word seem smaller, you drop the o/a and add ito / ita : el niño → el niñito la mesa → la mesita el avión → el avioncito Augmentives show somehting that is larger than life : - azo /- aza exitazo (great success), perrazo (big, mean dog) - ón /- ona mujerona (large woman), ricachón (filthy rich), sillón (big chair) - ote /- ota grandote (enormous), papelote (worthless bit of paper) - ucho /- ucha , - acho /- acha abogaducho (awful lawyer), poblacho ( delapidated town) - udo /- uda cabezudo (big head), peludo (hairy) present perfect: present perfect The present perfect is formed by combining the auxiliary verb "has" or "have" with the past participle. “Haber” + past participle He comido . I have eaten. Hemos comido . We have eaten. he has ha hemos habéis han present perfect subjunctive: present perfect subjunctive Uses Actions that happened in the past and continue or repeat into the present Actions that have happened in the recent past Actions that will have been completed EXAMPLES: Quiero que hayáis escrito 5 páginas para el lunes Es posible que ustedes hayan vuelto para marzo Mi profesor duda que yo haya leído el libro uses of se: uses of se As a reflexive pronoun: Pablo se ve por el espejo. (Pablo sees himself using the mirror .) As the equivalent of the English passive voice: Se abren las puertas . (The doors are opened.) As a substitute for le or les : Dé se lo a ella . (Give it to her .) The impersonal se: Se maneja rápidamente en Lima. ( People drive fast in Lima.) past participles as adjectives:  past participles as adjectives In Spanish, the past participle for regular verbs is formed by adding -ado to the stem of - ar verbs or - ido to the stem of - er or - ir verbs. Examples: He ido . (I have gone .) Habrá salido . (He will have left .) Había estado enferma . (She had been sick.) Passive Sentences: add the past tense of ser ( fue …) and put the adjective after: : Fue descubierto . ( It was discovered .) Fueron descubiertos . ( They were discovered .) El libro será publicado . time expressions with hacer: time expressions with hacer 1. Hace + time + que + present tense form of the verb Hace un año que estudio español. 2. Hace + time + que + no + present tense form of the verb - Hace un año que no estudio español. 3. Present tense form of the verb + desde hace + time - Estudio español desde hace un año. 4. No + present tense form of the verb + desde hace + time - Ellas no estudian inglés desde hace dos años. Future Perfect: Future Perfect The future perfect tense normally is used to refer to an event or action that hasn't happened yet but is expected or predicted to before another occurrence . Habré-habrás - habrá - habremos - habréis – habrán The conjugated form of haber is then followed by the past participle. EX:( yo ) No habré comido . I will not have eaten. ( tú ) No habrás leído el libro . You will not have read the book. ( él ) No habrá escrito la carta . He will not have written the letter. Conditional Perfect: Conditional Perfect yo habría ----- ado tu habrías ----- ado el habría ----- ado Ellos habrían ---ado nosotros habríamos ---ado yo habría ----- ido tu habrías ----- ido el habría ----- ido Ellos habrían --- ido nosotros habríamos --- ido EXAMPLE: Sí, yo habría ido a la luna . Si clauses, transitional expressions, pero vs sino: Si clauses, transitional expressions, pero vs sino SI- Sentences in which the condition is likely or reasonably likely. AND Sentences in which the condition is contrary to fact or is unlikely Si tengo dinero , me iré de viaje . If I have money, I'll go on a trip . transitional expressions- always = siempre ; at last = por fin; during = durante ; first = primero PerovSino - Generally, the conjunction to be used to indicate a contrast is pero . But sino is used instead when two things are true: when the part of the sentence coming before the conjunction is stated in the negative, and when the part after the conjunction directly contradicts what is negated in the first part. In mathematical-like terms, sino is used for "but" in sentences of type "not A but B" when A contradicts B. The examples below should make this clear. María no es alta sino baja No son muchos pero buenos. Passive voice: Passive voice The passive voice indicates what happened to the object where the object is acted upon by an outside agent, which can be hidden or highlighted depending on the situation. You will only use transitive verbs (verbs that require a direct object). The formula ser + past participle (+ por + agente ) or se + 3rd person is used to create the passive voice. El libro fue escrito en español por mi profesor . (The book was written in Spanish by my professor.) La pizza fue cocida en un horno por mi madre . (The pizza was cooked in an oven by my mother.) Se establecieron las colonias   hace 200 años . (The colonies were established 200 years ago.) Se hizo este pastel con miel . (This cake was made with honey.) Negative and indefinite expressions: Negative and indefinite expressions nadie nobody nada nothing ni nor ni...ni neither...nor ningún (-o, -a, -os, -as) no, no one, none, any no no nunca, jamás never tampoco neither, not either todavía no not yet ya no no longer alguien somebody algo something algún (-o, -a, -os, -as) some, something alguna vez ever siempre always también also todavía, aún still ya already o or o...o either...or Words/phrases that negate something, you can always use the word “no” *Past perfect*: *Past perfect* In Spanish, the past perfect tense is formed by using the imperfect tense of the auxiliary verb " haber " with the past participle. Haber is conjugated as follows : había habías había habíamos habíais habían ( yo ) Había vivido . I had lived. ( tú ) Habías vivido . You had lived. ( él ) Había vivido . He had lived. ( nosotros ) Habíamos vivido . We had lived. ( vosotros ) Habíais vivido . You-all had lived. ( ellos ) Habían vivido . They had lived. Past perfect subjunctive: Past perfect subjunctive Uses Completed actions that had happened before another past action --- Pablo dudó que yo hubiera/hubiese ido a Perú. (Pablo doubted that I had been to Peru .) Conditional constructions ---- Si hubiera/hubiese sabido, habría venido. ( If I had known , I would have come .) Hypothetical situations that could have happened, but didn’t. Ojalá que hubiera/hubiese sabido . (I wish I had known .) Uses of the infinitive: Uses of the infinitive As a noun ---------------- Bailar tango es difícil . (Dancing the tango is hard.) After a Conjugated Verb -------------Me gusta dibujar . (I like to draw.) Infinitive Commands ------------- No  fumar .  (No smoking .) As the object of a preposition : ------- Nacimos para estar juntos . We were born to be together . As a substitute for the subjunctive mood : ------- Yo prefería hablar con la pared. I would prefer to talk with the wall. Prepositions;a hacia;con de; desde;en;entre;hasta;sin: Prepositions;a hacia;con de ; desde;en;entre;hasta;sin a to, at desde from, since detrás de behind ante before, in the presence of en in, on, at según according to bajo under entre between, among sin without con with hacia until, toward sobre about, on, upon, above, over, around contra against hasta until, toward tras after, behind de of, from por for, by para for, in order to Use these to add details to sentences that can be left out and still keep the overall message of the sentence in tact.

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